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for a second investment, prevented view, without being exposed to much history from recording of the Duke as danger, of the grand field-day of Vitof Marlborough, that he never besieged toria,* of which, and of the state of the a town which he did not take. After ground and city after the battle, when the decisive day of Vittoria, the strewed with the whole materiel of the French fought against hope, and with French army, he gives an animated the certain and discouraging prestige account, as also of his accidental renof defeat, but they struggled gallantly contre with the Countess de Gazan. and pertinaciously; and Soult con- It appears that about £250,000 in hard tinued to uphold the falling cause of cash, in gold, was taken with the his master with a fidelity that gained French military chest at Vittoria, but for him universal applause. Mr. Lar- a very small portion found its way into pent, although a non-combatant, con- the public coffers.

Our author says trived to expose himself to many on this subject dangers, and at last was taken prisoner, but he was soon released through the "Much was certainly plundered by the application of Lord Wellington, and natives and soldiers, the latter offering nine the intercession of General Count dollars for a guinea for the sake of carriage. Gazan, to whose lady he bad shown

Lord Wellington, however, has his suspicions courtesy and kindness, when she was

of pillage by the civil departments; he has

also heard various stories of money taken on left with many other fair captives

the road back from Vittoria. I do not know amongst the spoils of Vittoria. "The

what may come of this; I have made out lady, it appears, was renowned for her

but little satisfactory as yet; I think, howgallantries, but her husband, incredu

ever, one gentleman I examined yesterday Tous as Belisarius, turned a deaf ear to intended to keep two thousand dollars. At all these idle stories, and never suffered the same time, the understanding that this them to disturb his domestic quiet. was all fair seems pretty general."

Mr. Larpent speaks in rather disparaging terms of the Guards and

This much is quite certain, that Household Cavalry, whom he con- large sums of money were privately apsiders as less hardy warriors, and less

propriated from the spoils of Vittoria, effective in the field, than the ordinary and that the high authorities passed battalions and squadrons of the work- the matter over without any very ing line.

rigid investigation. During Sir John

Moore's retreat to Corunna, in 1809, “ The Life-Guards and Blues," he says, much treasure was abandoned on the " looked well on their entrance into Palen

road, from the constant deaths of the tia, and on their march yesterday; the for

carriage-mules, and the impossibility mer, however, seem dull and out of spirits, and have some sore backs among their horses.

of transporting it further. The casks The Blues seem much more up to the thing,

containing dollars were broken in, and but they are neither of them very fit for ge

the money thrown down the ravines, neral service here. Lord Wellington saves

whence it was afterwardsgathered up by them up for some grand coup, houses them

the peasants and the pursuing enemy. when he can, and takes care of them." An English soldier's wife collected as

many dollars as she was able to carry, When we remember that these Pata- and placed them round her waist. Degonian householders, and their mount, spite the fatigue of long marches and had cost the country, man by man, at scanty food, she arrived safely at the least £300 before they got to Vittoria, place of embarkation with the prize. we need scarcely wonder that a prudent But on stepping into a boat, her foot general should hesitate to bring such slipped over the gunwale, when she costly warriors into action, unless an sank immediately and never rose again. opportunity offered of sending them The weight of the dollars, from which in to finish, as they say in the ring, she was unable to extricate herself, and as they afterwards did so manfully produced the unlooked for catastrophe. at Waterloo.

We are rather startled to find at page Mr. Larpent contrived to get a good 257, vol. i., the following passage,

* He was scarcely as comfortable as Campbell the poet at Hohenlinden, or Lord Hutchinson at Friedland, who severally witnessed those two great battles from the steeple of a neighbouring church

which has occasioned much animadversion and strong dissentient opinions amongst military readers :

" In marching, our men have no chance at all with the French. The latter beat them hollow, and, I believe, principally owing to their being a more intelligent set of beings, seeing consequences more, and feeling th-m. This makes them sober and orderly whenever it becomes material, and on a pinch their exertions and individual activity are astonishing Our men get sulky and desperate, drink excessively, and become daily more weak and unable to proceed, principally from their own conduct. They eat yoraciously when opportunity offers, after having had short fare. This brings on fluxes, &c. In every respect, except courage, they are very inferior souliers to the French and Germans. When the two divisions, the 4th and Light, crossed through Tafalla the day before yesterday, the more soldier-like appearance and conduct of the foreigners, though in person naturally inferior, was very mortifying. Lord Wellington feels it much, and is much hurt."

try, entirely unsupported by cavalry,
were forced to join combat with a
superior enemy, and in an unfavour-
able position. When a French arny
is surprised, or driven headlong from a
field of battle, as at the Douro, at
Arroyo de Molinos, and at Vittoria,
they fling away every incumbrance,
including arms, accoutrements, and
knapsacks, and, as Sir W. Napier says,
it is impossible for others to keep pace
with them who retain their usual
But in fair marching, in the fatigue
and endurance of a campaign, it has
never yet been found, either in ancient
or modern times, that the French were
superior or equal to the English. In
Shakspeare's Henry V., the King, in re-
ply to Mountjoy, the French kerald who
summons him to surrender, says:

gear.

“My people are with sickness much enfeebled;

My numbers lessen'd; and those few I have,
Almost no better than so many French ;
Who, when they were in health, I tell thee, hereld,
I thought, upon one pair of English lege,
Did march three Frenchmen."-Act iii. sc. 6.

Without impugning in the slightest Such was the national opinion on this degree the value of Mr. Larpent's ge- subject when Shakspeare wrote, in the neral observations or the merit of his reign of Queen Elizabeth. Now for a book-on a purely military point we sample in our own days. Sir W. Napier can scarcely consider a non-combatant

says and civilian as a competent authority; His professional duties and judicial “ This day also (July 29th, 1809) Genecapacity brought him much more in ral Robert Craufurd reached the English personal contact with the delinquents camp with the 43rd, 52nd, and 95th Rifles, -the drones, scamps, and malingcrerst

and immediately took charge of the outposts. of the army than with the bardy

These troops, leaving only seventeen stragveterans and able men who constitute

glers behind in twenty-six hours, crossed

the field of battle in a close and compact the staple ; while the former include

body, having in that time passed over sixtyonly the exceptions in a well-organised

two English miles, in the hottest season of regiment. It cannot be disputed that

the year, each man carrying from fifty to drunkenness has ever been the bane sixty pounds weight upon his shoulders. and besetting sin of the three gallant Had the historian Gibbon known of such a nations who compose the British army, march, he would have spared his sneer about and all are prone to become disorderly the delicacy of modern soldiers." — Vol. ii. and insubordinate, to straggle and plunder, on a retreat. But let a halt take place with the prospect of en. The same unquestionable authority, gaging, and the ranks are speedily when concluding a comparative sumfilled, and discipline restored. This mary of the soldiers of modern Europe, was remarkably evidenced at Lugo, says—“ The result of an hundred batwhere Sir John Moore offered the tles, and the admitted testimony of battle, which Marshal Soult prudently foes as well as friends, assigns the first declined; and still more signally at place to the English infantry." He is Corunna, where the transports had not in the least blind to their defects, not arrived, and the exhausted infan. but long service has deeply impressed

p. 400.

* Two choice divisions of the British army.

† An exclusive military term applied to lazy soldiers who avoid duty under the pretence of illness, or maim themselves to obtain their discharge. Derired from the French, malingre, weakly or puny.

on him a conviction of their superior latter have not been altered with the former. qualities; and he produces other reasons By the first, an officer may now be tried here with those we have named above, why by a court of seven members ; by the Articles a French army, under sudden disaster there must be thirteen." or dispersion, can re-assemble and pick up their stragglers much more rapidly

And this discrepancy remained unthan an English force would be enabled

altered, when balf-an-hour's attention to do under the same circumstances.

on the part of the home officials, seated Neither did the average of sick in hos

at a desk, would have set all right, pital, in Lord Wellington's army, dur

and removed a puzzling contradiction. ing the Peninsular campaigns, exceed Before the appointment of Mr. Lar. that of the French divisions opposed

pent, Lord Wellington, in addition to to him, as a reference to the different

his other multifarious duties, seems to returns will show. During the latter

have had the arrangement of the courtsyears, the Allies were under canvas,

martial entirely thrown upon his own while the French continued the usual

hands, which irked him not a little, practice of bivouacking in the open

and sometimes made him lose his temair. Many lives were saved, and much per. The members occasionally were sickness avoided by the use of tents,

either unacquainted with their duty, which, although they much increased or unwilling to do it. Once he swore the difficulty and expense of transport,

angrily, and said his whole table was amply repaid the inconvenience of both. covered with details of robbery, muMr. Larpent relates a curious anec

tiny, and complaints from all quardote of Lord Wellington, that the

ters, in all languages, and that he should Prince Regent was very anxious that soon be nothing but a general of he should correspond with him di.

courts-martial. He was more easily rectly, and much hurt that he never

excited to anger on this disagreeable did so. “But,” says his Lordship, “I

subject than on any other. Religious wrote to his ministers, and that was observances seem to have been less enough. What had I to do with him ? rigorously attended to in the PeninHowever, his late favour was a reason

sula, than in the armies under Marl. for my writing, and I have had a most

borough in the Low Countries. Our gracious answer, evidently courting

author says :further correspondence, but which I shall not comply with.” He after

“You ask about our religious duties. wards changed this resolution, being

There are four or five more clergymen in

Portugal, but no one now at head-quarters. completely won over by the autograph

The one stationed there, went away ill about letter from the Regent after Vittoria,

a twelvemonth since, as I hear." in which he presented his general with the staff of a marshal of England, in

At all times during the last war, return for that of Jourdan taken on

the number of military chaplains atthe field, and forwarded to him as a

tached to the different corps on sertrophy. The situation of judge advocate

vice, and settled at foreign stations,

was much too limited for the purpose. general in an army composed of

A little trait of personal peculiarity in many nations, such as that under Lord Wellington, must at all times

the Great Captain, is thus noticed :have been a very busy one. Mr. Lar.

" In one instance, Lord Wellington is not pent's courts-martial were many and

like Frederick the Great. He is remarkimportant, but he seems to have got

ably neat, and most particular in his dress, through his official business with great

considering his situation. He is well made, intelligence and activity, and, by dint

knows it, and is willing to set off to the best of hanging and flogging, at the end of what nature has bestowed. In short, like a year a respectable state of moral dis

every great man, present or past, almost cipline was tolerably well restored. But without exception, he is vain. He cuts the he had difficulties to encounter, which skirts of his own coats shorter to make them might have been avoided. He says

look smarter ; and, only a short time since,

I found him discussing the cut of his half“The new Mutiny Act has been sent out boots, and suggesting alterations to his serto me. There are several changes-one I vant when I went in upon business. The see which I suggested; but the business is vanity of great men shows itself in different very much bungled. The Mutiny Act and ways, but, I believe, always exists in some Articles of War are now at variance, as the shape or other."

We have not been accustomed to buttons of Charles XII., the small look upon the Duke as remarkably se- cocked hat and grey capote of Nadulous of dress, although on grand oc- poleon, the blanket and tub of Dio. casions he made a sufficient display, genes, and even the pious beaver when he wore bis principal orders and modest drab of the Quaker, may and decorations blazing on a coat more be included as samples. Philosophy gorgeous than the celebrated habit of itself has no objection to an occasional Prince Esterhazy, which, it was said, flourish of trumpets. The ancient cost him £200 in repairs and damages sages taught in the schools, and moevery time it was put on. The Duke dern philomaths lecture at public inhad a custom of wearing a white neck stitutions, but who shall say that they cloth in uniform, which gave him rather are not as much incited by the vanity of a slovenly look; and a flippant French showing their acquirements, as by the duchess once called him “Le Duc de desire of instructing their fellow-ciVilain-ton,” because he appeared at a tizens. Even Seneca declared, that full-dress party in something less than if knowledge was bestowed on him, on grande tenue. He was also familiarly condition that he should not impart it, called in the army, “the Beau," from he would decline the gift. his usual plain attire, and apparent The Guards, or, as they were usually negligence of outward splendour. That denominated, "the gentlemen's sons," vanity is an inherent compound or at- are not considered by Mr. Larpent as tendant of greatness, is a wide posi- more effective for “ roughing it" on tion, which admits of much argument a long campaign than the Household and endless demonstration. Many Cavalry. They were too much acdistinguished men affect or adopt cc- customed to luxuries, and less patient centricities, of which vanity may be under privations than the hardier and the inciting cause. Lord Nelson was

unpampered mass who constituted the fond of exhibiting his stars, and de. ordinary food for powder. Our author lighted in having his horses taken out, says:and his carriage drawn by the mob. The celebrated Lord Peterborough, “Both men and officers are only fit for though light, and vain, and proud, had our old style of expedition--a landing, a no weakness of this kind. Once, the short march, and a good fight, and then a populace taking him for the Duke of lounge home again." Marlborough, insisted on dragging him through the streets in triumph. “Gen- Certainly, the chosen cohorts en. tlemen,” said he, “I can assure you by joyed a good dinner more than a bitwo reasons, that I am not the Duke vouac fire, and a bottle of port in preof Marlborough. In the first place, I ference to a canteen full of muddy have only five guineas in my pocket; water ; but in the field of battle their and, in the second, they are heartily inherent gallantry never failed to show at your service.” So, throwing his itself, and conventional fopperies and purse amongst them, he got out of delicacies retired at once into the back. their hands with loud huzzas and ac- ground. In the early and unlaurelled clamations. Richardson, in his Anec- campaigns of the Low Countries at dotes, says :-“The great Earl of Pe- the commencement of the French Reterborough, who had much sense, much volution, in Egypt, at Talavera, at wit, and much whim, leaped out of his Barossa, at Waterloo, wherever the chariot one day on seeing a dancing- Prætorian bands were brought in close master with pearl-coloured silk stock- contact with the enemy, they exhibited ings, lightly stepping over the broad the courage of true British soldiers, stones, and picking his way in ex- and the constancy under fire of extremely dirty weather, and ran after perienced veterans. It has been often him (who soon took to his heels) with urged by well qualified military autho. his drawn sword, in order to drive him rities, that the institution of guards is into the mud, but into which he, of in itself unnecessay and detrimental course, followed himself.”

to sound military discipline, as creating All singularities may be traced jealousies and distinctions which im. home to a certain degree of vanity, pede rather than advance the true inof which prevailing weakness, the old terests and efficiency of the service. leather breeches of Frederick the The question is complicated, and open Great, the coarse coat and brass to long discussion, but the measure of

and they will do for me what perhaps no one else can make them do He said he had several of the advantages possessed by Buonaparte, from his freedom of action, and power of acting without being constantly called to account. Buonaparte was quite free from all inquiry—he was himself, in fact, very much so. The other advantages Buonaparte possessed, and which he made so much use of (Lord Wellington said), was his full latitude of lying, that, if so disposed, he added, he could not do."

abolition is not likely to be adopted under any monarchical government. We shall soon see that the new sovereign of France will restore the Imperial Guards, with all their distinguished privileges and external brilliancy. There is one point, however, which we never could understand—why our Household Cavalry, having beaten the picked cuirassiers of Napoleon at Waterloo without defensive armour, should afterwards be made to adopt the useless incumbrance which had proved as weak as silk before their brawny arms and well-poised weapons. We conclude it must bave been for the imposing nature of the pageant, and to gladden the eyes of the Cockneys on a gala-day. The cuirasses will assuredly be laid aside whenever the gallant wearers are called into the field of action. Man and horse are equally impeded by the additional weight with which both are overloaded.

We subjoin one more extract, which presents a comprehensive summary of Lord Wellington's feelings, views, and position, at the time when it was written, during his last brilliant campaign, previous to the general peace of 1814:

* You ask me if Lord Wellington has recollected with regard ? He seems to have had a great opinion of him, but has scarcely ever mentioned him to me. In truth, I think Lord Wellington has an active, busy mind, always looking to the future, and is so used to lose a useful man, that as soon as gone, he seldom thinks more of him. He would be always, I have no doubt, ready to serve any one who had been about him, who was gone, or the friend of a decca id friend, but he seems not to think much about you when once out of the way. He has too much of everything and everybody always in his way to think much of the absent." (The fact was, he bad neither time nor fancy for the parade of sentiment. He was not a man to get up such parting scenes as the last interview of Napoleon with Lannes at Essling, and Daroc at Bautzen. He was in every respect the antipodes of theatrical effect.) " He said the other day he had got advantages now over every other general. He could do what others dare not attempt, and he had got the confidence of the three allied powers, so that what he said or ordered was, right or wrong, always thought right. And the same, said he, with regard to the troops ; when I come myself the soldiers think what they have to do the most important as I am there, and that all will depend on their exertions; of course these are increased in proportion,

It is certain that English generals are often deprived of half their free judgment and power of command, by the dread of responsibility, and the certainty that a single failure will for ever shut them out from all hopes of future advancement. Sir John Moore, in particular, was much fettered and thwarted by these impediments, as also by the undue interference of incompetent or ill-informed political officials, who, as often as they meddled, were sure to mislead.

Lord Wellington soared above all this when he had achieved a colossal reputation by a long course of victory, and thus, many obstacles, as he himself freely admitted, were swept out of his path. At all times his intelligence was constant and accurate. He knewevery movement and intended operation of the enemy al. most as soon as they were conceived, while they, on the other hand, were totally in the dark as to his plans, except by what they could collect from the English newspapers in opposition, who never failed to supply them to the best of their abilities. The Duke, in the Peninsula, had an unlimited command of secret-service money, which was most effectively employed, while it has never appeared i hat the expenditure was excessive. Correct information is the base of all brilliant strokes in war, and must be obtained, coute qui coute, by the commander who means to astonish the world and his opponents by an unexpected blow. Napoleon, during his first Italian campaign in 1796, gave £900 to a spy, who informed him of the intended combination of the different Austrian corps for the relief of Mantua, and this enabled him to antici. pate and divide them, and to win Rivoli and Arcola. The Duke had faithful correspondents on whom he could depend even at the head-quarters, and in the immediate families of the generals opposed to him.

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