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to America ; to which proposition I have iron cage ; but the rhodomontade was answered that I have no authority. The not more bombastic, and at the time Prussians think that the Jacobins wish to
was quite as honest as that of many give him over to me, believing that I will
of his brethren in arms, and associates save his life. Blucher wishes to kill him; that I shall remonstrate against, and shall
in politics, who afterwards falsified insist on his being disposed of by common
their promises and oaths with less sin. accord. I bave likewise said that, as a pri- cerity. For example, we would have vate friend, I advised him to have nothing given a thousand Talleyrands and to do with so foul a transaction ; that he and
Fouches for a single Ney. Napoleon I had acted too distinguished parts in these declared, and justly, at St. Helena, transactions to become executioners; and that that the greatest political and social I was determined, if the sovereigns wished mistake he ever committed was not to put him to death, they should appoint hanging Fouchè on his return from Elba, another executioner, who should not be me."
and Sir Walter Scott says, and with
equal truth, that the most wonderful In every transaction of his life, pub- event of that eventful epoch was, that lic or private, we never find the Duke Fouchè, who by turns betrayed and swerving or hesitating for a moment
sold everybody, contrived at last to on any point when he had once satisfied himself that he was right on prin. world's retribution fallen on him, he
die peaceably in his bed. Had this ciple.
should have been hanged on a gibbet There has been more than one at higher than that of Haman. Ney was tempt made by celebrated writers, En
first ordered to be tried by a court glish as well as foreign, to throw dis
of marshals, of which Massena was credit on the Duke of Wellington, for
appointed president. He declined to not interfering, with his all-command.
fill the office, and broke up the court, ing influence, to save the life of his
representing that he had quarrelled late opponent, Marshal Ney, a gallant with Marshal Ney while the latter was soldier, « the bravest of the brave,”
under his command in Portugal, and who had fought hundreds of battles
that the quarrel was never made upfor France, and had never drawn his
he was, consequently, incapacitated sword against his country. Even warm
from sitting on him as an unprejudiced admirers of the Duke have condemned
judge. The next court ordered, conhim for this tacit acquiescence, and tained generals and colonels, who prohave called it the only blot on his cha
nounced themselves incompetent to try racter. Lord Byron, who was what
an officer of such superior rank. The Dr. Johnson calls “a good hater,"
case was then turned over to the Chamand who lost no opportunity of dis- ber of Peers, of which the old Duke paraging, and speaking unjustly of the
de Richelieu (long an emigrant in Duke, from political animosity, goes Russia, and recently returned to so far as to write
France), in virtue of his age and rank,
was president. He refused to preside. “Glory like yours, should any dare gainsay, Humanity would rise, and thunder. Nay.'"* “ During the war of political opinions • " Query, Ney 1- Printer's Devil." under the first French Revolution,”
said he, “I was twice condemned to This is pungent, and calculated to death. The living generation has vingain converts. On this important dicated my character and principles ; point, opinions are still, and are likely posterity may do equal justice to Marto remain, much divided. Wo yield shal Ney." A third time the proceedto no one in admiration of the Duke, ings were suspended; but a more pliant in profound respect for his memory, president was at last bit upon, and the and in deference to his sound judg. trial proceeded to conclusion, within ment; but we wish he had made a the short space of three days, when the private request to Louis XVIII., and gallant hero of the Moskwa was capi. said, “ Give me Marshal Ney as a per- tally convicted of high treason, by a sonal boon.” We think, for once, (and majority of 139 out of 160, and sen. he seldom made a mistake) that he lost tenced to the full punishment of death, an opportunity. Ney damaged his without appeal; the sentence to be cause, and diminished sympathy by carried into execution within four and the unnecessary and utterly Theatrical twenty hours. Accordingly, on the flourish of volunteering to bring Napo- following morning, at day-break, Deleon to the feet of Louis XVIII., in an cember 7th, 1815, the tragedy was consummated in the gardens of the might succeed to it, from acting in this re. Luxembourg. Ney met his fate like spect as it might seem fit. a hero. Le brace des braves died as he “I have the honour to be, Monsieur le had lived—a gallant soldier. On the Mareschal, your most obedient, humble 8th of December, the earthly remains
servant, of the Marshal were interred in the
"WELLINGTON." cemetery of Pere la Chaise. We were quartered in Paris at the time, and re
Strange, indeed, are the convenmarked, with astonishment, how little
tional forms of society. The great, public excitement was produced by the
all-powerful conqueror signs himself, whole proceedings. They were hurried
“your most obedient, humble servant, orer, perhaps, under an apprehension
in reply to the unfortunate accused, that the people might rise, or the army
who applies to him to save his life, but refuse to carry the sentence into effect.
which his sense of duty prevents him What could either do, when Paris was
from doing. That the Duke was conbristling with 300,000 foreign bayo scientiously right on public
grounds, is nets? Ney was shot by veterans like
as clear as the sun ; that he might have himself, who had faced death under
strained a point from private considehis dauntless leading, in innumerable rations, is a different view of the matfields of glory. It has been generally troversy, and much variety of opinion,
ter, which will admit of endless consaid that he was as fully entitled to the benefit of the 12th Article of
We often wish he had done so, and
close the discussion and the volume, the Convention of Paris, as any who afterwards received pardon and indem
with the following observations of the nity from the restored government. A
author, in which we heartily concur :fair examination must decide against him. Lord William Lennox defends
" That Ney was legally guilty, admits of
no doubt; but, under all the circumstances the Duke of Wellington, on the true
of the case, how much more noble would it interpretation of this very 12th Article, have been if, instead of taking away the life on which
Ney himself founded his de of this brave man, the king (Louis XVIII.) fence. He introduces a letter from had ordered all the troops in and about the Duke, in reply to an appeal from Paris to assemble in the Champ de Mars to the Marshal for his intercession, which hear the sentence read, and then, appearing We believe has never before been made in the centre of the congregated soldiery, to public, and is a valuable document, have given a free pardon to one who had clear and straightforward, according
served France with so much honour and to the habitual practice of the writer.
distinction. This act of mercy would have
been received by all with but one feeling — We subjoin this letter, as being of the
gratitude !" highest interesti
Maurel's pamphlet is an anomaly:
a Frenchman who, without prejudice "Paris, Nov. 15th, 1815.
or national pique, renders full justice “ MONSIEUR LE MARESCHAL, I have to the character and military pretenhad the honour of receiving the note which
sions of the foreigner who wrested the you addressed to me on the 13th instant, re
chaplet of glory from their own great lative to the operation of the capitulation of Paris in your case. The capitulation of
conqueror, and proved the bitterest
opParis of the 3rd of July last, was made be
ponent of France, the greatest check on tween the Commander-in-Chief of the allied
her ambitious career since the days of and Prussian armies on the one part, and
the Black Prince and Marlborough. the Prince d'Eckmuhl, Commander in-Chief We cannot readily turn to any pages in of the French army, on the other, and re- which a more accurate summary of the lated exclusively to the military occupation life and career of England's great of Paris. The object of the 12th Article captain is to be found. Lord Élles. was to prevent any measure of severity
mere says in his preface, “I am much under the military authority of those who
mistaken in my estimate of M. Maurel's made it, towards any person in Paris, on
work, if it do not take rank, now and account of any offices they had filled, or any
hereafter, among the most accurate, conduct, or political opinions of theirs; but it never was intended, and never could be
discriminating, and felicitous tributes intended to prevent, either the existing
which have emanated from any counFrench Government, 'under whose authority try, in any language, to the memory of the French Commander-in-Chief must have the Duke of Wellington. His work acted, or any French Government which will speak for itself, but those who
read, while they admire, may be glad general take more pains or trouble to secure to know that the author is a gentleman the well-being and comfort of his army." of high private character, as well as established literary reputation.” This Contrast this with the habitual, is sufficient to stimulate the curiosity selfish disregard of Napoleon for of our readers, which we shall only dicipline and human life; his utter further excite by two short extracts recklessness of all considerations of wherein the author near the close of his humanity which impeded the torrent brochure, exhibits marked specimens of of his personal ambition, and the two his style and opinions. He says, in portraits present very opposite picspeaking of the Duke's Peninsular tures, which reflect little to the advanwar :
tage of the French Emperor. The
eulogy of Maurel would be almost "In these severe campaigns, he had suspicious, were it not uttered after passed through all the trials that could be the grave has closed on the subject by prescribed by fortune — he had carried on
which it is inspired, and the voice of defensive war, and he had completely. Aattery cannot sooth the " dull cold succeeded. He had carried on a war of ear of death.” ambuscades and surprisals, and he had also
Lord Ellesmere's “Discourse " is a succeeded; he had assumed the offensive, and still he had succeeded. He had marched
delightful tribute from a personal friend boldly forward without incurring any dis
and public admirer. We have in this, aster, and he had conducted long retreats
traits of social benevolence, and many without being broken. He had fought with anecdotes of the Duke's private superior numbers at Vimiero, at Oporto, at opinions and views with regard to his Vittoria, at Nivelle, and at Toulouse, and in most brilliant public actions, equally all these cases he had gained the victory. new and interesting. We find now, He had engaged with equal numbers at
corroborated from authority, what we Salamanca, at Pampeluna, at San Marcial,
have often heard before, that he con. ånd at others, and here again he had been
sidered Salamanca his most scientific victorious. He had fought with inferior
battle, and was more proud of that numbers at Talavera, at Busaco, at Fuentes de' Onoro, and still victory had smiled upon
brilliant field than even of the last his arms."
great achievement of his
career, the crowning day of Waterloo. After having triumphed over gene
In speaking of the movements which rals of middling capacity, he had led to the result of Salamanca, the become steeled for his encounter with Duke himself would say, “ there has men of first-rate ability, and lastly with been nothing like it since the time of the stars of the Empire. His success
Frederic the Great.” Of his failure ful encounters with Junot, Victor, and at Burgos (his only failure), he spoke Sebastiani, prepared the way for harder without reserve, and with full candour. won laurels wrested from Soult, “It was all my own fault,” he said to Ney, and Massena, the darling child of Lord Ellesmere in conversation, “the victory. The following estimate is as place was very like a hill-fort in just and impartial as if it had been
India. I bad got into a good many penned by Napier or Alison :
of these, and I thought I could get
into this. The French, however, had “The horror which Wellington enter
a dh clever fellow there, one tained of disorder, pillage, and all excess of Dubreton, and he fairly kept me out.” any kind, and his inflexible rigour in main.
Lord Ellesmere suggests a parallel taining discipline, obtained him the name between Wellington and the great of the Iron Duke. There is much truth Spanish captain, Gonsalvo de Cordova, in this expression, but it must not be taken which has already, to a certain extent, too much au pied de la lettre. It would been carried out in an article in the give a false idea of the character of the
Quarterly Review by Mr. Ford, man. It is only true when it is applied to a author of the “ Handbook of Spain." certain order of serious misdemeanours of such a nature as to endanger the public tion good, and may admit of still
The subject is fertile, and the selecsecurity, or the safety of his army.
In other cases, never did a warrior show him. further amplification. But closer and self more chary of the lives of his soldiers,
more brilliant comparisons have been, and never did a commander mitigate the and may still be discovered. labour, privations, and fatigues of his troops Many lectures have been delivered by with more feeling care ; in fact, never did & orators both lay and clerical, while. the eloquence of the pulpit has the philosophy of the historian, or the been abundantly impressive. Above affectionate memorial of the personal thirty printed sermons on the Duke's friend, we see in him, through every death and funeral are already before phase of his long and active career, a the public, including many from high mighty instrument fitted to the work dignitaries of the church, whose worth for which he was designed; who having is equalled by their reputation and completed his mission with unexamabilities. The whole collection would pled constancy and success, was finally form a valuable study for succeeding borne to his rest, to lie by England's generations. In whatever light we Naval bulwark, in the most honoured contemplate the character of the great sepulchre which a nation's gratitude chieftain we have lost, whether col- has ever given to departed greatness. lected from the homily of the preacher,
ON THE ANCIENT MUSIC OF THE HEBREWS IN GENERAL, AND THEIR TEMPLE
MUSIC IN PARTICULAR,
PART II. CONCLUSION.
We now proceed to the considera- which, to the Bible-reader, must altion of that portion of our subject ways appear most interesting-viz., THE MUSICAL SERVICE IN THE HOUSE OF THE LORD, ESPECIALLY AS IT WAS AT
THE TIME OF DAVID AND SOLOMON. Like everything else, the music of peculiarly sacred and solemn character the Hebrews, and their temple music as the Jews, whilst timbrels, and other in particular, developed itself from light pulsatile instruments, were only small beginnings, and for a long time considered fit for women, and not alappears to have remained in a state lowed in the temple, except on occaof rudeness and imperfection, for sions of public rejoicings—as, e. g., on want of peace and patronage from the celebration of the feast of Diana, above — two things, without which when (as at the Jewish feast of the fine art has rarely been known to rise harvest) women and children were and flourish in any country. There permitted to take part in the singing can be no doubt that Moses took the of the hymns of praise and thanks, model of his external arrangement of giving. divine worship, as far as regards the But, although music was undoubtmusical performance, from the Egyp- edly a favourite art with the Jews, tians. Amongst this ancient nation, and although Moses had made espe, music had, from time immemorial, cial provision for its cultivation and constituted an important and essential proper performance during the serelement of devotion and public wor. vice, still the succeeding times of ship; the temples of Osiris resounded incessant aggressive or defensive war from morning till night with hymns under Joshua and the judges must and songs, accompanied upon musical have interfered with, and effectually instruments, and a special order of the prevented its progress. In fact, the priests (like the Levites of Moses) want of peace, of proper instruction, was appointed to conduct, and pro- and also of a suitable locale, appears perly carry out the musical perfor. to have kept it in a most languishing mance. The instruments, also, which state, until it received a sudden im. were employed in the temple music of pulse from that most important relithe Egyptians, were the same as those gious institution, of which we have alin use amongst the Levites previously ready spoken in the general history of to the time of David, and they ascribed Hebrew music, viz., the prophetic to the trombone in particular the same schools founded by Samuel.
From this time there was no lack of and sciences. The temple service not singers and instrumentalists capable of only lost its former splendour but also performing the musical portion of the deteriorated in quality, and as the service in a manner worthy of its high manners of the Jews grew more corand sacred purpose, or giving in- rupt, music found its chief supporters structions to others, if a greater num. and best performers no longer in the ber of performers should be required. house of God, but in the halls of rich Hence, the possibility of such a sudden bon-vivants, or public places of revelry. and astonishing rise to a state of inter- -(Isaiah, v. 12; Amos, vi. 5, 6.) nal excellence and external grandeur, Ùnder Abaz, who gave himself up as we see the music of the temple take to the worship of idols, and "filled under David and Solomon. Although the house of God with uncleanness," the accounts of Josephus, and the the holy song ceased altogether; and tales of the Talmudistical writers are although Hezekiah restored for a short full of palpable and often ridiculous time the true form of worship, and exaggerations, still it is certain, that made the Levites once more “sing no nation of antiquity could show any. praise with gladness, with the words thing to equal the music of the tem- of David, and Asaph the seer,” still ple at the time of these kings, either his very next successor again erected in point of quality or external gran. altars to Baalim; and the desertion of deur; and that the provisions made the rulers and people from the service for the efficient training of a number of Jehovah - of which the corruption of vocal and instrumental performers, of the temple music was a natural con. and the proper management of the mu. sequence - ultimately caused both to sical portion of divine worship, were be delivered into the hands of Nebu. more complete and more systemati- chadnezzar, who “carried away to cally planned than those of the most Babylon all those who had escaped musical nations of modern Europe. from the sword.” Seventy years did
We shall hereafter give some ac- they remain in the Babylonian capticount of the organisation of the Levi. vity, sighing for the home of their fatical body, the rules and regulations thers, and remembering with tears the of the temple service, and the differ- days of former glory. They had no ent established modes of performance ; longer a heart to sing the songs of here we will only mention, that King Zion — “By the rivers of Babylon David not only appointed singers, in- there we sat down, yea, we wept when strumentalists, and masters “skilled in we thought of Zion; we hanged our music" (1 Chron. 25), but introduced harps upon the willows in the midst several instruments in the Levitical or- thereof. For they that wasted us rechestra, which had been previously quired of us mirth, saying, sing us one excluded from it, as—.g., the small of the songs of Zion. How shall we triangular harp and the cymbals. It sing the Lord's song in a strange was he who composed the most beau. land ?"-(Psa. cxxxvi. 1-4.) tiful of those lyric effusions which will When they were restored to the land for ever remain the inimitable patterns of inheritance, they had still two hunof holy song; and he did not even dred and forty-five singers amongst deem ít beneath his royal dignity, on them, and Ezra did his best to re-essolemn occasions, to join in the perfor. tablish the service in the house of the mance, or lead the chorus of singers Lord as it had been in the days of Dathat went before the ark of the cove- vid. But the glory of former times nant.
had departed. The Levites bad been Solomon was as great a lover and called together “to praise the Lord patron of music as his father had been, after the ordinance of David, king of and we have already stated what he did Israel;” but “ many of the priests and towards the improvement of the per- Levites, and chief of the fathers that formances in the temple.
had seen the first house, wept with a The division of the empire under loud voice, so that the people Solomon's successors, and the conse. could not discern the noise of the quent internecine struggles, as well as shout of joy from the noise of the the wars with other nations, must weeping."-(Ezra, iii. 12, 13.) prove injurious to the cultivation of In the above sketch of the historical music, no less than of all other arts development of the Hebrew temple