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hisorders of sin. Thus guilty, fallen map is no mixture of evil intrudes itseif, where recovered and restored. Thus the evils re- none but the trees of life find a place. And corded in the first pages of the Bible are thus the several parts of divine revelation remedied and done away in that bright reve-explain, illustrate, strengthen, and confirm lation of a world to come, which is opened each other; and the whole taken together, to us in the close of it. Thus is Adam, and exhibiting throughout one great leading obhis renewed offspring, conducted from a ter-ject, carrying on one great design, and restrial paradise, where the tree of know- accomplishing, at length, the one original ledge of good and evil grew up among the purpose of the ETERNAL, is gloriously trees of life, to the paradise of God, where perfect.
ADAM AND CHRIST COMPARED.
And so it is written, the first man Adam was made a living soul, the last Adam was made a
quickening spirit.—1 CORINTHIANS XV. 45
TAE frame of nature, the ways of Provi- dim and scattered fragments become both dence, and the work of redemption, mutu- legible and intelligible. ally illuminate, explain, and support each Nay, farther, the different parts of scripother. The invisible things of God are ture itself
, taken separately and without clearly understood by the things which are connexion, may seem to have less force, made: the world is evidently upheld and beauty, and importance; but when brought governed by him who made it at first. And together, like the magnet and the steel, they the suspension of the laws of nature, and immediately attract each other and unite; the special interpositions of Divine Provi- like the scattered bones in the valley, bone dence, constitute the proof, that the gospel coming together to his bone, there starts up dispensation is from Him who has the uni- a perfect man, nay, an exceeding great army. verse under his control, to continue or to Type meeting the thing typified, prediction change its appearance at his pleasure; who squaring with event, promise tallying ex. has all hearts in his hand, and consequently, actly with accomplishment, scripture acall events at his disposal. When we at- quires a solidity which bids defiance to all tempt to contemplate the providence of God, created force: becomes, in its own energetic we immediately find it to be a system infi- language, “as a hammer that breaheth the nitely too vast for human capacity to take rock in pieces.” The persons exhibited, the in, too complex for our penetration to unfold, events recorded, the scenes described, the too deep and mysterious for our understand- institutions ordained in one age and state of ing to fathom. All that we can do is to con- the world, which were the shadows of goud sider the detached parts of this majestic things to come, are not only instructive and whole, as they present themselves to our interesting in themselves, but acquire a senses, or to our reason; as they are trans- weight and importance which they possesseil mitted to us in the history and experience not before, when viewed in their relation tu of others; or as they are discovered to us Him, to whom all the prophets give witness, by a revelation from heaven. Without the and whose person, character, and work, are Bible, it were utterly impossible to give a the fulfilling of all that was written of old tolerable account, much less one completely time. satisfactory, of the origin of the world, or The history of Adam ministers both pleaof the appearances of nature; of the events sure and instruction to us as men: but Chriswhich are past and are recorded, or those tians feel a peculiar interest in the perusal which are every day presenting themselves of it, by considering Adam “ as the figure of to our observation. But when reason youch- him who was to come." safes to kindle her feeble lamp with fire from Having, in the last Lecture, attemptru a the altar of God, and to supply it continually delineation of the life of the first man, acwith fresh oil from the sacred stores, what cording as it is transmitted to us in the holy was formerly dark becomes clear: what be- scriptures, we proceed, in prosecution of our fore seemed intricate and perplexed, is found plan, to institute in a few particulars, a comto be in perfect order and harmony; and the I parison between Adam and Christ; between
the federal lead and representative of the first man, into whose nostrils God breathed human race, and the covenant head and re- the breath of life, and who thereby became presentative of the church. But first, let us a living soul, was “the type or figure of him observe wherein the first man difters from, that was to come:"* and in many other and wherein he resembles all other men, places, in his epistles, shows us wherein the who have descended from him by ordinary resemblance consists. Following him theregeneration.
fore, and the other sacred writers of the New First,—In the manner of his production. Testament, as our guides, we observe, Other men arrive at their maturity, such as First, that Adam typified Christ, as being it is, by slow and insensible degrees; they in a peculiar sense the Son of God. The make a progress through infancy, childhood, evangelist Luke, in tracing the natural pediand youth, to man's estate; Adam was creat-gree of our Saviour, ascends step by step ed perfect at once; the moment he began to from son to father, till he comes to the first exist, he existed in all the dignity and progenitor of all, “who was," says he, “the strength of reason and intelligence. All Son of God:" that is, his immediate offspring, other men are conceived in sin, and brought deriving his existence without any interposiforth in iniquity; he came from the hands of tion, from the great source of being. And his Creator, holy and blameless, the son of what saith the scripture concerning the MesGod. The mental powers of the wisest and siah? “I will declare the decree: the Lord most intelligent of mankind, his sons, are hath said unto me, Thou art my Son, this narrow and contracted; we know but a few day have I begotten thee, "t and“ when he things, and them imperfectly: the whole bringeth in the first begotten into the world,” world of nature was an open volume to his he saith, “ And let all the angels of God understanding. Since the fall, men are born worship him.”[ into the world with the seeds of decay and As the manner in which Adam was prodissolution in the constitution and frame of duced, was new and unexampled, so the contheir nature; but Adam was created incor- ception and birth of Christ were "a new ruptible, immortal. The property and power thing in the earth;” the former created of of the greatest of his posterity'is cramped dust from the ground, the latter formed by and confined; limited by mountains, rivers, the power of the Holy Ghost in the womb of and seas; liable to be encroached upon, dis- a virgin. But Adam, the son of God, though pated, invaded, taken away: but the domi- made in the likeness of his Creator, expressnion of the first man was uncontrolled, his ed that divine image only externally, as the authority indisputable, his property univer- coin exhibits the image and impress of the sal; the beasts of the field, the birds of the sovereign: whereas Christ the Son of God air, and whatsoever passeth through the displayed “the brightness of his Father'a paths of the sea, all, all were put under his glory," and bore " the express image of his feet. But Adam, fallen and lost, is just what person.” Adam the son of God was produced all his hapless children are; like them a in time, on the sixth day of the creation, af: slave to divers lusts and passions; like them ter all the other works of God were finished: liable to disease and death; like them a prey but Christ, the Son of God, the eternal wis. to sorrow, fear, and remorse; like them a dom of the everlasting Father, thus speaks child of wrath, an heir of hell; and like them, of himself. “ The Lord possessed me in the to be recovered, restored, re-established, only beginning of his way, before his works of by the mercy of God, and through the aton- old. I was set up from everlasting, from the ing blood of a Saviour; and how that Saviour beginning, or ever the earth was. When was typified or held forth to the world, by there were no depths, I was brought forth: the person, character, and relative connex- when there were no fountains abounding ions of Adam, is to be the subject of the re- with water. Before the mountains were setinaining part of this discourse.
tled, before the hills was I brought forth: Adam, perhaps, was not himself aware, while as yet he had not made the earth, nor that he was in this respect fulfilling the de- the fields, nor the highest part of the dust of signs of Providence. We know that many the world: when he prepared the heavens ) others exhibited striking types of the pro- was there: when he set a compass upon mised Saviour, in their persons, offices, and the face of the depth: when he established actions, without being conscious that such the clouds above: when he strengthened honourable distinction was conferred upon the fountains of the deep: when lie gave them; and Moses, the inspired author of the to the sea his decree, that the waters should history of the first man, no where hints, that not puss his commandment: when he aphe considered Adam, or that Adam consider-pointed the foundations of the earth: then ed himself in this light. But to us the matter I was by him, as one brought up with him: is put beyond a doubt, by one who wrote also and I was daily his delight, and rejoicing und e inspiration of God, the great apos- always before him: rejoicing in the habitate of tid, Gentiles, who informs us, that this
| Psalm ii. 7. Heb. i. &
* Romans v. 14.
ble part of his earth, and my delights were the paths of the seas."* And Christ the Lord, with the sons of men.”
even in the days of his flesh, while he yet Secondly,—The constitution of Adam's dwelt among men, not only possessed but exnature prefigured the person of Christ. In ercised an unlimited authority over the whole Adam, an immaterial immortal spirit was world of nature, over things visible, and united to a material earthly body, to consti- things invisible. The prince of the power of tute one perfect, living man; in Christ, the the air fled at his command: the boisterous human nature was united to the divine, to elements heard and obeyed his word: disconstitute one perfect life-giving Saviour. ease, and death, and the grave fulfilled his The one a mystery of nature, the other a pleasure. How much more justly, after his mystery of grace. The one, though incom- resurrection from the dead, when “ declared prehensible, yet certainly known by every the Son of God with power,” could he say of man to be true; the other though incompre- himself, “all power is given unto me, in heahensible, yet by every christian believed to ven and in earth ?" and the Apostle also, conbe true.
cerning him, “God hath highly exalted him, Thirdly,—The paternal relation which and given him a name, which is above every Adam bears to all the human race, beauti- name: that at the name of Jesus every knee fully represents to us Jesus the Son of God, should bow, of things in heaven, and things as the spiritual father of all them that be- in earth, and things under the earth: and lieve. The first man, Adam, says the text, that every tongue should confess that Jesus was made “a living soul,” that is, the source Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Faof a natural life, to them who had it not be ther."! We see Jesus, who was made a little fore; the last Adam was made a quickening lower than the angels, for the suffering of spirit," that is, the giver and restorer of a death crowned with glory and honour. “And spiritual and divine life, to those who, having he must reign, till he hath put all his enelost it, were “dead in trespasses and sins. mies under his feet.” The sovereignty of The water in the conduit will rise to the Adam, however, was derived, dependent, level of its fountain, but can never mount limited, and might be forfeited: and his hishigher. Thus Adam can communicate only tory, and our own experience feelingly aswhat he was, and what he had himself; be sure us, “ that, being in honour he continued ing therefore of the earth, earthly, he could not;" that the crown is fallen from his head, only propagate an earthly existence; but the and the sceptre dropt from his hand. His desecond man, being the Lord from heaven, rived authority was withdrawn by him who can, and does, make his spiritual offspring bestowed it; his dependent power was check“ partakers of a divine nature." As every ed and curbed, because he had abused it; his man, upon coming into the world of nature, limited empire was reduced to nothing, bethe instant he draws the breath of life, bears cause he presumed to affect equality with his the image of the first man whom God created; Creator; and having received dominion un80 from Jesus Christ, progenitor of them who der a condition, failing in the condition, he believe, all who are regenerated, or born into forfeits his throne. But the sovereignty of the world of grace, derive their spiritual ex- Christ is inherent, independent, unlimited, istence, and bear the image of him, from and everlasting “Unto the Son he saith, whom the whole family of heaven and earth Thy throne, o God, is for ever and ever, a is named. But Adam is the remote, not the sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy immediate father of our flesh: whereas Christ kingdom;" and the Son himself saith, “I lay is the immediate source of spiritual light and down my life, that I might take it again. I life to all those " who are born, not of blood lay it down of myself: I have power to lay it nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of down, and I have power to take it again.” man, but of God.”+
" And I give unto them eternal life, and they Fourthly; -Adam and Christ bear a strik- shall never perish, neither shall any man ing resemblance in respect of dominion and pluck them out of my hand. My Father, sovereignty. When God had created man, which gave them me is greater than all: and "he blessed him, and said unto him, Have none is able to pluck them out of my Father's dominion over the fish of the sea, and over hand. I and my Father are one." I the fowl of the air, and over every living Again, the sacred and pure matrimonial thing that moveth upon the earth.” " Thou union established in paradise between Adamı hast made him," says the Psalmist, “ a little and Eve, was intended to prefigure the myslower than the angels; and hast crowned terious union, the pure and reciprocal affec. him with glory and honour. Thou madest tion of Christ and his church: in which alsı him to have dominion over the works of thy we follow the Apostle of the Gentiles in his hands: thou hast put all things under his epistle to the Ephesia::8, " for the husband feet. All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the of the field; the fowl of the air, and the fish head of the church; and he is the Saviour of of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through
John i. 13.
Ś Chap. v. 23
• Psalm viii, 58.
+ Phil. ij. 9_-11.
* Prov. viii. 22-31
the body. Therefore as the church is subjects adulterous generation, but preserved unspotto Christ, so let the wives be to their own ted innocence; " he did no sin, neither was husbands in every thing. Husbands, love guile found in his lips." Adam by one offence your wives, even as Christ also loved the became guilty of the whole law, poured conchurch, and gave himself for it; that he tempt upon it, and transmitted his crime, might sanctify and cleanse it, with the wash-together with the punishment of it, to all ing of water by the word; that he might pre- mankind: Christ, by a complete obedience, sent it to himself a glorious church, not hav- " magnified the law, and made it honouring spot or wrinkle, or any such thing; but able," approved himself unto God, and conthat it should be holy, and without blemish. veys the merit of his obedience and sufferings We are members of his body; of his flesh, to all them that believe, for their justification and of his bones. For this cause, shall a man and acceptance. Adam, aspiring to a condileave his father and mother, and shall be tion superior to that in which his Maker joined unto his wife, and they two shall be placed him, not only failed to obtain what he one flesh. This is a great mystery; but I aimed at, but also lost what he had ; desiring speak concerning Christ and the church.” to be as God, to know good and evil, he ac
Finally,—The whole tenor of scripture quired indeed the fatal knowledge of evil, teaches us to consider Adam, the first of men, but lost the knowledge of good which he alas the covenant head and representative of ready possessed; and sinking himself, drags all his posterity, according to the order and down a devoted world with him: whereas course of nature; and Jesus Christ the Lord, Christ, for the voluntary abasement of himas the federal head and representative of all self, is exalted to “the right hand of the his redeemed, according to the election of Majesty on high," " for the suffering of death, grace. “For since by man came death, by is crowned with glory and honour," and man came also the resurrection of the dead." “ lifted up on the cross, draws all men unto " For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ him.” The moment we exist, in virtue of our shall all be made alive." • By one man sin relation to the first Adalu, we die for an ofentered into the world, and death by sin; and fence we could not commit; so, we no sooner so death passed upon all men, for that all become united to the second Adam through have sinned.” And“ if by one man's offence, faith in his blood, than we become partakers death reigned by one, much more they which of a spiritual and divine nature, and heirs of receive abundance of grace, and of the gift everlasting life, in virtue of a righteousness of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, not our own. “ Being justified by faith, we Jesus Christ. Therefore, as by the offence of have peace with God, through our Lord Jeone, judgment came upon all men to con- sus Christ; and rejoice in hope of the glory demnation: even so by the righteousness of of God.” In Adam, we are condemned for one, the free gift came upon all men unto one sin: in Christ we are justified for many justification of life. For as by one man's dis- offences. The history of Adam represents to obedience, many were made sinners: so by us a garden with one tree of life amidst many the obedience of one, shall many be made that were good for food, and near to one that righteous. "*
was pregnant with death : the Revelation of But whatever admits of comparison, by Jesus Christ exhibits to us a paradise, all bearing resemblance, must likewise admit of whose trees are of one sort; whose fruit is contrast, on account of dissimilitude: for what life-giving, whose very leaves are salutary; 80 like, as to be undistinguishable? What trees of life which know no decay, never distwo persons are so much the same, as not to appoint the gatherer's hope, never feel the exhibit, to the least discerning eye, charac- approach of winter. teristical marks of difference? And indeed, Genesis presents to our trembling, astonthe very particulars wherein the first and ished sight, “ cherubims and a flaming sword, second Adam coincide, evince the infinite which turn every way to keep the way of superiority of the one above the other, as the tree of life. The Apocalypse discloses well as those circumstances which could not to our delighted eyes, angels ministering to possibly be in common between them. them who are the heirs of salvation; and
Adam was assaulted of the wicked one, by our ravished ears hear these glad accents a slight temptation; yielded; and fell: Christ bursting from amidst the excellent glory, was tempted of the devil, by repeated, vigor- “To him that overcometh, will I give to eat ous, and well-conducted attacks; resisted to of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the last; and overcame. Adam in paradise, the paradise of God.” “Let him that is became guilty, and miserable, and liable to athirst, come: and whosoever will, let him death: Christ passed through a corrupted take the water of life freely.” world, lived in the midst of a sinful and The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be * Rom. v. 17-19.
with you all. Amen.
HISTORY OF CAIN AND ABEL.
LECTURE I V.
By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that ho
was righteous, God testifying of his gifts, and by it he, being dead, yet speaketh.-HEBREWS X1. 4.
A STATE of innocence was apparently of of communicating that natural life to others; short duration. The history of it contains for that Eve should become a mother, though but a very few particulars. To plunge the the pain and sorrow of conception and childhuman race into guilt and ruin was the work bearing were to be greatly multiplied. In only of a moment: but to restore mankind process of time she accordingly brings forth to life and happiness, employed depth of de- a son; and pain and sorrow are no more resign to contrive; length of time to mature membered, for joy that a man-child is born and unfold; and irresistible force to execute. into the world. What she thought and felt The history of the world is, in truth, the his- upon this occasion, we learn from what she tory of redemption. For all the dealings of said, and from the name she gave her newDivine Providence with men, directly or by born son. With a heart overflowing with implication immediately or remotely, point gratitude, she looks up to God, who had not out and announce a Saviour. To our first only spared and prolonged her life, but made parents, immediately upon the fall, a promise her the joyful mother of a living child; and was given, in general, indeed, but not in ob- who, in multiplying her sorrow, had much scure terms, of deliverance and recovery, by more abundantly multiplied her comfort. one who should be in a peculiar and proper Ease that succeeds anguish is doubly relished sense, “ the seed of the woman.' And it is and enjoyed, Kindness from one whom we far from being unreasonable to suppose, that have offended, falls with a weight pleasingly the skins employed to cover the shame of our oppressive upon the mind. Some interpretguilty first parents, were taken from victims ers, and not without reason, suppose, that she slain by divine appointment; who by the considered the son given her, as the promised shedding of their blood were to typify the seed, who should bruise the head of the sergreat atonement, styled in scriptures the pent; and they read her self-gratulatory exLamb slain from the foundation of the world.” clamation thus, “I have gotten the man from But admitting this to be merely a fanciful the Lord.” And how soothing to the materconjecture, we have the authority of God nal heart must have been the hope of deliverhimself to affirm, that the immediate descend- ance and relief for herself, and triumph over ants of Adam offered such sacrifices, and her bitter enemy, by means of the son of her looked in faith and hope to such propitiation : own bowels! How fondly does she dream “For by faith Abel offered unto God a more of repairing the ruin which her frailty had excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he brought upon her husband and family, by this obtained witness, that he was righteous, God "first-born of many brethren!” The name testifying of his gifts, and by it he, being she gives him signifies " possessed" or a dead, yet speaketh.” The history, charac- " possession.
possession." She flatters herself that she ter, and conduct of these two brothers, from has now got something she can call her own; the materials furnished us in scripture, are and even the loss of paradise seems compento be the subject of this Lecture.
sated by a dearer inheritance. If there be a Adam, with the partner of his guilt and of portion more tenderly cherished, or more his future fortunes, being expelled from Eden, highly prized than another, it is that of which and tumbled from all his native honours, en- Lavid speaks, * " Lo, children are an heritage ters on the possession of a globe, which was the Lord: and the fruit of the womb is cursed for his sake. He feels that he is fallen , his reward. As arrows are in the hand of a hom a spiritual and divine life, from right- mighty man; so are children of the youth, eousness and innocence; that he has become IIappy is the man that hath his quiver full of liable to death; nay, by the very act of dis- them : they shall not be ashamed; but they obedience, that he really died to goodness and shall speak with the enemies in the gate. happiness. But the sentence itself which But o, blind to futurity, with how many sorcondemns him, gives him full assurance, that rows was this “possession" so exultingly tri. his natural life, though forfeited, was to be umphed in, about to pierce the fond materna reprieved; that he should live to labour; to breast! How unlike are the forebodings and eat his bread with the sweat of his brow; and wishes of parental tenderness and partiality, not only so, but that he should be the means
* Psalm cxxvii. 3—5. с