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Manner of making amondments to Constitution.
1. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing amendments, which, in either caso, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and cight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States, under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
2. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
RATIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION.
What sufficient for ratification.
1. The ratification of the Conventions of nine States What
suficient shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitu- for
ratification tion between the States so ratifying the same. Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States present,
the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.
President, and Deputy from Virginia.
DANIEL OF St. Tho. JENIFER,
ARTICLE I. RESTRICTION ON POWER OF CONGRESS.
II. RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS.
X. STATES RIGHTS.
RESTRICTIONS ON POWER OF CONGRESS.
SECTION 1. Free exercise of religion, speech, etc., and right of
people to assemble.
Restrictions on power of Congress.
SECTION 1. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.—[Proposed Sept. 25th, 1789: Ratified Dec. 15th, 1791.
RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS.
SECTION 1. Right not to be denied to people.
bear arms. to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.-[Id.
BILLETING OF SOLDIERS.
SECTION 1. No soldier to be billeted, etc.
SECTION 1. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quar- Billeting
of soldiers. tered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law:-[Id.
SEIZURES, SEARCHES, AND WARRANTS.
SECTION 1. Unreasonable searches, seizures, and warrants prohibited.
SECTION 1. The right of the people to be secure in Seizuros,
searches, their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against un- and reasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon reasonable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or things to be seized.--[Id.
CRIMINAL PROCEEDING AND CONDEMNATION OF PROPERTY.
SECTION 1. No person to be held to answer for certain crimes except
on indictment. Exception--not to be twice tried for
Criminal proceed; ings and condemnation of property.
SECTION 1. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war, or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.-[Id.
MODE OF TRIAL IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDING.
SECTION 1. Accused entitled to speedy trial; to confront witnesses; to
have counsel; place of trial, etc.
Mode of trial in criminal proceeding.
SECTION 1. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.—[Id.
TRIAL BY JURY.
SECTION 1. Right of trial by jury in civil actions.
Trial by jury,
SECTION 1. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact, tried by jury, shall be otherwise reëxamined in any Court of the United States than according to the rules of common law.-[Id.