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sentatives. The President and the House of Represen. of the latter of whom 15 are native boys and 3 are native tatives are elected for two years, and the Senate for four girls. years. There are 13 members of the Lower House, and The Board of Missions of the P. Episcopal Church 8 of the Upper House. The President must be thirty- maintain, as reported by Bishop Ferguson, 4 boarding five years of age, and have real property to the value of schools containing 251 scholars, and 9 other schools $600. The present President is Hilary R. W. Johnson, with 284 scholars. These are mostly native youths, and an able Christian man, who is serving his second term. the Hoffman Institute, at Cavalla, is for the training of The President is assisted in his executive function by clergymen and catechists born in Africa. five ministers—the Secretary of State, the Secretary of All Saints Hall, at Beulah, Grand Bassa County, Miss the Treasury, Secretary of the Interior, the Attorney. Margaretta Scott, principal, is said to have 10 girls unGeneral, and the Postmaster-General.
der instruction. The total population is estimated to number 1,068,000,
The Lutheran Mission schools, at Muhlenberg, are all of the African race, and of which number 18,000 are stated to have 127 scholars, of whom 73 boys and 15 Americo-Liberians, and the remaining 1,050,000 aborigi- girls are in the boarding department, and 23 boys and 16 nal inhabitants. Monrovia, the capital, has an estimated girls are day pupils,-largely natives of the country. population of 3,000.
The Woman's Baptist The laws prohibit white
Foreign Missionary Sopersons from becoming
ciety have two schools citizens or holding pro
in Grand Bassa County, perty.
but no late statement as In 1871 the republic
to the beneficiaries has contracted a loan of
been furnished. $500,000 at 7 per cent.
Returns for the quarinterest to be redeemed
ter ending March 31, in 15 years. No in
show 40 primary and terest has been paid on
grammar schools with it since 1874, and the
1106 scholars supported principal and interest
by the Government of due this month amount
Liberia, as follows: to nearly one million of
Montserrado County, dollars.
24 schools and 476 puEDUCATION.
pils. Grand Bassa The American Coloni
County, 10 schools and zation Society furnishes
329 pupils. Sinoe Counthe following report re
ty, 6 schools and 301 specting education in
pupils. Liberia :
No report appears The American Colo.
from Maryland County, nization Society schools
in many instances the are reported to have
number of scholars is been regularly attended, and with encouraging results; not given, and there is nothing to indicate the sex or that at Arthington having 20 male and 26 female scholars, nativity of those reported. of whom 10 are Aborigines, and the school at Brewerville The Liberia College was inaugurated January 23, 1862, 34 Liberian and 4 native boys. The increasing number
. The increasing number and the first regular term began February 2, 1863.' The of children and the rapid extension of this settlement schools which had chiefly prepared its first pupils were make additional educational facilities necessary. A high closed soon after it opened. The latest statement gives school, with an industrial department, is very desirable. 14 pupils in the College, (of whom 6 are in the Fresh
The Hall Free School, at Cape Palmas, under the aus- man, 3 in the Sophomore and 5 in the Junior classes;) 35 pices of the Maryland State Colonization Society, is sta- in the Preparatory department and 21 in the female school. ted to have 50 pupils of both sexes and nativities.
The Liberia College is supported by the Trustees of The Anna Morris School at Arthington, is said to have Donations for Education in Liberia, at Boston, and the 49 boys and 23 girls; of the former of whom 27 are na- New York State Colonization Society. The Pennsylvatives. This interesting school was founded and is sus- nia Colonization Society helps to meet the salary of the tained by the disinterested efforts of Edward S. Morris, teacher of the female school. Esq., of Philadelphia, Pa.
The foregoing returns, incomplete and imperfect as The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions report 4 they are, show an attendance for instruction of 303 males, schools and 101 pupils ; also the Alexander High School, 138 females, and 1792 whose sex is not stated, making a at Clay-Ashland, with 51 male and 27 female scholars : grand total of 2233.
The feeling is becoming general in Liberia that the and the English are different and distinct dialects. The time is not far distant when an earnest effort should general appearance of the tribes is alike, except the Manbe made for the support of its educational and religious dingoes, who are a tall and sinewy race of men. institutions from the resources of the country. It is felt can always distinguish a Krooman. He is the sailor of the that provision should be made on the spot for the high- | coast. He navigates all the steamers and ships that do er education of the people—that it may not be exposed business in West African waters. The Krooman was to the inconvenience which a state of absolute depend- never a slave ; he was too useful to the slave-trader as a ence upon friends at a distance must necessarily entail. sailor. In order to prevent the exportation of a Krooman, PEOPLE,
the tribe adopted as a sign a blue band down the forehead. Mr. Wm. Coppinger says of the people: “Liberia has Every male child is tatooed, and he grows up with that
1 an element of progress in her Aboriginal population stamp upon his face, of which he never fails to be which no other civilized government in Africa can com- proud. mand. In her jurisdiction there are Veys, the ingenious These tribes dwell in towns, each town having its chief inventors of an alphabet; Mandingoes, the enterprising or headman. The houses are neatly constructed of bammerchants and Mohammedan missionaries, who fill Sou- boo. Many of them are oblong. The Veys live in conidan with their wares
cal - shaped dweland letters; Pes
lings, with a porch sehs, who are the
in which they usulaborious and inde
ally hang a hamfatigable workers of
mock of their own the soil ; Kroomen,
manufacture. The without whom no
houses are comparextensive enterpri
atively neat, and ses can be carried
the African wife on in Africa ; Bas
prides herself in sas, who supply palm
keeping her home oil by the millions
tidy and in order. of gallons, camwood
The ground serves and ivory by the
as the floor, but thousands of tons;
they frequently besides Golahs,
spread their homeDeys, Queahs, and
made mats upon it. the indomitable and
This is much better irrepressible Gre.
than the sleepy peoboes. All these God
Madeira ; has given to Liberia.
whose floors are of Are these not a peo
stone, and are usuple for whose eleva
ally bare. Some of tion it is thought
these African-made worth while to la
mats are very bor? They are coming forward, and they will bring pretty. They combine different colors in making them. . their contributions to the markets of civilization and They cover the dining room and sitting-room of many a their offerings to the Most High."
well-to-do Americo-African, who buys then from the The fullest account of the people we have seen is that skillful, industrious natives. In building their houses given by Prof. T. McCants Stewart, now of New York, they use no nails, but a rope and a cord of their own but formerly the Professor of Belles Lettres and Law in make, which are as strong and as durable as anything Liberia College, in a pamphlet lately issued. He says: manufactured in Europe or America.
The people of Liberia, the Americo-African Republic, Most people have an idea that the Negro at home is are divided into two classes : (1). The Aborigines, who an idle being who sits around and does nothing. They are (a) the indigenous tribes, and (6) the slaves recap- will hardly believe that they have their smiths who work tured from slave-ships and returned to Africa ; and (2). in iron and gold, their weavers of cloth, and their lcom, The colored colonizers from the United States and the their dyers, carpenters, merchants, teachers, doctors and West Indies, and their descendants.
farmers, and are engaged in many of the pursuits comThe Natives, as the Aborigines are called, numbering mon to our more advanced civilized life. This is true of about 800,000 persons, are divided into tribes, named many of the Liberian tribes. Among some, if not all of Veys, Mandingoes, Kroos, Golahs, Greboes, Pesehs, them, the various industries of life are pursued, even if Bassas and Deys. They differ in dialect, as do the people in a feeble way. of Great Britain even to-day. The Welsh, the Scotch The food of the natives consists of rice, cassava, beef,
mutton, game, fish, palm oil and palm butter ; and their to have but two. Woman he be cost too much money," drink is water and palm wine. Every native family looks was the reply. And thereby hangs a tale. The African out for something to eat. One of the difficulties in con- woman spends her money, or rather her husband's, just nection with hired labor arises from this fact. The na- as an American or European wife does. An African lady tive man will leave your work to make his rice farm, so sees her neighbor wearing a new pair of “anklets," or as to be sure of the staff of life. A month before the necklace, or bracelets. She must have a new set too; and rains, in March and April, he clears his land. At the she taunts her husband with his poverty if he does not first sign of the beginning of the rains he burns the brush-respond to her appeals. Well, the African husband finds wood and weeds. He plants after the first rain. The it uncomfortable to have a half dozen women begging or soil being extremely fertile, the seeds spring up in a few | taunting him at the same time. Indeed monogamists days. He then makes his wives and children watch the sometimes find it hard to keep up with the fancies and crop till it is gathered. And they have to be very atten- wants of "the lady of the house." It must also be retive, cr the rice-birds, which are always on the alert, membered that an African wife costs money before she is would destroy it in a very short time. In four months secured. The man who wants a girl to wife must first the crop is gath
get together the ered. The rice
purchase.monis cut down on
ey in the form the stalk. The
of oxen, bul. stalks are put
locks or up in bundles,
other article of and these are
A wotaken home and
man put in the top
choice in the of the houses.
matter of mar. They keep dry
riage. Often and are taken
she is chosen down, beaten,
while quite a winnowed,
child. A Krooboiled and eat
man en as needed.
name of Poor It is a pictur
Fellow" took esque sight to
me, while I was pass, as I have
passing through often done,
Krootown, to through a
the dwelling of tive town and
his affianced. see the busy
He was a grown housewife get
man; she was a the rice ready
little twelve. for cooking
year-old girl. One sees many
The poor fellow mortars, and hears the music of the descending pestles was saving money to pay for her. She had already been and the sweet chatter or laughter of “the blameless promised him. The article was not to be delivered, how. Ethiopians."
ever, till full payment was made. The native wife is a very good housekeeper. In her The wife is property. She is in absolute submission dwelling the pans, kettles and basins are hung around to her liusband. She never sits down to meals with him, the room in order. When she puts dinner on the rudely and always treats him as her lord. constructed table, she never sits down, but in your pres- The African wife takes her axe, goes to the woods, ence tastes a little from every dish, as a sign that she has and comes home with a huge pile of sticks on her head. put nothing in it to hurt you. It is called, “Taking the It is perfectly wonderful to see the loads women carry on witch off.”
the head ; and they can keep them there, and even dance Two customs are interwoven with the warp and woof without touching them with their hands. of their social system. They are evils which cannot be The African wife is not an idle, useless being. She removed except by slow moral processes. We refer to washes the clothes, looks after the house and cooks. She polygamy and slavery. The former evil, however, is not boils rice to perfection.
She rises with the sun, goes to as wide-spread as one would suppose. Passing through
. Passing through the spring for water, takes up the mats from the stationKrootown one day, and seeing a Krooman building a ary beds, which are used during the day as settees, house, I asked him how many wives he had. “Me no fit brushes up, arranges things in order, then cooks the
I have seen her varied daily experiences ple. They have invented their own alphabet, constructed morning, noon and afternoon. I have seen her going to their own written as well as spoken language, and they and returning from the spring, busy in her dwelling, are slowly growing a literature. They use a pen and an cooking outside, looking after the children, bathing them indelible ink that they make themselves. I have often and oiling and braiding their hair.
visited Veytown and looked with pride upon these repreThe traveler is familiar with the dress of the native sentatives of the Ethiopian race, who show that they African. He wears a girdie about his loins, and a wide possess the highest order of intellect. I admire the
piece cí cloth, manufactured by his wife, thrown loosely Mandingoes, because they are learned in the Koran and .. across his left shoulder and wrapped around his body. It the Commentaries ; but their books are borrowed from
is like the kilt worn by the Scottish Highlander. The the Arabic. I go into inexpressible enthusiasm over Mandingoes wear a long, loose, Aowing robe, usually the Veys; because they are not only versed in Arabic made out of white cloth of their own manufacture. lore, but because, as has already been said, they also
Some of the women are very handsome. One can see have their own language in which they speak and write; nowhere in the world better specimens of natural beauty. and they have a growing literature. May they be speedily They carry themselves like queens. The Vey women are brought in contact with a better civilization, and receive especially handsome. Their expression and form are the benefits of a truly Christian education. charming. Their feet are perfectly symmetrical and deli- It is a mistake to suppose these Liberian natives simple, cately small. Their eyes and teeth would be envied by ignorant creatures. My impression is that they are a Parisian belle. “ Thou art black and comely,” could naturally superior to the average Negro who has been be applied to a Vey woman without hesitation.
crushed by the monster, slavery. They are keen, The native women wear a piece of cloth which extends bright, quick-witted, able to distinguish the genuine from their waist down to their ankies. The cloth is from the sham. Let the reader remember that the Veysometimes a prettily-dyed specimen of their own skillful man lives in his neatly constructed dwelling ; that he making ; but near the coast one often sees imported has his own written language, and is acquainted with cloth worn with pride by those who can afford it. Afri- Arabic literature, and can converse in that Asiatic can women, like American women, prefer foreign goods. tongue as well as in the English ! It sounds “bigger" than “home-made." Around We must candidly say that the Americo-Africans in Litheir necks, ankles, and wrists they wear flashy orna- beria are not in such a condition as to call forth our ments.
enthusiasm. We refer to the masses not to the few. The natives living in the territory of Liberia have | Most of the colored people who have emigrated to rules and laws of their own ; but they acknowledge, to Africa were poor and comparatively ignorant. In this some extent, the general oversight and control of the new country and hostile climate, they have enjoyed Republic. Their governments are monarchial, as a rule. neither the support of large capital nor the direction Their kings, chiefs or headmen, inherit their position of general intelligence. They carried to Africa very and authority. Native kings have attended the Li
little idea of voluntary, systematic labor. They worked. berian Legislature and participated in its deliberations. in America more from outside than inside influences.
The Kroos are neat and cleanly; the women bathe Finding themselves free to lie down and to rise up, three times a day. They use a wonderful amount of and having been supported by the Colonization Society, water. One of the most picturesque sights I have ever they have done very little work. I have seen Liberians seen in my life was the Krootown girls and women going who went to the West Coast with reputations for industo and coming from the spring, in the early morning and try, sitting idly in dilapidated
try, sitting idly in dilapidated or rudely constructed the late afternoon, with tubs, buckets, and barrels of water houses, or walking around abusing the Government for balanced on their heads, while they laughed, talked, sang not opening roads and building bridges, thus creating and danced.
prosperity ; or these demoralized individuals would exA Krooman thinks there is no place like home, and no haust their vocabulary in abusing their neighbors, charperson in the world like mother. The attachment of acterizing them as the meanest and most devilish of mangrown men to their mothers is childlike and truly touch. kind. Then some have plainly said, “I worked hard ing. This is natural. Polygamy gives a man several enough when I was a slave. Here I can lie down when families and homes ; but the children have only one hut I want to and get up when I please ; and there is no one and one mamma. Father is often away-never in one to molest or make me afraid.” house long ; but mother is always present to decide the Is it not to be wondered at that so little has been done little disputes, to satisfy the little stomachs, to sing away in Liberia ? The climate is against the people. Their the little pains and sorrows. The sweetest name education has been against them, and they have increased Krooman tongue is “mother."
their weakness by lying down on native muscle, and deThe Veys are the tribe which take the first place in pending too much on foreign philanthropy. Charity enLiberia. They are barbarians or "heathen" magis natione feebles the energies, destroys enterprise, and prevents quam ratione. In what makes manly character, in what self-reliance. No wonder that even after sixty years of makes intellectual strength, the Veys rank with any peo- opportunity, and thirty-seve n years of national existence
there are no railroads, no manufactories, no steam or were those calculated to do the work required in a new water-mills, no bridges, no horses or oxén in use, except country, and they had enough means to support themat Cape Palmas !
selves for about two years. If I had to give a watchword to Liberia, it would be : Prof. Stewart says : “Let hardy, energetic and de“Christian EDUCATION, INDUSTRIAL Work, and Fu-' termined people, especially those of African blood, go SION WITH THE NATIVES.” Herein lies the salvation of from the American States or the British colonies fully the Republic. Go to almost any town or settlement in informed as to the conditions of life in Africa ; let capthe country, and one sees the ruins of former buildings, ital be judiciously invested, first in subjecting the malafarms, and stores. On every hand is apparent degener- rial swamps at chosen points to sanitary and hygienic acy and decay. The people revel in reminiscences of , appliances; and, secondly, to the opening of roads and departed activity and prosperity. Why is this? Poverty the planting of interior settlements; and the whole and lack of push keep them on the coast, in the swamps, world would profit in the rapid increase of commerce, where malaria is king, sapping the energy, destroying the and the steady advancement of civilization, and the vitality, and rendering them spiritless.
gradual spread of Christianity.” Let Christian education, work, and fusion with the na- Rev. O. H. Tiffany, D.D., of Philadelphia, writes: "If tives be the watchword ; and if Liberia be re-enforced by Liberia is to maintain the foothold she has gained, and American Negroes of force of character, push, education to develop into a commercial State, it must be more than and earnestness, and if capital start with them and is eco- a mere strip of sea-border. It must send back its arms nomically used and ju
de of influence, ard its diciously invested, the
reaches of authority Republic will enter up
toward the interior, on an era of solid and
where, by mingling permanent prosperity,
with the native tribes and will become the
and exhibiting to them pride of Negroes
the superiority of everywhere, and help.
Christian civilization, ful to the civilization
they may be attached of Africa.
as friends and be conCLIMATE.
nected as allies; and That which has
thus the movement for greatly interfered with
a State may become colonization and espe
the occasion for a recially with mission
ligion, and commerce work in Liberia has
and friendly interbeen the unhealthy
course, which are esclimate, especially on
sential for protection, and near the coast.
WEST AFRICAN HOME.
may open the way for Prof. Stewart says:
the enlargement of re" It would be a delightful climate, a healthy country, ligious principles, and the development of eternal hopes." a veritable El Dorado, if it were not for this fact- In the African Repository, for July, 1886, we find the Malaria is King." Dr. Blyden says: “The interior following: One of the most important elements in tribes, who have from time to time, migrated to the Liberia is the Kroo tribe, extending from Bassa to the coast have perished or degenerated. Every child born Cavalla river, including the Greboes. They are all freeon the coast is stunted, physically and mentally, in men. They do no: tolerate domestic slavery. They the cradle by the jungle fever, which assails it a few days never have been known to enslave each other. They after birth. European infants seldom survive such at- preferred, in the days of the slave-trade, to kill the crimtacks. As long as the malarious vegetation and deadly inals of their own tribe to selling them into slavery. No mangrove swamps occupy so large a portion of West commercial operations can be carried on in West Africa African territory, there will be no more probability of from Sierra Leone to Loando without the Kroomen, and making any permanent, moral or even material progress they are all taken from Liberian territory. Thousands on the coast, or of developing a great mind, than there of them have been away as sailors in merchant and naval is in improving the haunts of the polar bear and the rein-ships, and having visited all the points in West, South deer."
and East Africa-traveling even to India and ChinaStill, the view is not entirely discouraging. The far- have returned to their homes anxious to see their counther you go from the coast the more healthy it is, and try improved, and proud of a flag representing a Negro when you reach the high plains one hundred miles inland, nationality. Then Liberia has in her interior the great the climate is good, and colonies could there be estab. Mandingo tribe, extending from the St. Paul's river to lished with excellent prospects of success if the colonists Lake Chad.