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Shawnees, 89 Iowas, 346 Mexican Kickapoos, 550 Pot- every way fitted for this important work. The Society tawatomies, 457 Sac and Foxes, 580 other tribes.

proposes to erect a building and make this a permanent The different nations comprising the Union Agency missionary station." and commonly called the “five civilized tribes" have each The Agent of the Cheyenne Agency says:

“ These regular constitutional governments. The legislative Indians are a religious people in their way, and do not power, called the national council, consists of a senate and seem to doubt the immortality of man. A strange sight house of representatives which exercises the usual func- is their medicine dance. A number of braves enter the tions of State legislatures. The supreme executive power medicine lodge their bodies naked from their waist up. is vested in a chief elected by the people and who has the They gash their arms and legs, and pierce holes in their same authority as governor of a State. The judiciary chests, pass ropes through the holes and suspend them. consists of one supreme court, three circuit courts, nine selves from the center of the lodge until their struggling district courts. The school system is very complete. tears the flesh loose. They dance day and night withThe Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, Moravians,

, out food and water until exhausted.” Episcopalians and Catholics have missions among them. The Indian Conference of the Methodist Episcopal

Dr. Timothy Hill writes : “ The tribes of the five Church, South, reports 4,850 Indian church members.
nations, Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks and In Iowa are 380 Sac and Fox Indians in the Sac and
Seminoles, may be called Christians. These tribes are Fox Agency. There are two teachers among them of the
not wasting away, but are increasing, some of them are Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions.
increasing rapidly. Leaving the five nations, we find a In KANSAS the Pottawatomie and Great Nehama
mingled class of broken remnants of other Indian na- Agency reports 966 Indians and 305 of mixed blood.
tions, some of whom are civilized and educated, but the There are 76 Chippewas and Munsees, 138 Iowas, 235
greater part are Pagans, almost within sound of the Kickapoos, 430 Pottawatomies and 87 Sacs and Foxes.
church bells in which we worship. There are some There are 2 missionaries, 215 Indian church members
15,000 of these people left to grope their dark way." and 2 church buildings.

In the Cheyenne Agency are 3 missionaries and 102 The Indian Agent reports of Pottawatomies that many
Indian church members, In the Kiowa Agency are 208 have an intense devotion to a religious dance they seem
Indian church members and i church building. In the to have adopted as a means of expressing their belief in
Osage Agency is one church building. In the Ponca the justice and mercy of the Great Spirit, and of their
Agency are 3 missionaries and 2 Indian church mem- devotion to him, and are earnest in their convictions as
bers. In the Quapaw Agency are 9 missionaries, 213 to its affording them eternal happiness.
Indian church members and 3 church buildings. In the The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions reports
Sac and Fox Agency are 3 missionaries, 56 Indian one missionary and his wife and 20 members. The
church members and church buildings.

Moravian Church has also a mission among them. The missionaries in the Cheyenne Agency are Men- In MAINE are 410 Oldtown Indians. nonites, and the Indian Agent reports that “They are MICHIGAN has 9,572 Indians and 5,700 of mixed the most earnest workers I ever saw engaged in mis- blood. They are in the Mackinac Agency, and there are sionary work."

9.500 Chippewas and Ottawas, and 72 Pottawatomies. The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions reports There are 4 church buildings and 3,000 Indian church in its Creek Mission 3 ordained missionaries, i ordained members. native, i licentiate, 3 churches, 178 communicants, 2 MINNESOTA has 5,885 Indians and 820 of mixed male and 8 female missionary teachers, 3 boarding blood. They are in the White Earth Agency and about schools with 190 pupils. The boarding school at two-thirds are Chippewas and the others Pillagers. Wealaka has 100 pupils, and the superintendent says There are 8 missionaries, 1,480 Indian church mem"A more contented, happier, better-behaved company bers and 12 church buildings. The Protestant Episcoof children I have never seen. They study well, work pal Church has extensive missions among them. well, and play with a vim." The Seminole mission re- MONTANA has 12,642 Indians and 421 of mixed blood. ports i ordained missionary, 2 ordained native ministers, In the Blackfeet Agency are 2,000 Blackfeets, Bloods, 2 licentiates, 2 male and 6 female missionary teachers, 9 and Piegans ; Crow Agency, 3,870 Crows and Cheynative teachers, 2 churches with 65 communicants, 45 ennes; Flathead Agency, 450 Flatheads, 480 Kootenais, boys and 18 girls in boarding school. The Choctaw 886 Pend d'Oreilles; Fort Belknap Agency, 700 AssinMission has had one ordained minister and his wife in aboines, 852 Gros Ventres; Fort Peck Agency, 1,072 charge of Spencer Academy, a high school for boys, with Assinaboines, 2,332 Yanktons. from 80 to 100 pupils, but the school has this fall passed In the Flathead Agency are i missionary, 1,650 Indian into the control of the tribe.

church members and i church building. In the Fort The Agent of the Ponca Agency reports: “The Peck Agency are i missionary, an excellent Industrial Ladies' Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Boarding School, and 38 Indian church members, under Episcopal Church has recently placed a missionary in the direction of the Methodist Episcopal Church. this field in the person of Mrs. Gaddes, who seems in The Agent of the Crow Indians reports ; “During the four years I have been in charge of this Agency no mis. Oneidas; Saint Regis Reserve, 944 Saint Regis; Tonasionary work has been done on this Reservation. There wanda Reserve, 539 Tonawandas, 22 Cayugas, 20 Cattais a large field of labor for those persons who feel they raugus; Tuscarora Reserve, 414 Tuscaroras, 39 Ononare called to do this particular kind of work, but I can- dagas. not say it is a very inviting field to labor in. I do not In the Allegany Reserve are 100 Indian church memthink there is any Crow Indian who feels that he needs bers. In the Cattaraugus Reserve are i missionary and to be saved. Still I think some attempt should be made 150 Indian church members. Among the Oneidas are i to occupy the field.”

missionary, 60 Indian church members, and 2 church The Agent of the Fort Belknap Agency says: “Noth- buildings. In the Onondaga Reserve are 112 Indian ing has been done toward giving religious instruction to church members and 2 church buildings. Among the Saint our Indians, and not much can be done until they have | Regis Indians are 65 Indian church members and i been taught in the schools and have enough to eat. church building. In the Tonawanda Reserve are 22 They will not take much stock in the white man's relig- Indian church members and 2 church buildings. In the ion while their stomachs are empty.”

Tuscarora Reserve are 104 Indian church members NEBRASKA has 3,566 Indians and 770 of mixed blood. and 2 church buildings. The Presbyterian Board of In Santee and Flandreau Agency are 178 Poncas and Foreign Missions reports in the Seneca Mission 2 or1,086 Sioux. In Omaha and Winnebago Agency are dained missionaries, 4 churches and 269 communicants. 1,188 Omahas and 1,214 Winnebagos.

NORTH CAROLINA has 3,000 Indians belonging to the There are 7 missionaries, 367 Indian church members Eastern band of Cherokees. They are civilized and inand 5 church buildings in the Santee Agency, and 3 mis- dustrious. The Methodists, Baptists and Friends are sionaries, 85 Indian church members and 1 church build carrying on missionary work among them with good sucing in the Omaha and Winnebago Agency.

cess, many of the band being members of these churches. The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions reports In OREGON are 5,119 Indians and 199 of mixed blood. among the Winnebagos one missionary and his wife, and In Grande Ronde Agency are 33 Clackamas, 86 Rogue among the Omahas 2 male missionaries and their wives, Rivers, 121 Umpquas, 516 remnants of other tribes; and 3 female missionaries, 61 communicants, 54 scholars Klamath Agency, 763 Klamaths and Modocs, 156 Snakes; in the girls' boarding school. “In hardly any other Siletz Agency, 907 of 18 different tribes; Umatilla AgenIndian mission has there been more marked proofs of cy, 240 Walla Wallas, 340 Cayuses, 150 Umatillas; Warm evangelizing labors resulting in civilizing the character Spring Agency, 396 Warm Springs, 235 Wascos, 70 Tenand the industry of the people."

inos, 61 John Days, 69 Pi-Utes. There are also 800 Among the Santees the Protestant Episcopal Mission Indians not under an agent. has three churches and two schools. The American In the Grande Ronde Agency are 3 missionaries, 756 Missionary Association has a large Normal school and Indian church members and 2 church buildings. In the 210 pupils, of whom 20 are students of theology. Klamath Agency are 260 Indian church members and i

NEVADA has 7,357 Indians and 9 of mixed blood. church building. In the Siletz Agency are 15 Indian the Nevada Agency are 3,600 Pah-Utes, 157 Pi-Utes ; church members. In the Umatilla Agency are i misWestern Shoshone Agency, 300 Western Shoshones, sionary, 506 Indian church members and 2 church build3,300 wandering Indians.

ings. In the Warm Spring Agency are i missionary, 62 Some mission work is being done by the Baptists in Indian church members and i church building. the Nevada Agency,

The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions reports New Mexico has 32,087 Indians and 75 of mixed at Umatilla one native missionary. The Roman Cathoblood. In the Pueblo Agency are 7,762 Pueblos ; Nav. lics have a boarding school and a priest in the Grande ajo Agency 21,003 Navajos, 2,139 Moquis Pueblos ; Ronde Agency. The Methodist Episcopal Church has Mescalero Agency, 462 Mescalero Apaches, 721 Jicarilla two missionaries in the Klamath Agency. The United Apaches.

Presbyterian Church supports one missionary in the In the Pueblo Agency are 19 church buildings and Warm Spring Agency. 7,762 Indian members belonging to the Roman Catholic TEXAS has 290 Alabamas, Cushattas, and Muskokees. Church.

In Utah are 2,664 Indians and 10 of mixed blood. “The Mescaleros have five gods, or Great Spirits. They in the Ouray Agency are 1,252 Utes; Uintah Valley believe that their medicine men hold direct communica- Agency, 508 Uintah Utes, 514 White River Utes. There tion with these spirits. No missionary has taken up his are 134 Pah-Vants and 256 Goship-Utes not under an abode among them."

agent. In New YORK are 4,970 Indians and 2,890 of mixed In the Uintah Valley Agency are 380 Indian church blood. They are all in the New York Agency. On the members. The Agent of the Ouray Agency reports: Allegany Reserve are 856 Senecas, 79 Onondagas, 4 “There has been no missionary work done among these Tonawandas; Cattaraugus Reserve, 1,303 Senecas, 49

Indians since the establishment of the agency except by Onondagas, 151 Cayugas, 9 Tonawandas; Oneida Reserve, the Mormons." 170 Oneidas; Onondaga Reserve, 298 Onondagas, 73 In Washington Territory are 10,942 Indians and 165

of mixed blood. In the Colville Agency are 600 Col-pupils, on the Pottawatomie Reservation in the Indian villes, 295 Lakes, 300 O'Kanagans, 350 San Puells, 315 Territory. Methows, 792 Spokanes, 434 Calispels, 442 Cæur The Indian Boarding School at Albuquerque, New d'Alénes, 150 Nez Percés; Neah Bay Agency, 523 Ma- Mexico, has been conducted by the Board of Home Miskahs, 253 Quillehutes; Quinaielt Agency, 61 Hohs, 85 sions of the Presbyterian Church, but commencing this Queets, 102 Quinaielts, 5 Chepalis, 35 Oyhuts, 16 Hump- fall is conducted by the Government. tulips, 16 Hoquiams, 16 Montesanos, 12 Satsops, 71 A successful school is being conducted at Cherokee, Georgetowns; Nisqually and S'Kokomish Agency, 560 Swain Co., N. C., under a contract with B. C. Hobbs of Puyallups, 190 Chehalis, 180 Nisquallys, 120 Squax- the Society of Friends. ins, 380 S'Klallams, 201 S'Kokomish; Tulalip Agency,

New York State furnishes 27 public schools which 467 Tulalips, 142 Madisons, 85 Muckleshoots, 222 Swino

have an attendance of 563 Indian pupils. An Indian mish, 248 Lummis ; Yakama Agency, 1,272 Yakamas, orphan asylum, supported by the State, has an average Klickitats and Topnish, also 2,000 Yakamas not on of 86 inmates. Reserve.

At a cost of $9,382, religious societies have mainThe Roman Catholics have prosperous missions in

tained 31 mission day schools with an average attendseveral of the agencies. The American Missionary As

ance of 452 pupils, in the following Agencies : Cheyenne sociation reports in the S'Kokomish Agency 49 church

River, Dakota, American Missionary Association, 8 members.

schools; Devil's Lake, Dakota, Presbyterian Board of WISCONSIN has 7,902 Indians and 2,021 of mixed

Foreign Missions, 2 schools ; Fort Berthold, Dakota, blood. In the Green Bay Agency are 1,595 Oneidas, 133 Stockbridges, 1,308 Menomonees; La Pointe Agen-Montana, Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, 3

American Missionary Association, i school ; Fort Peck, cy, 3,656 Chippewas. Also 930 Winnebagos and 280

schools ; Green Bay, Wisconsin ; Roman Catholic Pottawatomies not under an agent.

Church, i school ; La Pointe, Wisconsin, Presbyterian The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions reports

Board of Foreign Missions, 2 schools, and Roman Cathin its Lake Superior Chippewa Mission 2 ordained missionaries, I ordained native, i licentiate, 3 female

olic Church, 4 schools ; New York, Protestant Episco

pal Church, i school ; Nez Percé, Idaho, Presbyterian missionary teachers, I church, 73 communicants, 53

Board of Foreign Missions, 2 schools; Pottawatomie, Kanpupils in boarding and day schools. “The work is

sas, Moravians, i school ; Rosebud, Dakota, Protestant attended with much discouragement, as these Indians,

Episcopal Church, 3 schools ; Santee, Nebraska, Amerilike all other branches of the Chippewas, and, indeed,

can Missionary Association, i school ; Yankton, Dakota, nearly all the scattered fragments of our aboriginal Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, 1 school. tribes, have been disheartened, and rendered unim

These are all supported without Government assistance. pressible, often morose and sullen, by the abuses which

There are outside of the Union Agency- the agency they have suffered at the hands of the Government and of white settlers."

of the five civilized tribes of the Indian Territory, 261 The Roman Catholics report among the Menomonees

Indian schools. Of these 200 are boarding and day 2 churches and a boarding school, and the La Pointe

schools, supported in whole or in part by the GovernAgency one church and 2 schools.

ment, 28 are boarding and day schools supported by the WYOMING has 1,841 Indians and 15 of mixed blood.

State of New York, and 33 are boarding and day schools They are in the Shoshone Agency where there are 870 supported by religious societies. These all have an Shoshone and 971 Northern Arapahoes.

average attendance of 9,314 pupils. There are 3 missionaries, i church, 1 Indian church The seven Indian training schools report as follows: member. The mission work is under the direction of Carlisle, at Carlisle, Pa., 38 employés, 475 pupils, cost the Protestant Episcopal and Roman Catholic Churches. last year, $79,852; Chilocco, at Chilocco, Indian Territory,

Schools. The United States Indian School Super 26 employés, 152 pupils, cost, $33,000 ; Forest Grove, intendent reports that for the year closing June 30, 1885, lately removed to Salem, Oregon, 25 employés, 189 puthere were $887,276 02 expended by the Government for pils, cost, $33,160 ; Genoa, at Genoa, Nebraska, 24 emIndian education in supporting 200 schools which had ployés, 86 pupils, cost, $27,434 ; Hampton, at Hampan average attendance of 8,143.17. These amounts ton Va., 119 pupils, cost, $20,944.93 ; Haskell, at Law. were supplemented by contributions from religious soci- rence, Kansas, 34 employés, 240 pupils, cost, $51,408.65; eties and others. There were 84 boarding schools and Lincoln, at Philadelphia, Pa., 163 pupils, cost, $27,254.46. 86 day schools under agency supervision, 7 training

The total annual cost to the Government amounts to schools and 23 other schools in States and Territories. $273,054.04.

A mission boarding school with an average attend- Dr. M. E. Gates, writes: “Appropriations for Indians ance of 35 pupils is maintained by the Friends on the should be rapidly decreased along all lines that lead to Allegany Reservation in New York, at an expense of pauperism, and increased along all lines that tend toward $4,000 per year; and the Roman Catholics have a mis- educated self-support. Guard the rights of the Indian, sion boarding school, with an average attendance of 35 but for his own good break up his reservations.”

[graphic][merged small]

Relation of the United States Government to the that an Indian who injures or murders another can now Indians.

be tried for the offense before a United States court. A

comprehensive bill like that known as the “ Coke Bill," By Pres. Jas. E. Rhoads of Bryn Mawr College, Pa.

regulating these questions of land and law ought to be When the United States first formed a government, passed by Congress. Citizenship should only be conthe right of the Indians to the territory they held was ferred upon Indians who are fully prepared for it. All recognized, and treaties for the cession of land or the Indians are now peaceable and likely to remain so, for the assignment of Reservations for their use except a few Apaches, whose leader, Geronimo, has just seemed to imply that the Indians owned the land in fee surrendered to General Miles. simple.

Congress appropriated this year about $5,500,000 for But the courts now hold that except when Indians the Indian service. Most of this is simply interest due, have had lands confirmed to them by a distinct treaty or payment in food, clothing and education, for lands they have a right of occupancy only, and not a fee sim- ceded to us by them. Under the President, the Secreple title. For a long time our Government made trea- tary of the Interior through his subordinate, the Comties with the Indians as if they were inferior and weak missioner of Indian Affairs, directs the expenditure of yet independent nations. But since 1872 Congress has these funds and all matters touching the Indians. Beforbidden the formation of treaties with them, and all sides these officials at Washington there are about sixty agreements now made with bands or tribes, are in the Indian Agents. These are officers resident among the form of laws.

Indians, each having one or more tribes under his superAll of Pennsylvania and many other large tracts of vision. The Department of the Interior purchases all land have been bought of the Indians, but much of it supplies, ships them to the railway terminus nearest the has been obtained by violence or fraud. At the present

At the present Agency for which they are designed, issues orders for time the Indians hold a peculiar and anomalous relation the regulation of the Agents, protects the legal and to the Government; being neither citizens nor foreigners property rights of the Indians, carries into effect the they are sometimes called its wards.

laws against the sale of intoxicants to them or against The 260.000 Indians, exclusive of those in Alaska, intrusion upon their lands, and establishes “Courts of occupy about 143,000,000 acres of land, most of it lying Indian Offenses" governed by rules of its own devising. west of the Mississippi. Of this vast domain, however, The Agent lives among his Indians, receives all supplies only 17,000,000 acres are tillable ; the rest is fit for pas- and certifies to their correctness, has his Indians to haul turage only, if good for anything. This land is held by them from the railroad to the Agency, distributes them original occupation, by treaty cession, or by Executive according to regulations and takes receipts for all exorders whereby certain tracts are set apart for the use of penditures. He must gain and hold the confidence of particular tribes by order of the President. If the Indi- his Indians, advise them, urge them to work, help them ans would make an intelligent use of their lands many to do so, distribute implements to them, see that they of them might become rich, yet it must be admitted that are dealt with fairly by the traders, make a census of too often when Indians have brought land under good them yearly, induce them to send their children to cultivation it has been cruelly taken away by white in school, plan the school buildings, make contracts for vaders.

their erection, select the teachers and see that they do With certain exceptions, Indian Reservations ought their duty. He must organize a police force of his Into be surveyed, their boundaries defined, and then they dians and by their help administer the “Court of Inshould be laid out in sections, except in the case of some dian Offenses." He must struggle with fraudulent sterile districts which can be used only for herding contractors, bear with the petulance and ignorance of Every Indian willing to do so, and all who are fit should his Indians and their unwillingness to be civilized, keep be strongly urged to it, should be induced to select a complicated accounts, suffer the malignity of whites portion of land as his own, should receive a certificate and Indians who hate Indian progress, and finally, of allotment for it from the Government and at a speci- perhaps be sued before a United States court, if his fied period have a clear patent for it. Such Indians should explanation of his honest expenditure of Government have every proper aid to cultivate the land and derive a funds does not satisfy the Treasury clerks. profit from it. The remainder of the lands should be As rapidly as it can be safely done, the food and held as a reserve for grazing cattle upon, for allotment to clothing supplied to the Indians should be withdrawn, the children should the tribe increase, and for sale to the and the funds applied to other and more effective measUnited States at a just price when the Indians are con- ures for their civilization, as the education of the chilsenting to it.

dren, the purchase of stock cattle or of implements, and The Indians should have their personal safety secured the improvement of their homes. and their property defended against trespass or rob- There are about 50,000 Indian youth who ought to be bery just as fully as if they were citizens. A clause in in school. Of these about 20,000 will have been in the Indian appropriation bill for 1855, places the Indians school at least one month of this fiscal year. The Gov. under the laws of the United States to some extent, so ernment should press on until all these youth receive a

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