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were the harp, lute, and cymbals, but 69th Psalms, which appear to have that flutes were occasionally added to given a good deal of trouble to support the melody, as, e. g., in the musical historians and expounders of Hallel. Sometimes, however, the Holy Writ, and which therefore destringed instruments were required to serve a short notice. be silent, and none but flutes to be The 8th Psalm has this superscripemployed in the accompaniment. This tion, “ To the chief musician upon was indicated by the word “Nehiloth" Gittith," and the term Gittith occurs (derived from chalil), the general term likewise over Ps. Ixxxi. and lxxxiv., for instruments of the flute kind. For and at different other places in the Old such a mode of performance only very Testament where musical matters are few melodies or songs would be suited, spoken of. Some of the earlier comhence we find it prescribed only for mentators have considered it to be the one psalm, viz., the sixth. When name of a musical instrument, but this none but stringed instruments were to interpretation agrees neither with the be used, the composer wrote over his connexion nor the grammatical conpsalm, "upon Neginoth” (Ps. iv., liv., struction of the word. For this reason Ixi., lxvii., &c.)
others have taken it to indicate the The melodies of the psalms, and the place where the psalms thus marked proper mode of performance, were were usually sung, and at the instance taught to the Levites by the class- of the LXX. translated it by “ wineleaders, or menatzeachs, who also press.” But they overlooked that the conducted the performance during the expression “ Bacchus tune" was used service. Some of the melodies, un- by the Greek musicians to distinguish doubtedly, were well known, and re- a peculiar tonal mode or scale, namely, quired no particular training of the the so-called Phrygian (upon E), and singers or instrumentalists ; others, that, therefore, the Alexandrine transhowever, might be new or more diffi. lators also, most probably, took the cult, and, therefore, require the particu. term in this sense, wishing to indicate lar attention of the leader; in which a peculiar air or melody known amongst case the psalm was dedicated to him the Jews by the name of the “ tune of in order either to recommend it to his the Gittites," i. e., a tune which the special care, or to leave him the choice inhabitants of Gad were accustomed of a suitable melody. Hence the fre- to sing. This view of the case assumes quent occurrence of the expression, a strong appearance of probability, ( to the chief musician."
when it is recollected that David, the musical arrangement of great impor- composer of those psalms, resided a tance or intricacy was necessary, e.g., considerable time amongst the Gittites, in psalms to be performed on grand from whom he might have learned the occasions, it was not left to the discre- air, and afterwards communicated it tion of the mere class-leader, but con- to the Levites. Another melody of fided to the special care of the chief of foreign origin was that indicated by the all the Levites. This we see from the termsuperscriptions of Ps. xxxix., lxii., and “ Shoshannim," which is found in the lxxvii. Some of the melodies to which superscriptions of Ps. xlv., 1x., Ixix., the psalms were sung were old national and lxxx. Some bave derived this word
others were of a foreign origin. from schosch, which means "six," and The former were generally named after believed it to be the name of an instru. the commencement of the song to which ment with six strings. There is, how. they had been originally invented, the ever, no trace of such an instrument first two or three words of the song having been in use amongst the Heserving (as is still the case with the brews; and Dr. Schilling, in his “Essay melodies of the German chorales) as on Hebrew Music," has established the title by which they were known, the fact beyond a possibility of doubt,
~ Altashith," "destroy not that the word Shoshannim, like the (Ps. lvii.); “ Ajeleth-Shahar,” “the one just explained, was the name of hind of the morning.” — (Ps. xxii.) an air or scale. According to the exThose melodies adapted from other planation of that learned antiquarian, nations were frequently named after the word Shoshannim was derived from the place whence they had been de. Shusan (a lily), and this again from rived. Of this, two instances occur the Persian word Susan, which means in the superscriptions of the 8th and also a lily, but was at the same time
the name of a town situated in the logue form, which comprises the fortyprovince of Elam, and celebrated for second and forty-third psalms of our the abundance of lilies growing in the collection, and in which the touching neighbourhood. From the inhabitants lament of the soul “panting after of this town the Jews are supposed to God," is relieved at regular intervals by bave learnt the air which they after- a refrain of five short stanzas, renwards distinguished by the name of dered thus by Moses Mendelssohn: Shoshannim, or “tune of Susan."
“Why so oppressed," my heart ? In order to relieve the unavoidable
Why dost thy pulse beat quick? monotony which must necessarily arise 0, put thy trust in God !
For Him I shall yet praise, from a continual succession of melodies
My Saviour, my God."* in unison or double octaves, even if occasionally interspersed with a fifth
But the Levites not only sung in alor fourth, the Jews, like all other na. ternating choruses, but also were actions of antiquity, were at an early time quainted with that powerful resource led to the introduction of alternating of musical expression, the combination choruses. The first instance on re- of solo-singers and chorus ; as is quite cord of a performance of this kind, is evident from the construction of the that of the incomparably grand and ninth, eighteenth, twenty-first, and sebeautiful hymn of victory sung by veral other psalms. Nay, some of the Moses and the children of Israel after psalms are so arranged, that they could the passage through the Red Sea, and not be effectively performed without "answered” by Miriam the prophet- the aid of two solo-singers, and two ess, and “all the women with her" choruses; as, for instance, Psalm xxiv., (Exod. xv.) Another case of this which, in order to be effectually renkind is mentioned in the eighteenth dered, would require an arrangement chapter of the first book of Samuel like this: (v.7), and there are several other passages which show that a division of the Coro I. The earth is the Lord's, and the singers and instrumentalists into two
fulness thereof; choruses, responding to each other,
Coro II. The world, and they who dwell
therein. was a common practice amongst the
Solo I. Who shall ascend unto the hill of Jews. That the Levites also availed
the Lord; themselves of this means of imparting
Solo II. Or who shall stand in his holy variety and animation to their perfor
place? mance, appears from Ezra, ii. 10, 11,
Coro I. He who has clean hands, &c. (where a description is given of the Coro II. He shall receive the blessing from manner in which they performed Psalm the Lord, &c. cxxxvi.) as also from the superscription Solo I. This is the generation of them who of Psalm lxxxviii. The word Maha- seek Him. lath is derived from machal (Lat. mis
Solo II. Who seek thy face, O God of Ja. cuit); and as “ Leannoth” is synony
cob! mous with “Nehiloth," the superscrip
C. I., e. II. Lift up your heads, () ye gates!
&c, tion of the last-named psalm, “ A psalm
Solo I. Who is the King of Glory? for the sons of Korah to the chief musi
Coro I. The Lord, strong and mighty ; cian upon Mahalath Leannoth,” might
Coro II. The Lord mighty in battle. have been made more intelligible if it C. J., e. II. Lift up your heads, &c. had been rendered thus :
• A psalm
Solo II. Who is the King of Glory? for the children of Korah, to be per- C. I., e. II. THE LORD OF Hosts, He is formed by two alternating choruses, THE KING OF GLORY! with a flute accompaniment, according to the direction of the class-leader.” W'e find, lastly, that symphonies or
By means of these double choruses interludes between the verses or disthe performance was made to assume tinct portions of the psalms, were likea dramatic appearance, and some wise known to, and in great favour psalms seem to have been expressly with, the Hebrews. It was principally composed and arranged for such a pur- for this purpose that the brass instru. pose, as, e. g., that most exquisitely ments, as trumpets and trombones, were beautiful song of consolation in dia- employed ; two of the former being
• The Psalms of David, translated into German) by Moses Mendelssohn.
always ready for the occasion, as dis- were beyond the capability
of the Letinctly stated in the Talmud (chap. vii. vitical chorus and band. But this deon perpetual offerings) :—“Now, when ficiency was, to a great extent, comthe singers and instrumentalists had pensated for by the extraordinary masfinished their strain, and whilst they siveness of the performance, especially were taking breath, the trumpets were on grand occasions. Everything consounded in answer to them, the people nected with the Hebrew worship was all the while bowing their heads. To this calculated for grandeur of effect, and end, two priests standing by the basin of So was the music of the Levites also. fat, upon the steps of the altar, were al- In the vast spaces of the temple the ways ready, with two silver trumpets, to voices of a thousand singers mingled fill the ears and hearts of the worshipping with the sounds of numberless harps, multitude with delight.” Such inter- lutes, and wind instruments, must have ludes, or final symphonies, when they told with an effect of which we have were to be performed by the whole or- no conception, and of which we can chestra, and not the two priests alone, only form a faint idea from the deare frequently indicated by the word scription of the Bible itself. This “Selah," which, according to the most description, surpassing everything that learned interpreters, is derived from has ever been said or written about a salel, i. e., "to raise," “ to lift up;" musical performance, will be accepted being a call upon the instrumentalists as an appropriate conclusion to our to bring the performance to a climax, article by a powerful and energetic ritornell or symphony. or We have ended our “ And the Levites (which were the song-selah ! and now let the mighty singers), all of them of Asaph, of Heman, sound of trumpets and cymbals lift up of Jeduthun, with their sons and their the soul of the pious worshipper to
brethren, being arrayed in white linen, hav. heavenly joy.” Thus, as Dr. Schubart ing cymbals, and psalteries, and harps, observes, a modern poet would proba
stood at the east of the altar, and with bly express what the sacred composer
them an hundred and twenty priests soundindicated by the word Selah.
ing with trumpets. And it came to pass With this last explanation we bid
as the trumpets and singers were as one to our reader good-bye, hoping that we
make one sound to be heard in praising and shall have succeeded not only in giving
thanking the Lord ; and when they lifted
up their voice with the trumpets and cymhim a tolerably correct idea of the man
bals and instruments of music, and praised ner in which the appointed musicians to Jehovah performed the “songs of
the Lord, saying : For he is good, and his
mercy endureth for ever, that then the Zion,” but also in throwing a new house was filled with a cloud, even the and, in many respects, interesting light
house of the Lord, so that the priests could upon a number of expressions and not stand to minister by reason of the phrases which, though forming an in.
cloud, FOR THE GLORY OF TAE LORD HAD tegral part of Divine revelation, and FILLED THE HOUSE. therefore intended to be studied, are
A. H. W. too frequently dismissed with a careless guess at their meaning, or, because they present some difficulty, supposed to be of no importance, or even de- Burney's, Hawkin's, Nathan's, For. clared to be spurious additions. As kel's, and Fetis's Universal Histories regards the effect which the perfor- of Music. mance of the inspired strains of David Marpurg.-Kritische Einleitung in and other holy singers must have pro- die Geschichte der Musik. duced, the reader will have observed Schubart.-Ideen über die Tonkunst. that many of the resources which a G. Fink.-Die erste Wanderung der modern composer has at his command, ältesten Tonkurst. were inaccessible to the chief musicians Martini.–Storia della Musica, of the Levites. Such a variety of me- T. S. Fetis.-Curiosités Historiques lodious phrasing, such diversity of de la Musique. rhythmical grouping, such fine grada- Mattheson.-Der Musicalische Pas tions of light and shade, of piano and triot. forte, legato and staccato, and, above Herder.-Geist der Hebr. Poesie. all, such wonderful harmonic effects as Saalschütz,-Form der Hebr. Poesie our orchestras are able to produce, Musik,
CHIEF AUTHORITIES ON HEBREW MUSIC.
P. Schneider. - Bibl. Geschichte Dr. Schilling.--Abhandlungen über Darstellung der Hebr. Music.
die Musik die Hebräer (in the MusiB. Ugolino.- Thesaurus Antiquita- calische Encyclopædie). tum Sacrorum, &c. (vol. xxxii.)
A. F. Pfeiffer. Ueber die Musik Salomon van Till. - Dicht, Sing, und der alten Hebräer. (Most important.) Spielkunst der Alten.
C. G. Anton.-Dissert. de Metro Kircher.-Musurgia Universalis. Hebræorum Antiquo; Dissert. de Me
Gerbert.-De cantu et Musica Sacra; lod. et Harmon. Hebræorum ; Sala. Scriptores Ecclesiastici de Musica Sacra monis carmen melicum. Potissima ; Monumenta veteris Litur. H. Ventzky.-- Von den Instrumengiae.
ten u. Tonzeichen der alten Hebräer.
A DINNER OF HERBS.
COURTEOUS READER, you who kindly we read of sage, rosemary, rue, wormpartook of the “ Basket of Fruit wood, and fennel. that we gathered for you last autumn, If then, reader, you will not despise and who
since accompanied us through our invitation to this vegetarian fare, the desolate fields and wintry garden we shall endeavour to diminish, as much to seek for a bouquet of the Flowers as possible, the insipidity of our herbs of February,"† will you receive the and roots, by bringing forward whatoffering we now present to you, though ever we can remember of classic or it be not of sweet fruits nor lovely historic associations belonging to them. flowers.
“What !” you will say, “ ugly, coarse It is now the season for vegetables roots-unsentimental, common kitchen in their profusion and their perfection : herbs !—have they any such associaDOW, therefore, we would fain invite tions ?" Yes; they are not quite desyou to a simple dinner of herbs and titute of interest beyond that of the roots, such as are caused to grow for cuisine. In their garden-plot they the service of man. Cooling, pleasant have their robe of green leaves, and herbs, they temper the luxury of our their coronet of blossom; and in hissavoury meats; their culture affords a tory and legend they are not devoid of healthful, cheerful, and useful occu- reminiscences, though, we grant, not pation, out in the open air of heaven, rivalling in variety, abundance, or roamid the songs of free birds, and the mance those of fruits and flowers, so odours of fresh blossoms; and they much more the favourites of the painter remind us of the improvement of man, and the poet. The wise king has comwhen, advancing beyond the mere hun. mended a dinner of herbs, seasoned ter or herdsman, dependant on wild with good-will, above a more substan. chance-found piants to season his ani. tial feast with enmity hovering round mal food, he began to lay out gardens, the board. So with an entire goodand to learn somewhat of horticulture will, we shall tax our memory to furand botany.
nish you with some amusement in A great monarch (Charlemagne) was anecdotes, and some scraps of interso sensible of the advantage of garden- vening song. ing to the minds and bodies of his sub- For the sake of the estimation in jects, that he thought it not unworthy which it was held of old, we shall first of his imperial dignity to issue decrees set before you the CABBAGE, which, for the planting of gardens, and even though now exiled in great measure to prescribe by name the berbs that to the tables of rustics, was highly reshould be set therein, and among which garded by the ancients. Pliny has ex
• See DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE for October, 1852, No. CCXXXVIII.
tolled its wholesome qualities; Chry- There has been from time immemosippus, a Greek physician of Gnidos, rial in Scotland, some rural superstiwrote a large book in its praise ; Ni- tion ascribing fatidical properties to cander, another Greek physician, called the cabbage, even as Nicander called it divine (uantiv). In Rome it was con
the divine, or the soothsidered a specific against the plague; saying, for the Greek word signifies and Cato the censor (not he who both. In the witching hours of night, died at Utica), during a pestilence fed on All-hallows’-E'en, the rustics try his household upon it as a preservative their matrimonial fortunes by pulling from infection. The Greeks, Romans, up cabbages by the root, haphazard and Egyptians began their repasts with and darkling, in the kail-yard. The cabbage, believing it to prevent intox- taste of the pith, sour or sweet, beication, In the banquets of the tokens the temper of the future spouse ; Athenians, upon the birth of a child, the shape of the stalk, straight or crambe, or colewort, formed an im- crooked, the figure; and the absence portant part of the good cheer, and or presence of clay adhering to the was even given to the mother, as a re- root, a fortune, or no fortune in the storative. It appears from some frag- match. ments of the Greek comedians, that it The term “ cabbage," by which was usual among the Ionians to swear tailors designate the cribbed pieces of by the colewort. Ancient mythologists cloth, is said to be derived from an ascribe a strange origin to the cabbage. old word, cablesh, i.e., wind-fallen Jupiter, say they, was one day so wood ; and their hell, wherein they much perplexed in attempting to re- store the cabbage, from helan, to hide. concile two contradictory oracles of When Diocletian the Roman Emdestiny, that a profuse perspiration peror had grown weary of persecutburst out upon his brow, and from the ing the Christians, and satiated with drops as they fell, the cabbage sprang the pomps of the purple, he abdicated, up.
and retired to rural life at Salona,t Formerly cabbages were esteemed where his favourite amusement was by English herbalists, as efficacious in rearing vegetables. Being importuned the early stage of consumption. A by his former colleague in the empire, cabbage is sculptured at the feet of the Maximianus, to seek the restoration of effigy of Sir Anthony Ashley, on his his imperial rank, he refused, saying, tomb at Winborne, St. Giles, Dorset- in his letter, “ If I could but show you shire, in memory of his having revived the fine cabbages I have reared myself, in England the culture of that vege- at Salona, you would no longer talk to table, which, before his time, was an- me of empire.” nually imported from Holland, though The house of Raconis, in Savoy, it had been formerly well known to our adopted as their cognizance a cabbage, Saxon ancestors, who called the month which was called, in old French, cabus ; of February, sprout-kail,
and added as a puuning motto, "Tout sprouting of the cabbage. The dif- n'est," which, joined to the cognizance, ferent varieties of cabbage all have their can be read, “ Tout n'est cabus,” origin from the crambe martima, or (Everything is not cabbage), or “ Tout sea-side cabbage (sea-kale) which is n'est qu'abus” (Everything is but still found wild in some parts of Eng- abuse); but the pun cannot be preland, and especially in the neighbour- served in a translation. hood of Dover. Broccoli was brought Inelegant as is the cabbage in our from Italy to France at the end of the eyes, it holds proudly up its erect sixteenth century, and thence to Eng- branch of yellow cruciform flowers, land. Cauliflower (that most delicate when it is running to seed, and thus species of cabbage), which Dr. Johnson
is more handsome in its old age than in pronounced to be the finest of all the its youth; an advantage it possesses flowers in the garden, was brought over the human family. from Cyprus to Italy, and thence to As the cabbage bas fallen from its France and England, at the close of high estate among emperors, nobles, the seventeenth century.
and physicians, and has become but a
* In Caria.