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arm, which never wears off, and by that those are known and dissipation, because they are generally deliciously who have been religious men. They work for their liv- seated and very pleasant for prospect and fine gardens, ing or use some trade; some go a begging, and all of so that they might better be called pleasure houses than them have some small allowance from the governor. temples; which is to be understood of the common monThey always keep little children in their houses, whom asteries, where the religious men love to drink bard. they very carefully teach to read and write. If these “ The houses of the Koreans of quality are stately, but children will be shaved, they keep them in their service those of the common sort very mean; nor are they and have all that they can earn till the master dies, allowed to build as they please. No man can cover his

house with tiles unless he have leave so to do; for which reason most of them are thatched with straw or reeds. They are parted from one another by a wall or else by a row of stakes or palisades. They are built with wooden posts or pillars, with the interval betwixt them filled up with stone up to the first story; the rest of the structure is all daubed without, and covered on the inside with white paper glued on. The floors are all vaulted, and in winter they make a fire underneath, so that they are always as warm as a stove; the floor is covered with oiled paper. Their houses are small, but one story high, and a garret over it, where they lay up their provisions. The nobility have always an apartment forward, where they receive their friends and lodge their acquaintance; and there they divert themselves, there being generally before their houses a large square, or bass court, with a fountain or fish pond, and a garden with covered walks. The women's apartment is in the most retired part of the house, that nobody may see them.

Tradesmen and the chief townsmen generally bave a store-house adjoining to their mansion-house, where they keep their goods and treat their friends with tobacco and rice-spirits. There are virtuous women among them, who are allowed the liberty of seeing people and going into company and to feasts, but they sit by themselves and opposite to their husbands.

They have scarce any more household goods than are absolutely necessary.

“There are in the country abundance of taverns and pleasure houses, to which the Koreans resort to see women dance, sing and play upon musical instruments. In summer they take this recreation in cool groves under close, shady trees. They have no particular houses to entertain passengers and travelers, but he who travels

goes and sits down where night overtakes him, near the which makes them free and heirs to all their goods; for palings of the first house he comes to, where, though it this reason they are obliged to wear mourning for them, be not a great man's house, they bring him boiled rice as for their father, in return for all the pains they have and dressed meat enough for his supper. When he goes taken to instruct and bring them up.

from thence he may stop at another house, and at sev"The monasteries and temples are built at the public eral; yet on the great road to Seoul there are houses charge, every one contributing proportionably to what where those that travel on public affairs have lodging he is worth.

and diet on the public account. “There is still another sort of people like these religi-| “The nobility, and all freeman in general, take great ons men, as well in regard of their abstinence as their care of the education of their children, and put them serving the idols, but they are not shorn and may marry. very young to learn to read and write, to which that. They believe, by tradition, that once all mankind had nation is much addicted. They use no manner of rigor but one language, but that the design of building a in their method of teaching, but manage all by fair tower to go up to heaven caused the confusion of means, giving their scholars an idea of learning and of tongues. The nobles frequent the monasteries very the worth of their ancestors, and telling them how honmuch to divert themselves there with gross amusements orable those are who by this means have raised them



selves to great fortunes, which breeds emulation and “When the children have fully performed the duty makes them studious. It is wonderful to see how they they owe to the father and mother by means of this improve by these means, and how they expound the tedious ceremony, if they have left any estate the eldest writings they give them to read, wherein all their learn- son takes possession of the house that belongs to him, ing consists.

Besides this private study, there is in with all the lands depending on it. The rest is divided every town a house where the nobility, according to among the other sons, and we never heard that the ancient custom-of which they are very tenacious-take daughters had any share, because the women carry nothcare to assemble the youth, to make them read the his ing to their husbands but their clothes. When a father tory of the country and the condemnations of great men is fourscore years of age he declares himself incapable who have been put to death for their crimes. To per- of managing his estate and resigns it up to his children, fect them in their learning there are assemblies who maintain their father and always pay him a great kept yearly in two or three towns of each province deal of respect. When the eldest has taken possession where the scholars appear to get employment, either of the estate he builds a house at the public expense for by the pen or by the sword.

his father and mother, where he lodges and maintains “Parents are very indulgent to their children, and in them. return are much respected by them. They depend “Their language, their way of writing and their arithupon one another's good behavior, and if one withdraws metic are very hard to learn. They have many words after an ill action the other does the like. It is other. to express the same thing, and they sometimes talk fast wise with the slaves, who have little care of their child and sometimes slow, especially their learned men and ren, because they know they will be taken from them as great lords. They use three several sorts of writingsoon as they are able to work or do any business. the first and chiefest like that of China and Japan,

“As soon as one dies, his kindred run about the which they use for printing their books and for all pubstreets shrieking and tearing their hair; then they take lic affairs. The second is like the common writing special care to bury him honorably in some part of a among us. The great men and governors use it to an. mountain shown them by a fortune teller. They use swer petitions and make notes on letters of advice, or the two coffins for every dead body, being two or three like; the commonalty cannot read this writing. The fingers thick, shut close, and put one within the other third is more unpolished, and serves women and the to keep out the water, painting and adorning them as common sort. It is easier to write in this character than every one is able. They generally bury their dead in the others, names and things never before heard of bespring and autumn. As for those that die in summer, ing noted down with very curious fine pencils. they put them into a thatched but raised upon four “The Chinese superstition called Fengshuey, (wind stakes, where they leave them till rice-harvest is over. and water), dominates all Korea, and gives employment When they intend to bury them they bring them back to crowds of sorcerers, fortune-tellers and geomancers, into the house, and shut up in their coffins with them who fatten upon the purses of the people.

No Korean their clothes and some jewels. In the morning, at break would think of building a house, selecting a field, garof day, they set out with the body, after a good repast den or tomb, without consulting one of these gentry. and making merry all the night. The bearers sing and The influences of the spirits are believed to be ever keep time as they go, whilst the kindred make the air potent; and one of the common sights everywhere is ring with their cries. Three days after, the kindred and the pole stuck up on mound or house with its strap of friends of the party deceased return to the grave, where bells or tiny cymbals jingled in the breeze to ward off they make some offerings, and then they eat together their malign breath. Already the empty petroleum cans and are very merry. The meaner sort only make a grave from America are utilized to rout the goblins. Feng. five or six feet deep, but the great men are put into shuey is the great national school of superstition in stony tombs raised on a statue of the same substance; at which innumerable professors teach millions of docile the bottom whereof is the name carved, with the quali pupils. fications of the party there buried, mentioning what em- “ The air is far from empty to a Korean. ployments he enjoyed. Every full moon they cut down ulous with active and malignant spirits. Every tree, the grass

that grows on the grave, and offer new rice mountain, water-course, and even the kitchen or chimthere; that is their greatest festival, next to the New ney, has its tutelary genii, who must be propitiated by Year. They reckon by moons, and every three years prayer, gifts or penance in some form or another. they add one, so that the third year has thirteen, where- “Temples in honor of Confucius are found in the as the other two have but twelve moons each. They large cities of Korea. At the expense of the state, have conjurers, diviners or soothsayers, who assure them sacrifices of pigs, sheep and goats, are made by the whether the dead are at rest or not, and whether the magistrate at particular seasons. The ceremonies are place where they are buried is proper for them; in which very similar to those practiced by the Chinese in honor point they are so superstitious that it often happens they of the spirits of earth and heaven. The veneration of will remove them two or three times that they may forefathers, the burning of incense and doing of homage find rest.

to their tablets are as universal in Korea as in China."

It is pop


The Koreau King Nt Seoul.

open on three sides, and we had a good view of the king. He noticed our flag, looked steadfastly at us,

and in the judgment of some bowed slightly. “How On Sept. 19, Seoul had the pleasure of seeing the did he look?" is the most natural question. He is a Korean king. It was the occasion of his visit to wor- young man of quiet, intelligent, dignified, and manly ship at the tomb of his ancestors. His appearance was

appearance. duly announced, and the streets properly cleansed, so Lieutenant Foulk, our representative here, once said that when my servant returned from marketing in the to me: “The king's word is good.” This remark came morning he remarked, “ All chosen town clean to-day.” to me as I saw the king to-day, and I was impressed This had special reference to the many huts and booths that he was a man to do, as far as possible, his own erected temporarily by dealers in fruit and merchandise thinking, come to his own conclusions, and abide by along the sides of the main streets. The royal palace his word. He believes in opening his country to foreign is in the northern part of the city, and the streets along nations, and has great confidence in the United States. which the procession passed are unusually wide (for He has ordered his palace to be lighted by the electric Seoul streets), and, being cleansed from their filth, they light. To the uninitiated this may seem extravagant, made a very good appearance.

but two things make the king's course clear. He reasAll of our mission went to see his majesty. The oned thus : Americans, after trying everythirg, from young men whom we are teaching English offered to tallow candles to electric light, find the last the best and get us a good place to “ku kiung”--see sights. We cheapest. I will learn from their experience, and begin accepted their offer. We have been many times im- where they are now. The present cost of lighting the pressed with the kindness of the Koreans toward us, palace is simply enormous, caused by the officials approand this added another to the list. They secured a priating large amounts for their own use. They could small room, bad it cleaned, put down nice, clean boards, do the same with petroleum, but not with the electric took some of our chairs to sit on, and hired three light. Another reason is : China's power is everything soldiers. When we reached the place, and the people in Korea. They have everything there that is to be saw foreign ladies, the crowd increased wonderfully had, and when any new invention is suggested, the confast, and pressed into the house to see them. The servatives send to Pekin and get it. But the electric soldiers were not regularly armed, and it soon became light cannot be gotten there, and the king hopes in this evident to them, as well as to us, that it took more than way to teach his ministers that there are other countries their uniform and “ka”-go-to make the people in the world beside China. “stand back.” They soon supplied themselves with Sunday, Sept. 27, the telegraph line between Seoul good oak clubs, and by swinging these faithfully and and Chemulpo was opened. This is the first line built using their lungs frequently they managed to keep a in Korea, and we are beginning to feel that we are on small place in front of the house clear. Without their the side of progress. In the evening the usual banquet services it would have been impossible for us to have was given at the Foreign Office in honor of the event. remained there. Mrs. M. F. Scranton took with her the Before the close of this year lines in two other places United States flag, which we put up.

connecting with China will be built, so that by the year While waiting for the king one could not but be im- 1886 we shall be able to send messages to the Mission pressed that the “boy of the street " was present in full Rooms in New York. May the good work of opening force, making the air melodious with what would be the country go on until Korea shall take her place in equivalent in America to “lemonade” and “peanuts," the family of nations. and seemingly doing a brisk business.

Seoul, Sept. 29, 1885.
Along the middle of the street new earth was strewn.
Every few minutes some official, with a few attendants,

Protestant Missions in Korea. passed, nearly always mounted on a donkey, which is the animal used by officers on such occasions. Some of There are at present two Protestant Missions in these men had a very patriarcbal appearance.

Korea, one under the direction of the American PresThe procession proper was headed by eunuchs from byterian Church, the other, that of the Methodist Episthe royal palace ; these were followed by soldiers who copal Church. marched along the sides and in the center of the street.

The Presbyterian Church has in Korea three missionA general of high rank stopped in front of us, and I aries. The “Foreign Missionary” for September gives thought he did it in honor of our flag, but my interpre- the following information respecting their work : tor told me he stopped for the king. The royal banner,

“Dr. H. N. Allen writes very hopefully as regards his a large empty sedan chair and waiters, passed, music work in the hospital at Seoul, which the Government followed next, the step became livelier, considerable has built and has placed under his charge, defraying rattling of what to me was old iron, but really the sign also all the expenses connected with it, except the Docfor silence, the king's umbrella, and the second sedan tor's salary. Although, by the laws of the land, Chrischair in which was his majesty. The chair was wide tian missions are not formally allowed, yet the king has

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taken a very advanced step in building this first hospi- it in communicating the truths of Christianity as soon tal and placing it wholly under the control of one who as they are able to do so. Already Dr. Allen tells us of is known to be a missionary, accepting also the services his first lame attempts to impart Christian hopes to the there of two other missionaries—Dr. J. W. Herron, sufferers in his hospital. How earnestly should the M. D., and Rev. H. G. Underwood. Dr. Allen has Churcb pray for these laborers in their remote, strange treated many of the nobles, and the whole royal family. field !” This example of confidence in him has led the people to Dr. Allen writes: “I continue to treat the royal family, an immediate patronage of the hospital. About seventy and was yesterday called to see the King's mother at patients are treated daily. The sanitary condition of their summer residence by the river side. I was adthe population is described as horrible, and Drs. Allen mitted to the 'Ang pan,' or women's quarters, and am and Herron are likely to have all the patients they can safe in saying no other male foreigner ever openly enmanage. Neither of these brethren, nor Rev. Mr. tered one of these places. I did not see but about a Underwood, has as yet acquired the language ; but square inch of the old lady, however. She was screened they have little fear that they will be forbidden to use by curtains, and I only saw a part of her wrist, as her







hand was completely bandaged, excepting the place career of Adoniram Judson in Burma, bis lofty devo where I was to feel the pulse."

tion to principle, and his entire consecration to Christ The Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church is and to souls, and we do not wonder that even Theodore also at Seoul, the capital, and consists of Rev. W. B. Parker should declare that that “if modern missionary Scranton, m. D., and wife; Rev. H. G. Appenzeller and enterprise had done no more than produce one Adoniwife, and Mrs. M. E. Scranton, the mother of Dr. ram Judson it were worth all it cost.” Scranton,

We need not look far from home for a shining illusIt was commenced last year, and the letters we have tration of the transfiguring power of the spirit of previously published indicate that the prospect is very missions. It may be doubted whether in all Christian encouraging for a very successful work. In another history the spirit of a seraph has ever burned in a human place will be fonnd a concert exercise on Korea, which body more certainly than in David Brainerd. Dying in will give further information respecting Protestant Mis- his thirtieth year, a long life of holy toil was condensed sions in Korea.

into the four years of his apostolic life. We see him, in the solitude of the forest, praying for the red man; in his lonely log hut, barring his door to keep out wolf and bear, seated near his lighted torch, after a weari.

some day, that he may read the Word of God, or record Eod's Everlasting Sigu.

the Lord's dealing with him; suffering pangs of hunger,

exposing his delicate frame to night chills and stormy REFLEX INFLUENCE

winds, sleeping on the ground, or climbing a tree for BY ARTHUR T. PIERSON, D. D.

safety from wild beasts; and through all this experience In this review of the Missionary Work, and its results only exclaiming, “Oh, that I were a flame of fire in the direct and indirect, one more grand fact remains to be Lord's service ! Oh, that I were spirit that I might be considered, briefly, viz: the reflex influence of missions more active for God !” And Brainerd is but one of the upon all who earnestly engage in them, or support them -mighty host of missionary martyrs. We look at such with sympathy, gifts and prayer. It is inconceivable lives as these and we are compelled to feel that a work that any work which is not supremely owned of God that demands such consecration, and develops such should develop such character in the workers. The seal Christlike devotion and heroism, must be especially the and sanction of God is upon missions, for the very van. Work of God. guard of the Church is found in the heroic, self-sacri. The more disciples, at home and abroad, become perficing souls who represent us in front of the citadels of vaded with this spirit of missions, the more is all the heatbenism. These men and women are the foremost glory of the apostolic Church again revived. This holy disciples of Christ ; some of them seem both to lift labor for souls develops apostolic unity: for as Macaulay mortals up and to bring angels down; they realize to well observes, “When men worship a cow, the differus the days of heaven upon earth, in the sanctity of their ences between evangelical Christians dwindle into insig. lives and the ideality of their unselfish services.

nificance." Sectarian lines disappear as, in presence of We see the Moravians going into the lazar house, a united and gigantic army of foes, the ranks of disciand entering the leper villages of Africa, cheerfully ples draw closely together for one onset in solid column isolating themselves from the "clean,” and identifying to pierce the very center of the enemy and turn their themselves with the “unclean," for life, that they may staggering wings. point the accursed victims of loathsome disease to him Even the churches at home feel the reaction of miswho can cleanse the leprosy of the soul. We hear Dober sionary effort. The Revivals of the last century gave and his co-laborers at St. Thomas, when told that they birth to missionary societies, and the missionary labors could not preach to those ignorant slaves, resolutely of this century have stimulated revivals. It might be reply," then we will sell ourselves as slaves, and preach thought that foreign missions would draw away funds while we work by their side !"

and energies fro. Home Work; on the contrary, organWe follow John Eliot, "the Apostle of the Indians," ized efforts for the Home fields have actually followed spending twelve years in learning their difficult lan- the others, and been quickened by them. There were guage, reducing it to a written form, publishing a no Sunday schools till just before the spirit of missions grammar, and writing on its title page that holy maxim was kindled, and they have multiplied with incredible that has since passed into the uninspired Scriptures of rapidity since. When relapse into barbarism threatened the Church, “Prayer and pains, through faith in Christ, the converted Hawaiians, they had to resort to missions will do anything;” we look at him patiently translating to the still pagan groups near by to keep themselves the Bible into the Indian tongue, gathering those rude from practical apostasy ; and this was the actual origin children of the forest into Christian settlements, and of the mission to the Marquesas isles ! closing his fifty years of toil for their salvation by And so, side by side with the culture of the spirit of expending his dying breath in teaching a little Indian world-wide missions and their zealous prosecution, we child to read. We trace the pathetically beautiful find the culture of charity, unity, and apostolic piety at

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