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gestions which we have received from them Thus, in the general summary with afforded us great assistance, in forming our which the Report concludes, the Comopinions on the important subjects to which missioners saythey relate." —Report, p. 2.

“We find that numerous improvements of This testimony borne to the fairness

an important character have been, from time and candour with which the evidence

to time, introduced by the authorities of the of the several fellows and professors has College, and that the general state of the been given, is highly honourable to them, University is satisfactory. There is great and as such will be read with pleasure activity and efficiency in the different deby all those who are interested in the partments, and the spirit of improvement has reputation of the University of Dublin. been especially shown in the changes which But it has a wider and more im

have been introduced in the course of eduportant bearing : namely, upon the

cation, to adapt it to the requirements of amount of weight to be given to the

the age."-Report, p. 92. evidence itself-a grave question, if this evidence be destined to form the

Besides this general commendation, basis of subsequent legislation. The

many of the particular improvements elements for such legislation are now

introduced by the College authorities fully before the public; and whatever

are highly approved of by the Comdifficulties (and they are no light ones)

missioners. Thus, of the Engineering attend the task, it will, at least, be

School they say :unembarrassed by unwilling or contradictory witnesses.

“ The foundation and development of the We have said that the facts relative

School of Civil Engineering is highly credit

able to the authorities of the College; and their to the University of Dublin which

efforts to improve the education of engineers, the Commissioners have brought toge- should, we think be encouraged in the way ther form the most important part of suggested by Dr. Apjohn, by due weight the Report before us; but for these being given to the diploma in the selection facts we must refer our readers to the of engineers for departments of the public Report itself, as it would be impossible, service."--Report, p. 42. within the limits of an article like the present, to give even the most meager

Again, of the Professorships of M&summary of them. We purpose,

thematics and Natural Philosophy, therefore, after quoting the opinion

they say:of the Commissioners, as to the general state of the University, to direct

" The arrangement adopted by the Board our readers' attention to some of the

with respect to this Professorship (that of

Mathematics) and that of Natural Philosophy, more important changes which, in their

requiring them to be held by junior fellows Report, they recommend for the adop- without tutorships, seems to have been suction of Government.

cessful in promoting a very high cultivation When the Commission for Inquiring of the branches of science to which the prointo the State of the University of fessorships relate.”— Report, p. 49. Dublin was originally named, and before they had as yet entered upon the The most important, we may say, duties of their office, we ventured to indeed, the only part of the system of predict that, “ if the investigation were Trinity College with which the Com. carried on, as we hoped and believed missioners profess themselves to be it would, in a spirit neither bigoted dissatisfied, is the mode of distributing nor restless, the University of Dublin the income which the junior fellows would come from the ordeal with an derive from tuition. Our readers are increased capacity for usefulness, and probably aware that the sum paid by certainly with an undiminished repu- each student under the head of tuition, tation.”—(vol. xxxvii. p. 656.) The is thrown into a common fund, which is second of these predictions (it would subsequently divided among the entire be premature to say anything of the body of tutors, according to fixed profirst) has been more than realised. portions, regulated entirely by senioNothing can be more flattering to the rity, and that the sum received by each University than the Report before us. individual tutor does not in any way With one or two exceptions, to which depend upon the number of pupils we shall presently allude, it is con- which he may happen to hold. To ibis ceived in terms of very great praise. arrangement, which is familiarly known by the name of the Tutorial System, which is, besides, untried.

Let us the Commissioners object, that it tends consider how far these principles are to damp individual exertion—affording applicable to the case before us. an amount of encouragement to indo- If we desire to give efficacy to a lence which some, at least, among the system of education, or to any other tutors will certainly avail themselves of. system which is to be carried on by If a man knows that his own income human instruments, we must endean depends upon his own exertions, he vour to secure two great requisites, has a strong and obvious inducement namely—in the first place, such a divito increased care and activity. But if sion of labour as will give to each be finds that, instead of reaping the workman the task for which he is best entire fruit of such increased labour, fitted; and secondly, such an inducehe would only receive a very small part ment to individual exertion, as will of it, and that whether he be indolent cause him to use his best efforts in the or active, bis income will be nearly the performance of his allotted task. When same, he has no such inducement, and the nature of the case allows both these will probably be disposed to do as little principles to be carried out to their as he can. If his exertions increase fullest extent, the task of legislation is the number of students, he receives comparatively an easy one. And in only one nineteenth of the benefit; if such a case, it would be a valid objechis negligence diminishes them, he tion to any existing or proposed system, suffers but one-nineteenth of the mis- that either principle had not been carried chief. In a word, the tutorial sys- out as far as it might have been. But tem is downright Socialism, which the it may sometimes happen, that in the Commissioners, as good political eco- case for which we have to legislate, nomists, are bound to discourage. these principles are to some extent an

That these objections have very con- tagonistic. Dealing with facts as we siderable weight, it would be absurd find them, we may be unable to make to deny; they are, indeed, so obvious, the reward of each workman prothat it is impossible to give the ques- portioned to his individual exertions tion a moment's consideration without without so far giving up the division of perceiving them. It is quite true that labour as to render the system inopethe tutorial system renders the income rative. And in such a case, it would of each tutor to a great extent inde- be a hopeless task to devise any system pendent of his own labour ; and by so against which strong, nay, unanswerdoing, removes a strong stimulus to able objections might not be urged. individual exertion. This is a serious Now, this antagonism between the objection. But we need hardly, we principle of competition and that of suppose, remind the accomplished lo- division of labour, will exist in every gician who is at the head of the pre- case in which it is necessary to exeeent Commission, that there is such a cute several different tasks with a li. fallacy as the “ fallacy of objections," mited number of hands. For it is and that before we proceed to remove essential, as every one knows, to the a system against which such defects can development of the principle of combe urged, we ought to be very sure petition, that there should be a number that the system which we propose to of men able and willing to undertake substitute, is not liable to objections the same task. We speak of competiquite as weighty. And we ought to be tion between two carpenters or two doubly cautious if we know before- physicians; but it would be absurd to hand, from the nature of the case, that talk of the competition between a carthe objects which it is proposed to penter and a blacksmith, or between a attain are, to a certain extent incon- doctor and an attorney. Now, if we sistent with each other; and that, have a variety of different works to be therefore, it is impossible to devise any done, and but a small number of men system which shall be even theoretically to do them, it is quite plain that we perfect. A judicious legislator would, cannot devote several men to the same in such a case, be very unwilling to work without also requiring each man destroy an arrangement which has in to execute a number of different works, the main worked well, knowing, as he and thus sacrificing the principle of does, that he can but replace it by division of labour. If we were desired another, which must be imperfect, and to frame rules for a colony of a dozen individuals, it would be “open to us," the tutor formerly felt in his pupils' welfare to use the parliamentary phrase, "to

has been lessened. For these reasons-aladopt one of two courses.

We might

though we believe the general quality of the either defend the principle of competi

instruction given to the students by the pub.

lic lectures has been considerably improvedtion, by requiring each of our colonists

we cannot advise your Majesty to establish to learn a dozen different trades, and

the present tutorial system by royal statute." to work successively as a mason, a carpenter, a blacksmith, &c. ; or we might

The objection here urged is, as we devote each individual to a single

have said before, obvious. Let us see trade, thus giving him, in his own line,

how the Commissioners propose to a practical monopoly. The choice be

remedy it. They recommend (pp. tween these alternatives is hardly doubtful. But we dwell too long upon a

16, 17):point so obvious.

“ That the fees payable to tutors should Now it is not one whit more absurd be divided into four parts; that one fourth to think that one man could practise

should be payable to each tutor by his own successfully all the trades and profes

pupils, and that the tutors should be prosions required by a young colony, than

hibited froin making any regulations as to

this portion of the fee. That the other threeto expect a single tutor to give effi

fourths should be thrown into a common cient instruction in the several depart

fund, to be distributed according to some ments of the vast and varied system,

system to be settled by the board and visito which we in the nineteenth century tors, for the endowment of professorships, give the name of university education. lectureships, and examinerships, to which To suppose it possible that the same

the junior fellows should alone be eligible.” man could give efficient lectures each day in classics, metaphysics, ethics, In fact, if we understand them mathematics, natural philosophy, che rightly, the Commissioners recommend mistry, &c., lectures too which should that the task of education shall no be useful to the highest class of stu- longer be entrusted to the tutors as dents, without being unintelligible to such, but to a number of professors the lowest, is a simple absurdity. No and lecturers, and that the duty of the man ever did or could perform such tutor shall be limited to transacting the a task. Indeed the Commissioners college business of his pupils, writing themselves admit this. Thus in their

to their parents, and in general “tak. Report (pp. 15, 16) they say:

ing an interest in their welfare.” Now,

with respect to the professorial part of “ We cannot recommend a return to the this arrangement, it is manifestly open old system. It is impossible for a tutor to

to the very same objections which the give adequate instruction to his pupils in all Commissioners have urged against the the subjects for which lectures are now pro

present tutorial system. So far as emovided. If he had pupils studying all these

sument is concerned, the professor who subjects, it might, as the junior fellows state, impose upon him the necessity of lecturing for

is paid out of a common fund has no upwards of twelve hours daily. If further greater inducement to exertion than

the tutor. improvements were introduced into the undergraduate course, the difficulty would

The indolent tutor under the present be increased. In short, division of labour system would be an indolent professor in lecturing seems to be essential to all under the proposed system_dischargprogress in developing a complete system of ing his duty with enough of formal coreducation."

rectness to escape official censure, and

doing no more. In the means of com. At the same time they think that, pelling the lecturer to do his duty, were

that possible, the tutorial committee, “ The present tutorial system errs on the who have the power of imposing fines, other side, and takes away every inducement which, in a great many cases, would to a fellow to discharge the duties of a tutor

amount to confiscation, are quite equal in a manner satisfactory to the pupil or his parents Under it the emoluments and po

to the college officer. In moral influ. sition of a junior fellow are altogether inde

ence, the only agent which is in the pendent of his diligence, learning, or other present case really effective, they are imqualifications. The indolent and the active measurably superior. They are elected are reduced to the same level, and it is stated by the tutors themselves, not imposed that parents complain that the interest which by any external power; they are men


distinguished by the zeal and efficiency of the tutor on his pupils for his inwith which they discharge their own

This feeling, so produced, the duties, and having, therefore, a fair Provost states to have been profitable right to demand similar exertions from for reproof and for correction ” (“Sugothers. Lastly—and this is a conside- gestions," p. 291); and he appears to ration of no small weight--they are in think that it has declined under the general men who are themselves losers present arrangement. When a comby the present division of the tutorial petent witness makes an assertion as income. The negligent professor, who to a matter of fact, it is difficult to disregards the admonition of his college contradict him; but if it be so, we must superior, will perhaps feel a twinge for confess that our metaphysics are comhis rebellion against constituted autho- pletely at fault. That a man who derity ; but the negligent tutor who dis- pends upon another for his support regards the committee, knows that he should, by that very dependence, be dis. is setting at nought the reasonable posed to act the part of the fearless commands of men to whom he owes friend described by the Provost-watchthe bread that he eats - that, by his ful to detect faults, and courageous to indolence, he is doing what he can reprove them, ready to exhort his to bring poverty upon those who are

pupil to unpalatable duty, not anxious willing to share with him the fruits of to screen him from deserved censuretheir industry. A feeling more gall. does appear so much at variance with ing to any honourable mind it is impos- the ordinary principles of human nasible to conceive. With regard, there- ture, that we find it exceedingly diffi. fore, to the professorial part of the cult to believe it, even upon the ProCommissioners' plan, we can only re- vost's authority. If it was so, we can gard it as a spoiled edition of the pre- only regard the tutor of his time as sent tutorial system. As for the mode one of those rare ethical curiosities in which they propose to allocate the whose return can hardly be expected, remaining fourth of the tutorial income, and in legislation should certainly not it is sufficient to say that it would bring be reckoned on. That this dependence back, in an aggravated form, all the of the tutor on his pupil would induce disreputable practices so much com- the former to exert himself to acquire plained of under the former system.* popularity we fully believe, and with We say, in an aggravated form; for it our reader's permission we shall quote must be remembered that the first part from the evidence before us a passage of the arrangement, by which it is pro- which we think to be a fair description posed to confide the task of education, of the manner in which this anxiety not to tutors, but to professors, deprives would operate:the junior fellow of the most honourable means of distinguishing himself as a “The most effective way to gain populatutor, and therefore makes it the more rity with a large, and not the most deserynecessary for him to have recourse to ing portion of one's pupils is, never to cauthe other and less honourable agencies tion them at Term examinations, or refuse alluded to.

them credit for the Term lectures; to interThe advantages of the tutorial sys. cede openly for them when in danger of intem as a system of education are so

curring the censure of other examiners or obvious, that its opponents are obliged

lecturers ; and if unsuccessful in such efforts to have recourse to lamentations over

on their behalf, to condemn unsparingly the

act of the offending examiner or lecturer. It the decay of a certain friendly feeling

is plain that such conduct would greatly between tutor and pupil, which they lower the character of the examinations and assert to have existed formerly in much

lectures ; and it is also plain that the ingreater strength than at present, fos- ducements to it would be much greater under tered, as they say, by the dependence the proposed plan than they are now.


The evidence of the Provost, who is not friendly to the present system, may be quoted as bearing on this point:-“The number of pupils under a tutor very often depended upon the extent of his connexions upon his habits of life, as leading him more into society-the extent of his acquaintance with schoolmasters throughout the country ; and, in times of political excitement, his conspicuousness and forwardness in taking a part in political movements, These influential causes being irrespective of a fellow's merits as a tutor, made the distribution of pupils often very unsuitable."-Suggestions, p. 290.

milar remarks apply to other means by within the last twenty years, its adwhich a tutor may gain popularity among mirable system of teaching, its high his papils, such as procuring their exemp- and deserved reputation, should have tion by some excuse or other from all trou.

excited, in the friends of other insti. blesome duties ; obtaining for them remis

tutions, a desire to obtain for them a sion from all punishments ; and in fine, acting towards them on all occasions the

share of these advantages, is, of course, part of an advocate, rather than that of a

but natural ; and accordingly we judicious friend and adviser."*_ Correspon

find, that as early as February, 1852, dence, pp. 380, 381.

the Bishop of Down and Connor ad.

dressed a letter to the Commissioners, We are not friendly to any interfe- urging upon them the propriety of ad. rence with the tutorial system. We mitting graduates of the Queen's Uniobject to such interference as a ba- versity to the privileges of attending zardous experiment—as the destruction the Divinity lectures, and obtaining of an arrangement which has confess- the Divinity Testimonium of the edly worked vast benefit, to replace University of Dublin. As the parit by another, untried, necessarily im- ticular plan suggested by the Bishop perfect, having the weakness of the

has not been approved of by the Comtutorial system without its strength. missioners, it is not necessary that we We object to such interference, be- should comment upon it at any length. cause the system which the Commis. But our readers will, perhaps, be sursioners desire to remove is supported prised to learn that a prelate of the by those whose testimony is rendered Established Church has seriously provaluable by long experience in the task posed that the Board of Trinity Col. of education - doubly valuable by the lege shall accept the lectures of the fact, that they are pecuniary losers by dean of residences (an officer whose the present mode of dividing the tu- duties somewhat resemble those of the torial income.† Lastly, we object to junior dean in Trinity College) as an such interference, because we believe equivalent for one-half of the Divinity that any attempt to revive, even par- course, together with all the prelitially, the old system, would introduce minary religious education in the shape all the favouritism and jealousies which of catechetical lectures, term examiexisted once, and which are now ex- nations, and lectures in ethics, evitinct, not because men are better, but dences of Christianity, &c., which they because the temptation which brought require their own students to receive. these feelings into life has passed away. We were at first disposed to regard this

We have, in the next place, to direct proposal as a grave joke or hoax, inthe attention of our readers to a point tended to try the tempers of the reof paramount importance in the eyes verend gentlemen who were called on of all those who, like ourselves, value to accede to it; but, upon reflection, we the prosperity of the Established really believe that his lordship is in Church of Great Britain and Ireland earnest, and that he seriously conwe mean the proposal to open the siders the lectures of the dean of Divinity school to persons who are not residences to be equal in value to students of Trinity College. That the the various lectures and examina. rapid advance made by this school tions to which we have referred.

The Provost ("Suggestions," p. 290) appears to think that the dependence of the tutor on his pupils for his income generated between them a species of parental feeling. As it is ordinarily the parent who supports the child, this analogy seems to imply that under the former system the tutor felt as though he were the son of his entire chamber. A curious and complicated sensation.

+ The Bishop of Cork (" Correspondence," p. 382) is disposed to assign little weight to the opinions of the tutorial committee, because they are pecuniary losers by the system which they recommend. He seems to regard them as specimens of a class of men so disinterested as to “lean against the evidence that would make for their private interests.” If the existence of this class be with the Bishop a matter of experience, we cannot, of course, contradict him, although to our limited intelligence it seems sufficiently startling. We can imagine that a man may support a bad system because he gains by it, or a good one although he loses by it; but that any one out of Bedlam should advocate a measure injurious to the public, because it is also injurious to himself, is, we should have thought, new to psychology.

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