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alone or single was, in some sense, on trial for all mankind, according to the tenor of the old covenant, “Do this and live.” 2. Adam fell, and hereby the sentence of death came on him and all his posterity.

3. The new covenant was given, whereby all mankind were put into a state of personal trial. Yet still, 4. Death, the penalty of the old covenant, came (more or less) on all mankind. Now all this is well consistent with itself, as well as with the tenor of Scripture.

11. “Mankind is represented as one collective body in several verses of the 5th chapter to the Romans."

You answer, “St. Paul always distinguishes between Adam, and all men, his posterity, and does not consider Adam with all men, as one creature.” (p. 211.) What then? This does not prove, that he does not represent mankind (Adam's posterity) as one collective body.

12. “All that is contained in the blessing given to Noah is consistent with the curse which came on all men by the first sin. But that curse is not consistent with the original blessing which was given to Adam."

You answer, “ The blessing given to Noah, was the very same which was given to Adam.” (p. 212.) This is palpably false. The blessing which was given to Adam included, 1. Freedom from pain and death. 2. Dominion over the whole brute creation. But that given to Noah did not include either. Yet you affirm, “ It is renewed to Noah, without any manner of alteration, after pain and death were introduced into the world!" And do pain and death then make no inanner of alteration ?

13. “ The dominion over the brutes given to Adam was not given to Noah."

You answer, “Our killing and feeding upon them is the highest instance of dominion over them.” (p. 213.) It is no instance of it at all. I may shoot a bear and then eat him: yet I have no dominion, unless it be over his carcass.


Extracts from Dr. Watts and Mr. Hebden.

I have now considered what is material in your Doctrine of Origi: sal Sin, with the Supplement and Reply to Dr. Watts. And this I purposely did before I read the doctor's book. But how was I surprised on reading it, to observe the manner wherein you have treated it, of which I could not be a judge before! The frame which he had so beautifully and strongly connected, you have disjointed and . broken in pieces, and given us nothing but mangled fragments of it, from which it is impossible to form any judgment of the whole. In order, therefore, to do justice to that great and good man, as well as

Vol. 9. Bb

to his argument, I subjoin an Extract of so much of that work as directly affects the main question.

I the rather subjoin this and the following extracts, for these two reasons, 1. Because what has gone before being purely argumentative, is dry and less profitable to the generality of readers. 2. Because they contain one, uniform, convected scheme of the great doctrine which I have been hitherto defending: and which, after the objections have been removed out of the way, may be more clearly understood and firmly embraced.


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* “Man is a crcature made up of an animal body and a rational mind, so united as to act in a mutual correspondence according to certain laws appointed by his Creator. Now suppose the blessed God, who is perfect in wisdom and power, in justice and goodness, were to form such a new creature, with what qualifications may we conceive such a creature would be endowed, by a being of such Goodness, Justice, and Wisdom?

“ I. We cannot but conceive, he must have a perfection of natural powers, both of body and spirit, as united together, suited to his present circumstances. (p. 2.)

“ Not that we need conceive, man would be made so perfect a being as God could make him. For the wisdom of God plainly designed to display itself in the different ranks and orders of his creation. Nor is it reasonable to suppose, man would be made at first with such sublime perfections, as he himself might afterwards arrive at, by a wise improvement of his powers. But still the creature which was designed to bear the nearest likeness of his Maker in this lower world, must have powers perfectly sufficient for his present wellbeing, and acting in that station wherein God had placed him. All his senses must be clear and strong, his limbs vigorous and active, his body healthy in all the inward and outward parts of it, and every natural power in its proper order. For God would surely form such a creature, in a state of perfect ease, without any original malady of nature, to give him pain or sorrow. (p. 3.) Nor could there be any tendency in his body to pain or disease while he remained without sin. (p. 4.)

And as the powers of his body must be thus perfect, so the faculties of his soul must have their perfection too.

“ His Understanding must have that knowledge both of God and his creatures, which was needful for his happiness. Not that he was formed with all knowledge in arts and sciences, but with such as was requisite to his peace and welfare. His reason must be clear, bis judgment uncorrupted, and his conscience upright and sensible.

“ This leads me to speak of his moral perfection. (p.5.) A rational creature thus made, must not only be innocent, as a tree, but must

* Ruin and Recovery of Mankind, p. 1.

be formed holy. His will must have an inward bias to virtue: be must have an inclination to please that God who made him, a supreme love to his Creator, a zeal to serve bim, and a tender fear of offending him,

“ For either the new created man loved God supremely, or not. If he did not he was not innocent, since the law of nature requires a supreme love to God. If he did he stood ready for every act of obedience: and this is true holiness of heart. And, indeed, without this, how could a God of holiness love the work of his own hands?

“ There must be also in this creature a regular subjection of the inferior powers to the superior. Sense, and appetite, and passion must be subject to reason. The mind must have a power to govern these lower faculties, that he might not offend against the law of his creation.

“ He must also have his heart inlaid with love to the creatures, especially those of his own species, if he should be placed among them; and with a principle of honesty and truth in dealing with them. And if many of these creatures were made at once, there would be no pride, malice, or envy, no falsehood, no brawls, or contentions among them, but all harmony and love. (p. 6.)

* This universal righteousness, which is the moral Image of God, is far the noblest part of that image in which Moses represents man to have been orignally created. The same writer assures us, that when God surveyed all his works, he pronounced them very good! Agreeably to what Solomon assures us that God 'made man upright.'

(p. 7.

“ It is true, the natural image of God in which man was created, consisted in his spiritual, intelligent, and immortal nature ; and his political image, (if I may so speak,) in his being Lord of this lower creation. But the chief, the moral part of his image, we learn from St. Paul to have been the rectitude of man's nature: who in his epistle to the Ephesians, (iv. 24.) says, that the image of God in which man is to be renewed, and, consequently, in which he was mare, consists in righteousness and true holiness.'

“II. From the justice and goodness of God we may infer, that though man was made free, with a power to choose either evil or good, that he might be put into a state of probation, yet he had a full sufficiency of power, to preserve himself in love and obedience to his Creator, and to guard himself against every temptation. (p. 8.)

“III. It is highly probable, from the goodness of God, that such a creature would be made immortal. It is true the great God as sovereign Lord of his creatures, might take away all that he had given. But it is hard to suppose, that he ever would have destroyed an intelligent creature, who bad continued to serve and please him. (p. 9.)

“ It is also probable, that he was endued with power to arrive at higher degrees of excellency and happiness, than those in which he was formed at first: and hereby he was greatly encouraged both to watch against every sin, and to use all zeal and diligence in improving the powers he had received.

“IV. We may add, that the habitation in which a God of infinite goodness would place such an innocent and holy creature, would be furnished with all the necessaries and conveniences of life, and prepared for his delight as well as safety. And so Moses tells us, that the first created pair were placed in Eden, a garden of pleasure, and were made lords of all therein, of all the creatures, animal and vegetable, that were round about them. (p. 10.)

“ Neither can we conceive that any thing destructive or hurtful could be found in this delightful habitation, but what man would have sufficient notice of, with sufficient power to oppose or avoid it.

“ V. And if this creature had power to propagate its kind, the child must be innocent and holy, and equally capable of persevering in virtue and happiness. (p. 11.).

“Now if we may judge from the wisdom, justice, and goodness of God, that these are the qualifications with which such a new-made creature would be endued, these the circumstances in which he would be situated, then by a careful survey of what mankind is pow, we may easily judge whether man is now such a creature as the great and blessed God made him at first ? And this is the subject of the ensuing inquiry.



* Is man in his present circumstances such a creature as he came out of the hands of God his Creator?" We may derive a full answer to this inquiry from the following considerations. (p. 12.)

“1. This earth, which was designed for the habitation of man, carries evident tokens of ruin and desolation, and does not seem to be ordained in its present form and circumstances, for the babitation of innocent beings; 'but is apparently fit for the dwelling-place of creatures who are degenerate and fallen from God.

" It is granted that the beauty and order of this lower world, even in its present constitution, and the wonderful texture, composition, and harmony of the several parts of it, both in air, earth, and sea, do still illustriously display the power, wisdom, and goodness of their Creator.

13.) Yet it must be confessed also, that there are glaring proofs, of the terrors of his justice, and the execution of his vengeance.

“Is not the present shape of our earth, in its divisions of seas and shores, rude and irregular, abrupt and horrid ? Survey a map of the world, and say, Does the form of it strike our eyes with

any natural beauty and harmony ? Rather does it not strongly bear on our sight the idea of ruin and confusion ? Travel over the countries of this globe, or visit several parts of this island. What various appearances of a ruined world ? What vast broken mountains hang over the heads of travellers! What stupendous cliffs and promontories rise, high and hideous to behold! What dreadful precipices, which make us giddy to look down, and are ready to betray us into destruction ! What immense extents are there in many countries of vast and barren ground! What vast and almost impassable deserts ! What broad

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and faithless morasses, which are made at once both death and graves to unwary travellers ! What huge ruinous caverns, deep and wide, big enough to bury whole cities ! (p. 14.)

“What resistless deluges of water, in a season of great rains, come rolling down the hills, bear all things before them, and spread spa. cious desolation! What roaring and tremendous water-falls in several parts of the globe! What burning mountains, in whose caverns are lakes of liquid fire, ready to burst upon the lower lands ! Or they are a mere shell of earth, covering prodigious cavities of smoke, and furnaces of flame: and seem to wait a divine command, to break inward and bury towns and provinces in fiery ruin. (p. 15.)

“What active treasures of wind are pent up in the bowels of the earth, ready to break out into wide and surprising mischief! What huge torrents of water rush and roar through the hollows of the globe we tread! What dreadful sounds and threatening appearances from the region of meteors in the air ! What clouds charged with flame, ready to burst on the earth and discompose and terrify all nature !

“When I survey such scenes as these, I cannot but say within myself,“ surely this earth, in these rude and broken appearances, this unsettled and dangerous state, was designed as a dwelling for some unhappy inhabitants, who did or would transgress the laws of t. their Maker, and merit desolation from his hand. And he hath here stored up his magazines of divine artillery against the day of punishment.” (p. 16.)

“ How often have the terrible occurrences of nature in the air, earth, and sea, and the calamitous incidents in several countries, given a strong confirmation of this sentiment !

- What destructive storms have we and our fathers seen even in this temperate island of Great Britain ! What floods of water and violent explosions of fire do we read of in the histories of the world! What shocking convulsions of the globe, stretching far and wide under the affrighted nations! What huge disruptions of the caverns of the earth, with tremendous bellowings, which have filled its inhabitants with terror and astonishment, and made wide devastations ! Would a good and gracious being have originally so formed the inanimate parts of this lower world, as to produce such deadly coneussions therein, and such desolating appearances, had he not designed it for the habitation of such creatures, as he foresaw would deserve these strokes of bis indignation ? (p. 17.)

“ And thus both Moses and St. Peter suppose God to have laid up stores of ruin and destruction within the bowels of the earth, that he might break open bis dreadful treasures of flood and fire at proper seasons, to drown and to burn the world, together with the sinful inhabitants thereof. (p. 18, 19.)

“ Now the great God, who appointed such prodigious quantities both of water and fire to be reserved in the bowels of the earth, and among the clouds of heaven, for such a foreseen day of general de.

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