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As, however, the Board of Trinity the Bishop, a scheme deduced by comCollege have been (very stupidly) un- mon arithmetic from his own princi. able to perceive the truth of this ples__simple, efficacious, cheap—which equation, and as the Bishop seems to will enable him, at the same time, and apprehend that this obstinacy on their without the outlay of a shilling, to propart may oblige him to admit into the
vide for the graduates of the Queen's ministry imperfectly-educated candi. University all, and more than all, that dates, we trust that his lordship will he now requires, and to punish Trinity pardon us if we venture, with all be- College for her stupid and presumpcoming modesty, to lay before him a tuous bigotry. What could his lordproposal of our own. This we do with ship desire more ? In fact, the merits the more confidence, because, although of this plan are so obvious, that we we call the proposal ours, it is in fact cannot believe that a man of his lorda very obvious deduction from ship's acuteness should have failed to principle laid down by the Bishop discover it. Why, then, did he besihimself. We frankly admit that our tate to carry it into execution ? Could share in the discovery (we can call it it have been that his lordship doubted nothing less) is purely arithmetical. the truth of his own principles?-or Let us see how the matter stands. The that he felt a twinge of compassion for Bishop of Down and Connor is anxious the besotted and eclipse-doomed Unito provide efficient theological instruc- versity of Dublin? Surely it could tion for the graduates of the Queen's not have been, that what his lordship University. Trinity College is so sought from Trinity College was, not bigotedly attached to her own system, Divinity education, but the Divinity that she refuses to accept his estimate Testimonium, and that, provided he of the theological instruction already could obtain the Hall mark, he was given in the new colleges. Very careless whether the article itself was disgraceful to Trinity College, cer- gold or pewter. tainly ; but we do not see why it Passing, however, from the bishop's should cause any perplexity to the proposal, which has disturbed our Bishop. Why not extend the ad- wonted gravity, we
to mirable machinery which the Queen's
more important document, Colleges already possess? Why not namely, the recommendation of the have two deans of residences ? It is Commissioners. After effecting a conplain that this will more than effect the siderable reduction in the bishop's Bishop's object ; for, if the lectures of estimate of deans of residences by one dean of residences be equal to half the expressed opinion, that “it can the divinity course of Trinity Col- hardly be expected that the lectures lege, plus all the instruction given to of the deans of residences will beher undergraduates in the Scriptures, come more than equivalent to the ethics, evidences, &c., it follows from catechetical lectures or examinations the everlasting laws of Cocker, that the in Trinity College" (“ Report," p. lectures of two deans of residences will 27), they recommend “ that gradube equal to the entire divinity course, ates of the Queen's University, who plus double the amount of instruction are recommended by the bishop, in given by Trinity College in ethics, whose diocese the Queen's College, &c., as aforesaid. Thus, as our readers where they have been educated is situwill perceive, the new divinity school ated, should have an opportunity of would not only be as good as that of pursuing theological studies in the Trinity College, but would bave, in Divinity school of the Dublin Unifact, a very considerable balance in its versity, and should be entitled to refavour. Neither is the plan which ceive such certificate as the Board we propose altogether unsupported by might think proper to give of their precedent. Trinity College has a se having completed the two years' course nior and junior dean : why should not in Divinity” (Ibid). The objection the Queen's Colleges have the same? made by the Board, “that a certificate Besides, as deans of residences receive given by the College, in connexion with no salary, the development of this fer- the Divinity courses, must convey the tile conception would not cost one judgment of the governing body of the farthing.
College respecting the completeness of We have thus ventured to present to the education received by the person
obtaining the certificate—its complete- cond objection, I do not think it prudent, nor ness in artibus, as well as in sancta conducive to the welfare of the United theologia"-they propose to obviate, Church of England and Ireland, that two
distinct classes of candidates for the ministry by establishing two classes of certifi
should issue from the Dublin University." cates; one, the present testimonium, to
Report, p. 28. be given only to those who have graduated in the University of Dublin ; and another, differing from the testi- With regard to the first two of Mr. monium in form, to be given to gra- Cooper's reasons, we shall content our. duates of the Queen's University. This selves with briefly expressing our conrecommendation is undoubtedly free currence in them. We believe that from the obvious objections which may this recommendation is inconsistent be made to the proposal of the Bishop with the principles upon which the of Down. It does not attach the same Queen's Colleges were founded, and absurd over-estimate to the lectures of that it does not fall within the proper the deans of residences, nor does it province of the University Commission. require Trinity College to state that a But although we fully admit the truth year passed in attendance upon lec- and importance of these reasons, they tures, of which she knows nothing, has are, of course, very inferior in general been passed in the sedulous study of interest to the third. The public are theology. Neither does the recom- more likely to inquire whether the remendation of the Commissioners, pro. commendation itself be good, than fessedly at least, require Trinity Col- whether it be consistent with the prin. lege to place the graduates of the Queen's ciples of any other institution, or wheUniversity upon a par with her own ther the Commissioners had any right to students. Still it appears to us that make it. Nor is it desirable that so this proposal, under any form, is open grave a question should be discussed to very grave objection, and we have
upon grounds which have even the the less scruple in expressing our dis- pearance of technicality. But we dissent from it, because upon this point sent from the recommendation of the the Commissioners themselves are not Commisioners, because we think, with unanimous. Mr. Cooper has not only Mr. Cooper, that it is prejudicial to refused to agree to the recommendation the welfare of the Established Church, of his colleagues, but has thought it and because we think further, that it right to place on record his disapproval is unjust to the University of Dublin. of it, and the reasons upon which that We have not the slightest inclination disapproval is founded. These reasons, to undervalue the system of teaching which appear to us to possess very pursued in the Queen's Colleges, or to great weight, are as follows:
think lightly of the benefit which the
country may derive from their institu* 1. That in the act 8th and 9th Vict., tion. We believe that they are cal. c. 66, establishing the Queen's Colleges in culated to serve many important pur. Ireland, no allusion whatever is made to the
poses, and we wish them every success University of Dublin or Trinity College ; and
in so doing ; but we candidly confess that in the patents of incorporation of the
that we do not think the education of Queen's Colleges, it is stated that they are to be established for students in arts, law,
the clergy to be one of the ends, to the physic, and other useful learning,' and ex
accomplishment of which their system cluding the duty that the students ad colen- can be very successfully directed; and dam virtutem et religionem adjuventur,' as
believing, as we do, with Mr. Cooper, in the charter of the Dublin University, thus that it was no part of their original showing that no connexion was contemplated design, we cannot view the reservation between the Queen's University and the Uni- which we have made as in any respect versity of Dublin.
It is not necessary to con“ 2. That I do not conceive that, under
sider whether the education given at the terms of our commission, we have any
the Queen's Colleges be or be not, on authority to recommend changes not strictly
the whole, inferior to that given in within the limit of the state, discipline, and revenues of the University of Dublin, and
Trinity College. Perhaps we may have the College of the Holy and Undivided Tri- our own opinions on that point; but nity therein, and of all and singular the col- having the fear of the Bishop of Down leges and schools said university.'
and Connor before our eyes, we shall "3. That should I be in error in my se- not bring his lordship's wrath upon our
beads by any “unmerited” or “un. argument was probably present to the provoked observations."-Correspon- mind of the Bishop of Down, when he dence, p. 373.
insisted upon the point, that the It is sufficient that the education is Queen's University was “established, different, and it may therefore be rea- not in the spirit of rivalry, but as a sonably expected that it will not be bandmaid,” &c. - Correspondence, p. found equally well adapted to everyone 364. of the ends which Trinity College pro- We do not know what precise mean. fesses to carry out. Thus in the Queen's ing the Bishop attaches to the word University a degree may be obtained “ rivalry,” but if he means to assert by a person who never saw a Bible, who that there is no competition between never heard of such a thing as moral two institutions whose duties are to a philosophy, and with whom Christiani
great extent identical, and whose inty, nay, Theism itself are, not exactly come depends very largely upon the "open questions," but questions about manner in which those duties are perwhich he has never thought at all. Nay formed, we must take leave to tell his more, if he be unfortunately encum. lordship that such a principle is opposed bered with any information on these to the very alphabet of economical subjects, the degree examination in science. There must be such competithe Queen's University affords him no tion, and it would be very injurious opportunity for making use of it. indeed to the public if there were not;
We do not censure this arrangement, and such being the case, it is mani. which, so far at least as regards the festly unjust to compel one institution knowledge essential to the obtaining to share with another, advantages a degree, was rendered necessary by acquired by long years of unremitting the circumstances of the case ; but, be. exertion. Trinity College claims no tween a system which renders a certain monopoly of education; but she may amount of religious knowledge neces- object, and fairly object, to a change sary, and another which renders that which would oblige her to share with knowledge useless, to the attainment of an institution of yesterday the reputaa degree, there can be, we suppose, but tion which the labours of three hundred little difficulty of choice as to the fit- years have conferred upon her. test school for the education of a In treating of the law school of Christian minister. Without, there- Dublin, the Commissioners have made fore, instituting any general compari- a recommendation in which we most son between the system of the Queen's heartily concur-namely, that the act University and that of the University of Parliament which requires candi. of Dublin, we say without hesitation didates for admission to the Irish Bar that considered as the ground to keep terms in London, should be work of a clerical education, the repealed (“Report,” pp. 31, 94). This undergraduate course of the former recommendation appears to have been is decidedly inferior to that of the adopted at the suggestion of a comlatter; and for this reason, we think mittee of the Board, and has the that the recommendation of the Com- sanction of the Right Hon. Francis missioners is open to the objection Blackburne, Dr. Longfield, and Dr. urged by the Board against the pro- Anster. That the act referred to posal of the Bishop of Down :
occasions to the Irish law student a "If we agree to such a proposal, we
large expenditure of time and money, should become instrumental in sending forth
which might be more profitably bea class of students who had received an edu
stowed, and thus interferes most inju. cation very inferior to that now given.”—
riously with the formation of an effi. Correspondence, p. 366.
cient Law School in Dublin, seems to
be denied by nobody. One, and only Again, we have said that the recom. one argument has been, as far as we mendation of the Commissioners is are aware, urged in defence of it. unjust to the University of Dublin ; This we give in the words of the for it, in fact, requires them to give up
Provost, who seems to consider it a large portion of the inducement decisive against the repeal of the which they now offer to the student to existing law:receive his education in Trinity Col. "One change I should deprecate, namely, lege. The existence of some such the making the professional law education Too great
here independent of attendances at the of
concur, as indeed we do with nearly fices and the Inns of Court in England. all which has emanated from the Com. Such a measure would tend most seriously
missioners, except where we have exto keep the two countries separate."— Sugges
pressed our dissent. Obsolete laws tions, p. 292.
admit of no defence they are simply With respect to this argument, we and purely mischievous. have merely to say that the Provost strictness in the rules imposed upon entirely misstates the effect which an institution, is a fatal bar to imsuch a change would have. The ten- provement; and, with regard to disdency of the measure recommended tinctions of rank, we think that the by the Commissioners would be, we domain of science and literature should readily admit, to keep the Bar of this be governed upon principles absolutely country distinct from that of England. republican. But the third of the reDoes the Provost wish to amalgamate commendations which we have enuthem? Is he one of those who would merated involves questions of very approve of a transference of our su.
great difficulty ; for while we fully perior courts to Westminster-or, re- admit our dislike to any system which taining the courts, would he centralise has the effect of forcing any one into the benchers, and give to one authority the sacred office of the ministry, we (in London of course) the right of ad- cannot conceal from ourselves the strong mitting candidates to practise at either probability that the removal of this bar? We trust not. But if he does restriction would cause very considernot advocate either of these most ruinous able difficulties in the working of the measures, what becomes of the force Divinity school. Perhaps these diffi. of his argument ? For, as long as the culties would be removed, or at least Bar in Ireland is distinct from the Bar greatly diminished by the adoption of in England, there is no more reason another suggestion of the Commisthat the Irish law-student should keep sioners, namely, that there should be terms in London, than that the Eng- established a number of septennial fellish law-student should be compelled lowships, to be elected to after an exto devour a certain quantity of beef amination similar to the present, with and mutton in Henrietta-street. And one exception, namely, that a course the imposition of a rule upon one class of divinity should be substituted for from which the other is free, can ge- the mathematics and physics of the nerate no friendly union, but does, in- present course. Into this very diffideed, tend to produce the effect which cult question our limits will not perthe Provost expects from an opposite mit us to enter, and we can only excourse, reminding, and most pain- press a hope that, in a matter which so fully, the Irish student of his own in- deeply concerns not the University ferior position, distinct, yet not inde- only, but also the welfare of the Propendent.
Such a rule may indeed testant Church, we may not have to well be said " to keep the two countries regret any rash or hasty legislation. separate."
Before we conclude, we must make Many other recommendations of a few remarks upon a general tendency great importance have been made by which pervades the Report before us, the Commissioners : of these, we may and which we cannot but regard as inmention the proposals-
dicating a false and dangerous policy
we mean, a tendency to render the “That the royal statutes should undergo constitution of the College and Univera complete revision, with the view of re- sity even more oligarchical than it is, moving much that is obsolete, and enlarg
in practice at least, at present. This ing, in some respects, the powers of the go
tendency appears in several pasverning body of the university—that no distinction should be made between noblemen,
sages of the Report ; we shall quote fellow-coinmoners, and pensioners, with re
two of the most remarkspect to the course of education required for
able. We do not lay much stress the degree of Bachelor of Arts; and that the upon the proposal to transfer to the general obligation to enter holy orders, now Board the powers at present nominally imposed on fellows, should be abolished.” possessed by the University Senate, inReport, pp. 92-93.)
asmuch as this transference would
give to the Board no power which With the first two of these we heartily they do not, in fact, possess; at the
same time we confess that we should Cambridge, when they appointed a be disposed to give to the University Board of Studies, taken from among the Senate a real power, which is now en- most distinguished professors and lecjoyed by the Board ; namely, the elec- turers, to preside over one of the most tion of the Chancellor. Any measure important departments of their acawhich would tend to strengthen the demic course. Such was the feeling tie between the University and its for- of the English Commissioners when mer alumni-a tie which is much too they recommended that the governing weak-would be, we think, highly be- bodies of Oxford* and Cambridge neficial to both. Perhaps the passage should be widened either by the in. in which the tendency to which we crease of the number of Boards of Stuallude appears most strongly, is the dies as at Cambridge, or by giving following After recommending the increased powers to the Congregation abolition of the tutorial committee, as at Oxford_and such is the princithe Commissioners say :
ple carried out, imperfectly it is true,
by the control which the tutorial com“ The business now performed by them mittee exercise over undergraduate ought, we think, to be performed by the lectures. Board. We have recommended that the This wise and enlightened policy, senior fellows should not be eligible to pro
acted on by the heads of at least one of fessorships; we think that they should limit their attention to the government of the
the English universities, sanctioned and college. We think, however, that they are
extended by their Commissioners, and quite able to discharge the entire of this
carried out in Trinity College, although duty, and that they ought not to entrust a
neither as fully nor as directly as it large part of it to a voluntary committee." ought to be, the Dublin Commissioners - Report, p. 16.
have thought proper to reverse. By pro
viding, that no professorships shall be The policy here laid down is, we held by the senior fellows, and thus have no hesitation in saying, retro- taking the work of education wholly grade and mischievous. Nothing could out of their hands, they have removed be more fatal to the interests of educa- all possibility of their preserving and tion than the marked line which the acquiring the continued experience to Commissioners wish to draw between which we have alluded. At the same the governing body and the educating time, they propose to remove all in. body. For the science of education is terference, direct or indirect, with their like every other science, essentially authority, and to give them unconprogressive. A system which was trolled power over collegiate education. highly approved of in 1820, may have We have said “uncontrolled ;" we fallen into disfavour in 1840, and be may add, uncriticised. Every person entirely exploded in 1860. Under familiar with the working of Trinity these circumstances, it is absolutely ne- College, knows how much the processary that among those to whom is gressive and liberal spirit of later years entrusted the government of such an has been due to the presence within the institution as Trinity College, there walls of a body of men competent to should be at least some whose daily , form a sound opinion as to the acts of practical acquaintance with the busi- the Board, and independent enough to ness of teaching gives them a continued speak that opinion freely, either in cenexperience, not of what education was, sure or suggestion. The position and but of what it is. Such seems to have income of the tutors has been hitherto been the opinion of the authorities of practically subject to no interference.
* The following passage from the Oxford “Report” is important, as showing the opinion of the Commissioners on this point :-“We have before shewn that the power of legislation belonged, in early times, to those who were actually engaged in giving instruction, and that causes of a temporary nature, in a great degree, determined the successive interventions by which the government of the University was reduced to a narrow oligarchy. There is no reason why an arrangement which may have been thought at one time advisable
, whether from state policy or other motives, should be perpetuated for ever.
It is anomalous that the professors and tutors have, as such, no right to suggest or amend, or even discuss any measure, how much soever it may affect the literary and educational interests of the place." Oxford Report, pp. 11, 12.