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mutton, game, fish, palm oil and palm butter ; and their to have but two. Woman he be cost too much money," drink is water and palm wine. Every native family looks was the reply. And thereby hangs a tale. The African out for something to eat. One of the difficulties in con- woman spends her money, or rather her husband's, just nection with hired labor arises from this fact. The na- as an American or European wife does. An African lady tive man will leave your work to make his rice farm, so sees her neighbor wearing a new pair of " anklets," or as to be sure of the staff of life. A month before the necklace, or bracelets. She must have a new set too; and rains, in March and April, he clears his land. At the she taunts her husband with his poverty if he does not first sign of the beginning of the rains he burns the brush. respond to her appeals. Well, the African husband finds wood and weeds. He plants after the first rain. The it uncomfortable to have a half dozen women begging or soil being extremely fertile, the seeds spring up in a few taunting him at the same time. Indeed monogamists days. He then makes his wives and children watch the sometimes find it hard to keep up with the fancies and crop till it is gathered. And they have to be very atten- wants of “the lady of the housc." It must also be retive, cr the rice-birds, which are always on the alert, membered that an African wife costs money before she is would destroy it in a very short time. In four months secured. The man who wants a girl to wife must first the crop is gath
get together the ered. The rice
purchase - monis cut down on
ey in the form the stalk. The
of oxen, bul. stalks are put
locks or some up in bundles,
other article of and these are
A wotaken home and
man has put in the top
choice in the of the houses.
matter of mar. They keep dry
riage. Often and are taken
she is chosen down, beaten,
while quite a winnowed,
child. A Krooboiled and eat
man by the needed.
name of Poor It is a pictur
Fellow" took esque sight to
me, while I was pass, as I have
passing through often done,
Krootown, to through a
the dwelling of tive town and
his affianced. see the busy
He was a grown housewife get
man; she was a the rice ready
little twelve. for cooking.
year-old girl. XATIVES AND HOMES IN WEST AFRICA. One sees many
The poor fellow mortars, and hears the music of the descending pestles was saving money to pay for her. She had already been and the sweet chatter or laughter of "the blameless promised him. The article was not to be delivered, how. Ethiopians."
ever, till full payment was made. The native wife is a very good housekeeper. In her The wife is property. She is in absolute submission dwelling the pans, kettles and basins are hung around to her liusband. She never sits down to meals with him, the room in order. When she puts dinner on the rudely and always treats him as her lord. constructed table, she never sits down, but in your pres- The African wife takes her axe, goes to the woods, ence tastes a little from every dish, as a sign that she has and comes home with a huge pile of sticks on her head. put nothing in it to hurt you. It is called, “ Taking the It is perfectly wonderful to see the loads women carry on witch off.”
the head; and they can keep them there, and even dance Two customs are interwoven with the warp and woof without touching them with their hands. of their social system. They are evils which cannot be The African wife is not an idle, useless being. She removed except by slow moral processes. We refer to washes the clothes, looks after the house and cooks. She polygamy and slavery. The former evil, however, is not boils rice to perfection. She rises with the sun, goes to as wide-spread as one would suppose. Passing through the spring for water, takes up the mats from the stationKrootown one day, and seeing a Krooman building a ary beds, which are used during the day as settees, house, I asked him how many wives he had. “Me no fit brushes up, arranges things in order, then cooks the
I have seen her varied daily experiences ple. They have invented their own alphabet, constructed morning. noon and afternoon. I have seen her going to their own written as well as spoken language, and they and returning from the spring, busy in her dwelling, are slowly growing a literature. They use a pen and an cooking outside, looking after the children, bathing them indelible ink that they make themselves. I have often and oiling and braiding their hair.
visited Veytown and looked with pride upon these repreThe traveler is familiar with the dress of the native sentatives of the Ethiopian race, who show that they African. He wears a girdie about his loins, and a wide possess the highest order of intellect. I admire the piece of cloth, manufactured by his wife, thrown loosely Mandingoes, because they are learned in the Koran and across his left shoulder and wrapped around his body. It the Commentaries ; but their books are borrowed from is like the kilt worn by the Scottish Highlander. The the Arabic. I go into inexpressible enthusiasm over Mandingoes wear a long, loose, Aowing robe, usually the Veys; because they are not only versed in Arabic made out of white cloth of their own manufacture. lore, but because, as has already been said, they also
Some of the women are very handsome. One can see have their own language in which they speak and write; nowhere in the world better specimens of natural beauty. and they have a growing literature. May they be speedily They carry themselves like queens. The Vey women are brought in contact with a better civilization, and receive especially handsome. Their expression and form are the benefits of a truly Christian education. charming. Their feet are perfectly symmetrical and deli- It is a mistake to suppose these Liberian natives simple, cately small.
Their eyes and teeth would be envied by ignorant creatures. My impression is that they are a Parisian belle. “ Thou art black and comely,” could naturally superior to the average Negro who has been be applied to a Vey woman without hesitation.
crushed by the monster, slavery. They are keen, The native women wear a piece of cloth which extends bright, quick-witted, able to distinguish the genuine from their waist down to their ankles. The cloth is from the sham. Let the reader remember that the Veysometimes a prettily-dyed specimen of their own skillful man lives in his neatly constructed dwelling ; that he making; but near the coast one often sees imported has his own written language, and is acquainted with cloth worn with pride by those who can afford it. Afri- Arabic literature, and can converse in that Asiatic can women, like American women, prefer foreign goods. tongue as well as in the English! ! It sounds “bigger" than “home-made." Around We must candidly say that the Americo-Africans in Litheir necks, ankles, and wrists they wear flashy orna- beria are not in such a condition as to call forth our ments.
enthusiasm. We refer to the masses not to the few. The natives living in the territory of Liberia have Most of the colored people who have emigrated to rules and laws of their own ; but they acknowledge, to Africa were poor and comparatively ignorant. In this some extent, the general oversight and control of the new country and hostile climate, they have enjoyed Republic. Their governments are monarchial, as a rule. neither the support of large capital nor the direction Their kings, chiefs or headmen, inherit their position of general intelligence. They carried to Africa very and authority. Native kings have attended the Li- little idea of voluntary, systematic labor. They worked berian Legislature and participated in its deliberations. in America more from outside than inside influences.
The Kroos are neat and cleanly; the women bathe Finding themselves free to lie down and to rise up, three times a day. They use a wonderful amount of and having been supported by the Colonization Society, water. One of the most picturesque sights I have ever they have done very little work. I have seen Liberians seen in my life was the Krootown girls and women going who went to the West Coast with reputations for industo and coming from the spring, in the early morning and try, sitting idly in dilapidated or rudely constructed the late afternoon, with tubs, buckets, and barrels of water houses, or walking around abusing the Government for balanced on their heads, while they laughed, talked, sang not opening roads and building bridges, thus creating and danced.
prosperity ; or these demoralized individuals would exA Krooman thinks there is no place like home, and no haust their vocabulary in abusing their neighbors, charperson in the world like mother. The attachment of acterizing them as the meanest and most devilish of mangrown men to their mothers is childlike and truly touch- kind. Then some have plainly said, “I worked hard ing. This is natural. Polygamy gives a man several enough when I was a slave. Here I can lie down when families and homes ; but the children have only one hut I want to and get up when I please ; and there is no one and one mamma. Father is often away-never in one to molest or make me afraid." house long; but mother is always present to decide the Is it not to be wondered at that so little has been done little disputes, to satisfy the little stomachs, to sing away in Liberia ? The climate is against the people. Their the little pains and sorrows. The sweetest name on education has been against them, and they have increased Krooman tongue is “mother."
their weakness by lying down on native muscle, and deThe Veys are the tribe which take the first place in pending too much on foreign philanthropy. Charity enLiberia. They are barbarians or “heathen” magis natione feebles the energies, destroys enterprise, and prevents quam ratione. In what makes manly character, in what self-reliance. No wonder that even after sixty years of makes intellectual strength, the Veys rank with any peo- opportunity, and thirty-seve n years of national existence there are no railroads, no manufactories, no steam or were those calculated to do the work required in a new water-mills, no bridges, no horses or oxén in use, except country, and they had enough means to support themat Cape Palmas !
selves for about two years. If I had to give a watchword to Liberia, it would be : Prof. Stewart says: “Let hardy, energetic and de“CHRISTIAN EDUCATION, INDUSTRIAL WORK, AND FU- termined people, especially those of African blood, go SION WITH THE NATIVES.” Herein lies the salvation of from the American States or the British colonies fully the Republic. Go to almost any town or settlement in informed as to the conditions of life in Africa ; let capthe country, and one sees the ruins of former buildings, ital be judiciously invested, first in subjecting the malafarms, and stores. On every hand is apparent degener- rial swamps at chosen points to sanitary and hygienic acy and decay. The people revel in reminiscences of , appliances ; and, secondly, to the opening of roads and departed activity and prosperity. Why is this? Poverty the planting of interior settlements; and the whole and lack of push keep them on the coast, in the swamps, world would profit in the rapid increase of commerce, where malaria is king, sapping the energy, destroying the and the steady advancement of civilization, and the vitality, and rendering them spiritless.
gradual spread of Christianity." Let Christian education, work, and fusion with the na- Rev. 0. H. Tiffany, D. D., of Philadelphia, writes: "If tives be the watchword ; and if Liberia be re-enforced by Liberia is to maintain the foothold she has gained, and American Negroes of force of character, push, education to develop into a commercial State, it must be more than and earnestness, and if capital start with them and is eco- a mere strip of sea-border. It must send back its arms nomically used and ju
of influence, ard its diciously invested, the
reaches of authority Republic will enter up
toward the interior, on an era of solid and
where, by mingling permanent prosperity,
with the native tribes and will become the
and exhibiting to them pride of Negroes
the superiority of everywhere, and help.
Christian civilization, ful to the civilization
they may be attached of Africa.
as friends and be conCLIMATE.
nected as allies; and That which has
thus the movement for greatly interfered with
a State may become colonization and espe
the occasion for a recially with mission
ligion, and commerce work in Liberia has
and friendly interbeen the unhealthy
course, which are esclimate, especially on
sential for protection, and near the coast.
may open way
for Prof. Stewart says :
the enlargement of re“ It would be a delightful climate, a healthy country, ligious principles, and the development of eternal hopes." a veritable El Dorado, if it were not for this fact- In the African Repository, for July, 1886, we find the Malaria is King." Dr. Blyden says : “ The interior following: One of the most important elements in tribes, who have from time to time, migrated to the Liberia is the Kroo tribe, extending from Bassa to the coast have perished or degenerated. Every child born Cavalla river, including the Greboes. They are all freeon the coast is stunted, physically and mentally, in men. They do no: tolerate domestic slavery. They the cradle by the jungle fever, which assails it a few days never have been known to enslave each other. They after birth. European infants seldom survive such at- preferred, in the days of the slave-trade, to kill the crimtacks. As long as the malarious vegetation and deadly inals of their own tribe to selling them into slavery. No mangrove swamps occupy so large a portion of West commercial operations can be carried on in West Africa African territory, there will be no more probability of from Sierra Leone to Loando without the Kroomen, and making any permanent, moral or even material progress they are all taken from Liberian territory. Thousands on the coast, or of developing a great mind, than there of them have been away as sailors in merchant and naval is in improving the haunts of the polar bear and the rein- ships, and having visited all the points in West, South deer.”
and East Africa-traveling even to India and ChinaStill, the view is not entirely discouraging. The far- have returned to their homes anxious to see their counther you go from the coast the more healthy it is, and try improved, and proud of a flag representing a Negro when you reach the high plains one hundred miles inland, nationality. Then Liberia has in her interior the great the climate is good, and colonies could there be estab. Mandingo tribe, extending from the St. Paul's river to lished with excellent prospects of success if the colonists Lake Chad.
WEST AFRICAN HOME.
The American Colonization
IN 1773 the Reverend Doctor Hopkins, of Rhode Is. | Congress and sanctioned by the President under safeland, proposed to educate two colored youths and send guards and guaranties the wisest that human judgment them to Africa as missionaries, and another suggested can invent.” that they should be accompanied by forty other colored The Rev. Dr. B. Sunderland in his annual address bepersons to form a colony that should be employed in fore the Society urged that the million of dollars was agricultural, mechanical and commercial pursuits, but owing to them because of the unrequited servitude of the effort then made was not successful.
250 years and beseeches most earnest efforts to secure it. In 1815, Paul Cuffee, a colored man of Massachusetts, He says : carried to Africa at his own expense forty of his people.
• Let the American Church speak out. Let the masHe was the first from America to establish a colony in
sive and ever augmenting cohorts of Methodism, whose Africa.
camp-fires glow in every nation under heaven, and whose In December, 1816, the American Colonization Society mighty tread is as the angel of God beneath whose feet was organized, and from that time to the present has
the rock-ribbed earth is trembling-let the solid army of sought the welfare of the Negroes by arranging for their
the Baptists, whose ranks are thick with converts standcolonization in Africa, believing that through this means ing for the defense of the common faith of Israel—let the their highest temporal good would be secured.
Episcopalians, whose banners stream upon the rejoicing The annual report of the Society made last January air and whose altar-fires grow beautiful in the great dawn says: “Emigration to Liberia under the auspices of the
of the advancing day.-let the Presbyterians, the sons of American Colonization Society has been uninterrupted
the French Huguenots, of Scottish Covenanters, and of for the past sixty-five years. The number sent since the
| Irish Ulster men-mailed with iron shield and stalwart in civil war amounts to 3,790, making a total from the be
the heat of battle as the gray crags of Switzerland—let the ginning of 15,788, exclusive of 5,722 recaptured Africans
Congregationalists, whose pilgrim fathers colonized New which we induced and enabled the government of the
England's shores and made the coast one line of freeUnited States to settle in Liberia, making a grand total
dom's glorious light in the midst of which their Boston of 21,510 persons to whom the Society has given homes
stands to-day outshining Athens as Christ outshone the in Africa."
Socrates of old—let the Lutheran, whose name recalls The Hon. Z. B. Roberts, one of the Justices of the
the Reformation and makes us hear again the unfettered Supreme Court of Liberia, wrote to the Society July 24,
voice of that intrepid monk who shook the Papal world 1885: “Sinoe County was planted by your philanthropy
- let the fervent Quaker, whose illustrious pioneer in common with the other portions of Liberia. It is
brought hither the benignant spirit of his Order, and gave heavily timbered, has a fertile so:1, a bar for shipping at
title to the · Key-Stone State' and perpetuated his piety all seasons of the year, and a river abounding in fish, in
in the very name of her magnificent city- let the sectary cluding superior oysters. Our evergreen palm trees lift
of every name, Protestant and Romish, join hands togethup their towering heads-waving majestically their
er to solicit this grand subsidy of national beneficence. glossy limbs and broad leaves, their trunks filled with
Let the food-gates of petition be opened upon Concrimson fruit for home use and for exportation. There
gress, and from every class and from every corner roll is room here for Africa's sons in America to enjoy with
in upon that body a volume of supplication.” us this God given land. Emigrants are needed :—those that will resolve in coming to labor for the elevation of
INFORMATION FOR INTENDING EMIGRANTS. themselves, their children, and their race. Men whose
The Society in the following answers conveys needed bosoms swell with a deep love of liberty—mechanics, far- information respecting emigration to Liberia : mers, miners and teachers are greatly desired. I emi
Question 1. At what season of the year is it best to emgrated here in 1849, and cease not to thank the American
bark for Liberia ? Colonization Society for aiding me to come, and my Heavenly Father for good health and prolonging my
Answer 1. Vessels usually leave this country in the life"
Spring and Fail for Liberia. There is very little, if any, The Committee on Emigration reported last January : choice between these two seasons of the year as a time “What Liberia most needs to-day, in our view, is, that
to arrive in that Republic. one quarter of its territory, now unoccupied by a civilized Q. 2. How long is the voyage, and is there much danand Christian population, should be filled with 10,000 of ger that we shall be lost on the way? the choicest men, women and children that can be found A. 2. Thirty-five days is the average length of a voyin half a million, and that they should be sent there not age to Liberia. In sixty-five years, during which there by the tardy and inadequate aid of private beneficence, have been nearly two hundred emigrations, there has not but by an appropriation of a million of dollars, voted by been a case of loss or disaster.
Q. 3. What ought we to take with us, both for use on A. 6. Every emigrant costs the Society one hur.dred t'ie voyage and after we get there?
dollars ; of which $50 is for passage and support, and $50 A. 3. Every emigrant ought to be well supplied with for rations and shelter during the first six months after clothing similar to that which he wears in this country. arrival in Liberia. Toward this outlay, the preference is The heat is not so oppressive as in America during the accorded such applicants, all other things being equal, summer. There is no winter in Liberia, but during the as will give at least $25 a head. This money must be rainy season, health is preserved and promoted by wear. sent to the Society and an order for passage obtained being flannel, or warm clothing. He ought also to have a fore the people leave their homes, as without it they will good mattress and bed-clothes, which he will use on not be received on the vessel Emigrants are required shipboard and after landing. If he is a mechanic, he ought to reach the ship at their own expense. What the Soto have the tools of his trade. If he is a farmer, he ought ciety does for emigrants is a free gift to them, never to be to be well supplied with axes, hoes, spades, saws, augers, returned. etc. He should also be provided with cotton-gins, a Q. 7. How can I make a living in Liberia ? loom, portable furniture, and ploughs, condensed for A. 7. In the same way you would make one anywhere storage. And, as every family is expected to keep house else ; that is, by industry and economy. During the first and live by themselves, they ought to have a good sup- six months after arrival in Liberia you become acclimaply of table furniture and cooking utensils. It is not ted, and can open and plant your land, build a house on possible to take chairs, tables, bedsteads, and other large it, raise a crop, and have everything in readiness to live articles of furniture
comfortably thereafter. with them, as they
Blacksmiths, carpenoccupy too much room
ters, masons, brickin the ship. But what
makers, cabinetmakers, ever is convenient and
shipwrights, etc., etc. necessary in house
can always find emkeeping and of small
ployment at good wacompass, they ought
ges. The farmer need to take. A keg of
fear no want. nails, (4, 6, 9, and ten
Africa is now occupenny), a bale or two
pying the attention of of domestics, a quan
philanthropists, scientity of leaf tobacco
tists and merchants in (small heads, averag
all civilized countries. ing five heads to the
To Americans, there pound) and some
is no portion of that specie or gold coin,
Continent that is more and “greenbacks"
interesting than that would be of use to PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH AT CAPE PALMAS, LIBERIA.
in which the Republic them in erecting their
of Liberia is situated. houses, and paying for any labor they might need during | That section of country, 500 miles long and 200 miles the first few months of their residence in Liberia. Seeds deep, is a home of Christianity and freedom, founded of every kind, especially the most common vegetable, by Africans of American birth and training. The carefully put up air-tight, should be taken.
geographical position of Liberia, combined with the Q. 4. How much land is given to each emigrant ? natural conformation of its surface and the agricultural
A. 4. Each single person receives ten acres of land, qualities of its soil, render it possible for this increasing and each family twenty-five acres. Government land nationality to exercise an important influence on the may be bought at fifty cents an The soil in Li- future development of civilization and commerce in that beria is as rich and productive as in any part of the portion of the Continent. world.
Additional information will be furnished on application Q. 5. Can I educate my children there, and what addressed to Mr. William COPPINGER, Colonization Rooms, will it cost?
Washington, D. C. A. 5. By law in Liberia, all parents are required to send their children to school. In some of the settle
The last Annual Report of the Colonization Society, ments the schools are good. A college, the material and erection of which cost $20,000, is in operation. The says: The only man available for the great work of open
ing Africa to commerce and civilization is the Negro of natives are at peace with the Liberians, and are generally America. He can live there, for it is the habitat of his anxious to have their children educated.
race, and being fully civilized and Christian too, he is Q. 6. What assistance will the American Colonization the Agent, and the only Agent that the world contains Society render me in getting to Liberia ?
adapted to this purpose.