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All Israel was engaged in the same ser-, God, through Christ Jesus the Lord, in revice at the same instant of time, and for the flecting on that grace which has made a difself-same reason. All had descended from ference between them and their sinful neighthe same common stock, all were included bours; which has seasonably warned them within the bond of the same covenant, all "to flee from the wrath that is to come;" were involved in the same general distress, which has "delivered their souls from death, all were destined of Heaven to a participation their eyes from tears, their feet from falling.' in the same salvation. They appear, in the What must be the inexpressible satisfaction paschal solemnity, a beautiful and an in- of every believer in Christ Jesus, in the constructive representation of the great, united, fidence of being sprinkled with the blood of harmonious family of God; who are "one atonement, of being at peace with God, body, one spirit, and are called in one hope through our Lord Jesus Christ,” of being of their calling :” “who have one Lord, one passed from death unto life?" What a faith, one baptism :-one God and Father of happy community is the redeemed of the all, who is above all, through all, and in all.” Lord! Wherever scattered on the face of And they are all coming, “in the unity of the whole earth; they are nevertheless the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son gathered together in their glorious Head: of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure separated by oceans and mountains but united of the stature of the fulness of Christ."* in interest and affection: hated, despised,

As the Church in general had one and the persecuted of the world; yet cherished, essame sacrifice, a lamb of the description eemed, protected of the Almighty ! which has been mentioned; so every parti

The sacrifices of the Mosaic dispensation cular family or neighbourhood, according to were many because they were imperfect. their number, had their own particular sacri- The sacrifice of the gospel is ONE, because fice, and in that their particular protection once offered, it " for ever perfects them that and repast. The charity which comprehend- are sanctified by it." The ancient institution ed the whole Israel of God, was thus invigor- prescribed a whole lamb for every several ated and enlivened by being collected and family; the gospel exhibits a whole and comconcentred; and the sacred fire of love, plete Saviour for every several elect sinner: which was in danger of being extinguished and that Saviour at once a teacher, an atoneby being dispersed too extensively, being ment, a ruler: "Wisdom, righteousness, thus confined within a narrower circle, light- sanctification, and redemption." ing on fewer and nearer objects, and aided The application of the blood of the destined by reciprocal sympathy and ardour, was victim in this institution is a most remarkblown up into a purer flame. A happy pre- able circumstance." They shall take of the figuration of the blessed influence of the blood, and strike it on the two side-posts, and gospel, and of its sacred institutions, to rec- on the upper door-post of the houses wherein tify, to rivet, and to improve the charities of they shall eat it.” It must not be spilt upon private life: to shed peace and joy upon the ground as a worthless thing, nor sprinevery condition and relation; gradually to kled in the entering in of the door, to be expand the heart, through the progressivė, trampled upon as an unholy thing; but above continually enlarging circles of natural af- and on either side; to be a covering to the fection, friendship, love of country, love of head and a bulwark around.

" When I see mankind, love to all the creation of God. the blood I will pass over you.”. Could the

What must it have been to an Israelitish all-discerning eye of God stand in need of parent, standing with his children around such a token, in order to judge between an him, to eat the Lord's passover, to reflect, Israelite and an Egyptian? No. But the that while the arrows of the Almighty were distinctions of God's love avail not them who falling thick upon the tents of Ham, his wilfully and wickedly neglect the distinctabernacle was secured from the stroke: that tions of faith and obedience. The blood in while all the first-born in Egypt were bleed- the basin is the same with the blood on the ing by the hand of the destroying angel; of door-post, but it is no protection till it be behim, a holy and righteous God demanded no lievingly applied. The virtue is dormant till victim, but one from the flock; spared a dar- sprinkling call it forth. Surely, this part of ling son, and accepted the blood of a lamb! the ceremony speaks to the Christian world What must have been the emotions of the for itself. Why is mention still made of Israelitish first-born themselves, at that awful blood, blood ? " the shedding of blood," “ the hour, to reflect on the state of their unhappy sprinkling of blood,” “ redemption through neighbours, of the same description with blood,” and the like? It denotes the life, themselves, and on their own condition, had which consists in the blood of the animal justice, untempered with mercy, struck the and it instructs us in this momentous docbiow! Such as this

, but superior, as the de- trine, that life being forfeited by sin, the liverance is greater, must be the joy of a blood must be shed, that is, the life must be truly Christian family, which has hope in yielded up, before atonement to justice can * Eph. iv. 4, 5, 6. 13.

be made: that the substitution and accept.

ance of one life in the room of another, must | relating to this ordinance, has a specific depend upon the will and appointment of the meaning and design. But I frankly acknowoffended lawgiver: that the blood of slain ledge I cannot discern that design in every beasts, having no value nor virtue of its own particular; and am far from being satisfied to take away sin, must derive all its efficacy with the fanciful and unsupported illustrafrom the appointment of Heaven, and from tions of some commentators upon


passage. its relation to a victim of a higher order: and, Should I myself seem to any to have given that the blood of life of this one victim, too much into imagination and conjecture in yielded up to divine justice, is, through its my ideas of it, or in what is farther to be ofintrinsic worth and the decree of God, of fered; the nature of the subject, the silence virtue sufficient to take away the sins of the of scripture, the consciousness of honestly whole world.

aiming at your rational entertainment and But, as in the original institution, the blood religious instruction, and the humble hope of the lamb slain was no protection to the that these conjectures are and shall be conhouse, till it was sprinkled with a bunch of formed to the analogy of faith, and if errohyssop on the parts of the building, and in neous, innocently so; these will, I am perthe manner directed, so the sovereign balm suaded, secure me a patient hearing, and a appointed of the Most High for the cure of candid interpretation. the deadly plague of sin, the price of pardon The time of the feast was the night season; to the guilty, the life of the dead, becomes the very juncture when the awful scene was effectual to the relief of the guilty, perishing acting, which marred the glory and blasted sinner, by a particular application of it to his the strength of Egypt. Inconsiderate man own “wounds, bruises, putrefying sores. must have his attention roused and fixed by Faith, eyeing the commandment, the power strong and striking circumstances. The moof God, and the grace of Christ, is like the ment of execution, the hour of battle, and the bunch of hyssop in the hand of the paschal like, are awfully interesting to a serious, huworshipper, sprinkling the blood of atone- mane, and public spirited person. Every ment upon “the upper door-post, and the two son of Israel knew, that at the very moment side-posts,” the understanding, the heart, the he was eating his unleavened cake with life, the ruling and the governing powers of gladness, and the flesh of lambs with a merry our nature, that the whole may be accepted heart, “ Thousands were falling at his side, through the Beloved.

and ten thousand at his right hand.”. What I conclude this part of my subject with an alarming demonstration of divine justice! quoting a passage from the Targum of Jona- What an encouraging display of goodness than, respecting the sprinkling of the blood and mercy! Were the eye opened to see of the paschal lamb, as it was performed by God as he is, were the powers of an invisible the children of Israel in Egypt, which has world habitually felt, every creature, every struck myself as uncommonly beautiful and season, every event, would possess a quicksublime.

ening, an active, a constraining influence “When the glory of the Lord was reveal- over us. But blind, stupid, sluggish as we ed in Egypt in the night of the passover, and are, the midnight bell must toll to rouse us when he slew all the first-born of the Egyp- to reflection ; death must assume the comtians, He rode upon lightning. He surveyed plexion of sable night, and add artificial to the inmost recesses of our habitations; He natural horror, in order to force a way into stopped behind the walls of our houses : His our stony hearts. And God, who knows what eyes observed the posts of our doors : they is in man, vouchsafes to instruct his thoughtpierced through the casements. He per- lessness and folly, by acting through the meceived the blood of circumcision, and the dium of powerful and awakening circumblood of the paschal lamb, sprinkled upon us. stances upon our imagination and senses. He viewed his people from the heights of Hence possibly the injunction to eat the heaven, and saw them eating the passover passover by night. roasted with fire: He saw, and had compas It was to be “ roasted with fire," not eaten sion upon us; He spared, and suffered not raw, nor sodden with water. To eat flesh the destroying angel to hurt us."

in a crude state is unnatural and unwholeThe inferior circumstances respecting the some. And we never find the religious insacrifice are these. The flesh of the victim stitutions of the living and true God, doing 'vas to be eaten in the night season, not in a violence to innocent natural propensities and crude state, nor boiled in water, but roasted aversions, or encroaching on the health and with fire; no bone of it was to be broken; life of his worshippers : for he saith, “ I will no remnant of it left until the morning; or have mercy and not sacrifice." Why the else the remains were to be consumed by one method of preparing it was commanded fire. I am unwilling entirely to pass over of God in preference to the other, we pretend these circumstances as if they were of no not satisfyingly to account for. Was it to especial meaning or importance; for I am secure an uniformity of practice in the mi. Jooroughly convinced every iota and tittle nutest circumstances relating to his worship?

Was it to form his church and people to im- | the next morning. And is it not extremely plicit obedience to his will, in points which probable that God might intend, by certain they comprehend not, as in those which they arbitrary tokens, to describe the Messiah ; well understand; in all cases whatever, whe- and that the prohibition to break the bones ther he be pleased to render or to with of the paschal lamb was designed to be a type hold a reason? Was it intended as a sym- of a remarkable circumstance attending the bolical representation of their late condition; crucifixion of our Saviour which Providence tried, and prepared, and refined in the fire watched over with special attention, and of Egyptian oppression; purged, but not con- brought about by a miracle? “ But when the sumed by it ? Was it a figurative view of soldiers came to Jesus, and saw that he was the judgment of God then executing : Egypt dead already, they brake not his legs."* And scorched with the flame ; Israel enlightened, it is clear from what follows, that the evanseasoned, purified by it? Did it look forward gelist considered the precept of the law as a unto, and signify some particular circum- prophesy of Christ ; “For these things were stance in the person, the doctrine, or suffer- done,” says he, “ that the scripture should be ings of the great evangelical sacrifice ? O fulfilled. A bone of him shall not be broLord, thou knowest

. “ Secret things belong ken.”+ In many cases it happens, that the to thee, but things which are revealed be prediction was either not attended to, or had long unto us, and to our children.” We thank not been understood, till the event has exthee for what thou hast condescended to re- plained it. veal to us, and would not presume to“ be Nothing of it was to be “left until the wise above what is written.'

morning.” This circumstance was not pe“ Not a bone" of the paschal lamb was to culiar to the sacrifice of the paschal lamb, " be broken.” This, as well as some of the but common to almost every other kind of foregoing circumstances, is by sundry com- oblation. This will appear if we consult the mentators supposed to be intended as a con- general laws respecting sacrifice. Thus the tradiction to various Pagan superstitions and prescription runs: 6 And the flesh of the particularly to the frantic behaviour of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksvotaries of Bacchus; who, in the fumes of giving shall be eaten the same day that it is intoxication or of religious frenzy, commit- offered; he shall not leave any of it until the ted a thousand abominations and extrava- morning.”! And again, • When a bullock, gancies; they fell into violent agitations, the or a sheep, or a goat is brought forth, then it pretended inspiration of their God; they de- shall be seven days under the dam, and from voured the yet palpitating flesh of the vic- the eighth day and thenceforth it shall be tims which they had just killed, and broke all accepted for an offering made by fire unto their bones to pieces. But, the idolatrous the LORD. And whether it be cow or ewe, rites of the heathen nations were so various ye shall kill it and her young both in one day. and so contradictory one to another, that we And when ye will offer a sacrifice of thankscan hardly imagine the great JEHOVAH would giving unto the LORD, offer it at your own. condescend to express any concern, whether will. On the same day it shall be eaten up; the rites of his worship were, in every in- ye shall leave none of it until the morrow: stance, either conformed or opposed to the I am the LORD." The solemn affix, “ I am usages of idolatry. A very famous critic* the LORD," seems to insinuate, that the reaassigns a very lly reason for this branch of son of the commandment was to be sought the commandment. He alleges it was ano- in the majesty and authority of the lawgiver. ther indication of the extreme haste with |--And, independent of authority, decency which the passover was to be eaten. “ Men seems to require, that what has once been in a hurry,” says he, “ do not stand to pick devoted to a hallowed use should never afterbones; much less do they take leisure to wards appear in a mangled, impure, or pubreak them, for the sake of the juice or mar- trid state. Perhaps superstition was, by this row.”. As if it required more time to sever precept, obliquely or intentionally reproved the joints, and break the bones by violence, and repressed; superstition, which loves to than to dissect and disunite the parts with feed upon scraps, and to hoard up relics, as out a fracture. The simple meaning of the if they were sacred things ; superstition, precept seems to be, that what was once of which gives to the fragments of the sacrifice fered to God should not be unnecessarily dis- the veneration due only to the sacrifice itself, figured and mangled. The blood must be and to the great Author of it. shed, for that was the seal of God's covenant; We must notice the remaining particulars the flesh might be eaten, for it was given of this service in the manner in which it was for the sustenance of man's life; but the originally performed; “ in haste," "standbones, forming no part either of food or sacri- ing," " with loins girded," with staff in fice, were to be left in the state in which hand," ready to depart. The lamb was to be they were found, till consumed by fire with eaten with bitter herbs.” A representation, the remainder of the flesh, if any remained,

Verse 36. • Bochart, Hieroz par. i. lib. ii. cap. 1. fol. 609.

1 Lev. vii. 15.

Lev. xxi. 37-30

John xix. 33.

i Run

perhaps, of the mixed nature of every sublu- / second death,” a living death of everlasting nary enjoyment; and of the wholesome uses banishment “from the presence of the Lord, of unpalatable adversity. The “ standing and from the glory of his power.” From posture, and the implements of travelling, that last plague there is no security but one; speak a plain and distinct language. “ Arise that security, of which the “ blood of sprinkye, and depart, for this is not your rest.” ling" under the law was but a type. “ Here we have no abiding city, but look for to your strong hold, ye prisoners of hope." one to come.” “ Now we desire a better “ Flee, flee for refuge; lay hold of the hope country, that is, an heavenly.” “ Arise, let that is set before you." “ Behold, now is us go hence.” A provision was graciously the accepted time; behold, now is the day of made for such as might be ceremonially un- salvation.”...“ If God be for us, who can be clean at the future seasons of celebration, against us?" “ He that spared not his own and the door of mercy and communion was Son, but delivered him up for us all, how opened to strangers. Blessed prefiguration shall he not with him also freely give us all of the remedy provided for the chief of sin- things? Who shall lay any thing to the ners: of the refuge opened for the reception charge of God's elect? It is God that justiof “ aliens from the commonwealth of Israel;" fieth: Who is he that condemneth? It is of the liberal, condescending, comprehensive Christ that died, yea rather that is risen spirit of the gospel ! Christians, ye “are no again, who is even at the right hand of God, more strangers and foreigners, but fellow ci- who also maketh intercession for us. tizens with the saints, and of the household How many things in the scriptures; in of God.” “Those who were afar off, are made Moses, in the prophets, in the law, in the nigh by the blood of Christ.”

gospel, are dark and hard to be understood ? Men and brethren, the time is at hand, But the hour cometh when the veil shall be when a more fearful midnight cry shall be removed from our eyes; when the truth as heard than even that which smitten, groan- it is in Jesus shall stand confessed without a ing Egypt raised in the hour of vengeance. mystery; and shall be seen and read of all “The day of the Lord shall come as a thief men. “What” he doth, “ye know not now, in the night.” “Behold he cometh with but ye shall know hereafter.” “We know clouds, and every eye shall see him, and they in part, and we prophesy in part. But when also which pierced him; and all kindreds of that which is perfect is come, then that the earth shall wail because of him.” Be- which is in part shall be done away." “ For hold, a careless, slumbering world, a world now we see through a glass, darkly; but lying in wickedness, is threatened with a then face to face: now I know in part; but death infinitely more dreadful than that then shall I know, even as also I am known." which destroyed the first-born; with “the

t 1 Cor. xüi. 12.


* Rom. viii. 32-34.



And it came to pass when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the

land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt. But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea." And the children of Israel went up, harnessed out of the land of Egypt. And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you. And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped .n Etham, in the edge of the wilderness. And the Lord went be fore them, by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night. He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.—Exodus xiii. 17–22.

All that weak, ignorant, erring man can terminates our vision; the lapse of a few know, is a few of the smaller objects which years erases all traces from our memory. are immediately around him; and of these The cloud of night conceals or changes the hut a few of the more obvious qualities which appearance of things the nearest to us, and they possess, and the relations in which they the most perfectly known. Here, we are stand to one another. Remove them but a dazzled and confounded by an excess of light; little as to space or time, and they gradually there, we are checked

and repulsed by dimdisappear, till they are at length involved in ness and obscurity. The sun forbids us to wotal durkness. The distance of a few leagues behold his face by reason of his splerur,

the earth and the ocean present to us but quired: and they spoiled the Egyptians." their surface; and the heavens oppose to the Israel came into Egypt few in number, weak eager eye a vault of crystal, saying, “ Hi- and indigent; but they go out from the land therto shalt thou come, but no further." We of their oppression greatly increased, mighty feel ourselves hedged in, fettered, confined and formidable ; laden with the spoils of their on every side. And our, condition in this cruel oppressors, the well earned reward of respect is that of every created, limited be the labours of many years, and of much soring. Open prospect after prospect; expand row. system upon system; add faculty to faculty; It is repeatedly remarked, that the predicyet the prospect is bounded at length. Suns tion relating to the deliverance of God's peoand worlds are capable of being numbered, ple was fulfilled to a single day. Of this and there is a height and depth still beyond, we have a confirmation in the preceding which the understanding of an angel cannot chapter, and the 41st verse; “ And it came fathom.

to pass, at the end of the four hundred and There is only one Being whose duration thirty years, even the self-same day, it came is immeasurable—whose space is unconfined to pass

, that all the hosts of the LORD went -whose power is uncontrolled--whose un- out of the land of Egypt.” Again, at the derstanding is infinite. With JEHOVAH “a 51st verse; “ And it came to pass, the selfthousand years are as one day, and one day same day, that the Lord did bring the chilas a thousand years." He alone can “de-dren of Israel out of the land of Egypt by clare the end from the beginning, and from their armies.' And yet, on comparing numancient times the things that are not yet bers in the prediction and the history of its done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I accomplishment, we find a difference of thirwill do all my pleasure."* He is “above all, ty years. The seventy interpreters were and through all, and in all!” An impene- aware of this difficulty, and have obviated it trable veil hides futurity from every created by thus paraphrasing the passage in Exodus, eye; but the Spirit of prophesy is pleased "The sojourning of the children of Israel in sometimes to remove it. Abraham saw the the land of Canaan, and in the land of Egypt, Redeemer's day afar off, and rejoiced. He was four hundred and thirty years." To saw in prophetic vision the servitude, the justify which computation we need but to affliction, and the deliverance of his posterity, observe, that Moses in the four hundred and at the distance of four hundred years. To thirty years, includes all the time that Abramortal man, whose longest span of existence ham had passed in Canaan, previous to the is diminished to much under a century, four birth of Isaac. And a learned prelate of our hundred years have something like the ap- own country, Archbishop Usher, in his valupearance of an eternity; but before God, able chronology, has proved this calculation time and space are contracted to a point, to a to be just. For Abraham was exactly twenmoment. With him, that which is to be ty-five years in Canaan before Isaac was done is already done. Men shape events ac- born.* From the birth of Isaac to the exodus cording to their fancy, their fears, their from Egypt was four hundred and five, which wishes, or their hopes. “ But the counsel of completes the four hundred and thirtieth year the Lord it shall stand, and he fulfilleth all mentioned in this passage, and by Paul in his pleasure."

the third of the Galatians, 17th verse. Thus What was the word of the Lord to Abra- perfect are all the ways and works of God; ham? “And he said unto Abram, Know of thus absolute his power over all persons and a surety, that thy seed shall be a stranger in all events! No skill, no ardour, no violent a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them, efforts on the part of Israel, could accelerate and they shall afflict them four hundred their enlargement. Nor could the combined years. And also that nation whom they shall strength of Egypt, of mankind, of created serve will I judge: and afterward shall they nature, retard it one single hour ! come out with great substance.”+ What In order to preserve to all generations the was the doing of the Lord in conformity to memory of a period so singular and so imthat word ? “ And it came to pass, that at portant in their history, the ordinance of the midnight the Lord smote all the first-born in passover was to be honoured with an annual the land of Egypt, from the first-born of * Jacob was born to Isaac when he was sixty years Pharaoh that sat on his throne, unto the first-old; and at the time he went down to Egypt, according born of the captive that was in the dungeon, dred and thirty; which, added to the twenty-five years and all the first-born of cattle.” “ And the of Abraham's pilgrimage, from his leaving Ur of the children of Israel did according to the word Chaldees to the birth of Isaac, make two hundred and of Moses: and they borrowed of the Egyp- period of two hundred and ineen years. So that it is tians jewels of silver and jewels of gold, and plain Moses reckoned in the whole sum of four hundred raiment. And the Lord gave the people his posterity, from his first leaving his kindred and fa. favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that ther's house in Mesopotamia down to their triuinpbant they lent unto them such things as they re- of Canaan, whose iniquity though not before, was now • Isa xlvi. 10.

Gen. xv. 13, 14.


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