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two stones and put on the kettle to boil that we might As we crossed and entered the town, 11 A. M., was have a cup of tea before our morning ride of 15 miles. just struck at the police station, where time is kept by The train arrived before 4 a. M., and brought my wife a water clock—that is, a bowl perforated by one small and baby, Miss Esther De Vine and Miss Laura Hyde, m.hole so that it leaks enough to fill a sink once every D., both of Cawnpore. We had the comfortable wait. hour. It is rumored that the man on watch often helps ing room all to ourselves where we drank our tea and it to sink when desire to sleep or burger makes him indeed had what is called here " little breakfast.” anxious for the arrival of his successor on duty.
Mules hired for the sum of thirty cents each
Leroy M. Vernon. for the day were waiting
Leroy M.Vernon, D.D. for our baggage, and so
was born in Montgomlively did they travel
ery Co., Indiana, April that, with but a little
23, 1838, and was reared start, they kept ahead
in a Christian home of of us the whole way into
the old Methodist type. Kotchvara. One dooley
The early itinerants with six men took Mrs.
knew “ Brother VernG., and baby, one man
on’s ” house as one of called a bangewala,
their homes where they fastening our lunch and
were always welcome, wraps from a bit of
and sure of hospitable bamboo that rested on
entertainment. his shoulder, Like a
The subject of this pair of scales his load
sketch was thus brought hung from his shoulders
early under the influence as he trotted off with a
of these Godly, earnest spring. The rest of us
men, and at the
age were accommodated
eighteen, while at Colwith ponies, two of
lege, he was converted which had been sent us
to God, and became an by the kindness of the
earnest worker in the Rev. J. H. Messmore,
Methodist Church. of Pauri.
He graduated from Our dooley was not
Iowa Wesleyan Unilike the “ ferocious
versity in 1860, then unone of mutiny fame.
DR. LEROY M. VERNON.
der the presidency of It was simply an inverted charpoy and cost less than Dr. Charles Elliot, and the same year he joined the sixty cents. Our road lay through the jungle land Iowa Conference. In Nov ember, 1860, he married Miss. which is called, where dry, the " bhabir,” and where Fannie B. Elliott, the daughter of President Elliott. wet, the “ tarai,” and is a part of that great belt In the spring of 1862, he was transfered to Misof forest which skirts the whole of the Himalayas. souri and stationed at Simpson Church, St. Louis. Government has encouraged the inhabitants on all sides The following year he was chosen Professor of Greek of it to cultivate the land, felling the trees and disput- | in McKendree College, Ill., which position he declined. ing with the wild beasts the right of ownership.
In March, 1864 he was appointed Presiding Elder of Alongside of our road a beginning has been made the Springfield District in Missouri, and in 1866 was and cultivation has begun. We had our fears about chosen President of St. Cbarles College, St. Charles, Misthe condition of the road itself, for it is proverbially souri. bad at the close of the rains, but as we were mounted He was delegate to the General Conference of 1868, our fears were groundless. Wheeled vehicles would which met in Chicago, at which he was appointed a have been hindered at several places where water had member of the Book Committee for four succeeding badly cut up the highway, which, by the way, was not years. From the General Conference he went directly high at all, but simply a cart road cleared of timber in to Europe, returning near the close of the year. Wbile the midst of the forest.
absent he was elected to the Chair of Latin Language We were well into this “forest primeval” before the and Literature in the State University of Missouri, of sun looked on us. In a few places the tall grass had which he had been a curator most of the time since 1864. grown up in the midst of the road and touched our This position he declined. elbows as we passed. We were happily disappointed in In 1869 be received the degree of D. D. from the Misfinding the Koh river, which is always clear, swift, and souri State University. full of boulders, easily fordable.
Honobuwi Sandwich [.
country where he has since resided.
He was a delegate to the Methodist Ecumenical Con- good administrator, and the Mission under his charg
He has been a faithful and successful worker, and
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Progress of Christianity.
It was in the year 312 that Constantine, the Roman The word Christian properly denotes a follower of Emperor, believed he saw a cross in the heavens, with Christ. It is, however, often used in a more compre- the legend “In this conquer," and he placed Christianity hensive sense, and “Christians” made to include all who on the throne of the empire. It was only a partial conare followers of Christ, and, in addition, all who are not version on his part, for" he still remained chief pontiff of Jews, or Mohammedans, or Heathen, though they may Jupiter, and allowed prayers to be addressed to the have no living faith in Christ, and be making no effort genius of the emperor.” He summoned the members of to do his will. It is in this broader sense we use the the council that met in the city of Nicæa. It was comword when we speak of the progress of Christianity.
posed of 318 bishops and presided over by Constantine. The number of Christians at different periods in the The Nicene Creed which they formed was “simple, past has been given as follows :
moderate and comprehensive," and has exerted an im There was one at the beginning of the Christian portant influence upon the faith of the Church.
In 390 the Emperor Theodosius issued the edict, “It A. D. 1000 there were 50 millions.
is our will and pleasure that none of our subjects, 1500 100
whether magistrates or private citizens, however exalted 1700
or however humble may be their rank and condition, 1800
shall presume in any city or in any place to worship an
inanimate idol by the sacrifice of a guiltless victim.” These 415 millions of Christians in 1880 include all the close of paganism in the Roman empire may be the members of the Protestant, Roman Catholic, Greek, said to date from the publication of the Theodosian Armenian, Nestorian, Coptic and Abyssinian Churches, Code in 438. The Christian Church, thus patronized by and all who claim to believe in the faith of one of these the State, often exhibited but little of the true spirit of rather than that of any other.
its Christ. It will be seen that there was an increase of 50 mil.
It is not known when Christianity was first carried lions during the first 1,000 years ; doubling in the next into Great Britain. Tertullian, in the year 208, speaks 500 years; doubling again after 300 years, and more of Christian conquests there. In the early part of the tban doubling the first 80 years of this century.
fifth century England supported twenty-six missionary According to Behm and Wagner, the population of the bishops. It was in this century that the missionary Forld in 1880 was as follows :
from England to Ireland named Sukkat, and best known Europe 327,500,000.
as St. Patrick, was so successful in his evangelizing
The work of Christian missionaries in Great Britain
and Ireland was among a savage race, and in 596, Pope America 100,415,400.
Gregory sent St. Augustine with forty associates to conPolar Regions, 82,500.
vert England. In 597 the King of all the Saxons south Total 1,433,644,100.
of the Humber was baptized. Augustine was made Archwere divided as follows: Christians, 415 bishop of Canterbury and was instructed to use the millions, of whom 135 millions were Protestants, 195 idol temples as churches after purifying them with holy millions Roman Catholics, 85 millions members of the water, and not to abolish but to convert into Christian Eastern Church; Mohammedans, 175 millione; Jewe, 8
saints' days and festivals the times of heathen observance
and sacrifice." millions; Pagans (Shintos, Buddhists, Brahmanists, Fetish, etc.), 835 millions. .
“The conversion of Western Europe may be said to Christianity was at first considered by the Roman have been nominally or historically completed when in authorities as a sect of Judaism which needed to be 1066, the Normans, Christianized, became conquerors, watched and possibly repressed. During the first three under William, of the Saxon and ultimately the Celtic bundred years there were ten distinct persecutions of peoples, who had been the chief instruments in God's Christians under the following Emperors, and in the hand of turning the Northern nations from naturefollowing periods: Nero, A. D., 64; Domitian, 95; worship and hero-worship, animal sacrifices and human Trajan, 107; Aurelius Antonius, 163; Severus, 201; sacrifices, and dumb idols like the colossal Irmin-Saule Maximinus, 235; Decius, 249; Valerian, 257; Aurelian, and Thor, to the living God. First the Scoto-Celt 274; Diocletian, 303.
transformed the Saxons so that they should not give These persecutions did not destroy the Christian England back again to a demon-driven barbarism. Church. “The united conclusion of Gibbon and Dr. Then Christian Celt and Saxon became the missionaries Lightfoot is that in the middle of the third century, the to Frank and Goth, Han and Scandinavian. Western Christians were one-twentieth of the subjects of the Europe was saved by the Christianization of the Northempire, and one hundred and fiftieth of the whole human ern nations from the fate which was fast overtaking race."
Eastern and Southern Europe, where the Saracens and
then the Turks swept away Church and State, creed and The present century has witnessed the fast growing polity together, even in the land where Christ bad interest in the evangelization of the world, and the taught and suffered, and where his followers were first progress of Christianity is seen first in the organization called by his name.”
of many different missionary societies, and secondly in The religious enthusiasm of Europe exhibited itself in the blessed work they have accomplished. the six Crueades from 1096 to 1248, but these failed to The following Foreign Missionary Societies have accomplish their purpose of bringing and keeping Pales. been organized since the commencement of this tine under the control of the Christians. Tbe dark century : ages that followed resulted from a reliance upon fornis British.-London Society for the Jews, 1808; Wesand ceremonies and a neglect of the spiritual claims of leyan, 1814; General Baptist, 1816; Bible Christian, 1821; the Gospel upon the inner life of the soul.
Colonial and Continental, 1823; Established Church of The reformation under Wiclif and Huss, Luther and Scotland, 1827; Free Church of Scotland, 1827; Knox in the sixteenth century aroused the Church not Presbyterian Church of Ireland, 1840; Welsh Presby to evangelize the world but to seek its own salvation. It terian, 1841; Edinburgh Medical, 1841; British Society
Home mission to Christendom.” It was a suc- for the Jews, 1842; Primitive Methodist, 1843; South cessful struggle against the tyranny and the blighting American Missionary Society, 1844; Presbyterian superstition of the Papacy.
Church of England, 1847; United Presbyterian Church “As a Protestant Foreign Mission the Reformation of Scotland, 1847; Free Church of Scotland, 1847; had only indirect or long delayed results, and for two United Free Methodists, 1857; Methodist New Conreasons. The spiritual conflict against so tremendous a nection, 1860; Universities' Mission, 1860; Friends, power as papal Rome required and received the aid of 1865; China Inland Mission, 1865; Indian Home Mis--(1), Political and civil authority, through which it sion to the Santhals, 1868; Livingstone Inland Mission, worked out personal liberty in Europe, but sacrificed or 1878. obliterated the duty of every individual Christian to American.- American Board, 1810; Baptist Missionpropagate the Gospel; (2), Reason or intellect as a basis ary Union, 1814; Methodist Episcopal, 1819; Methodist of private judgment and necessary for the study of the Church in Canada, 1824; Reformed Church in America, Bible and elaboration of Divine truth, but this became 1832; Protestant Episcopal, 1885; Free Baptist, 1836; exaggerated into the intellectual orthodoxy of the sev. Presbyterian North, 1837; Lutheran, General Synod, enteenth and the repellent rationalism of the eighteenth 1839; Seventh-Day Baptist, 1842; African Methodist century.”
Episcopal, 1844; Presbyterian Church in Canada, 1844; It was not until the early part of the eighteenth cen. Southern Baptist Convention, 1845; Methodist Episcotury that the missionary spirit exhibited itself in Pro- pal, South, 1845; Disciples, 1849; United Brethren in testant Christianity. In 1705 two missionaries went out Christ, 1853; United Presbyterian, 1858; Reformed from Denmark to India. They were Bartholomew Presbyterian, 1859; Presbyterian, South, 1862; Baptist Ziegenbalg and Henry Plutschau. In 1721 Hans Church of Canada, 1866; Lutheran General Council, Egede, a Norwegian pastor went forth as a missionary 1869; Friends, 1869; Christian, 1875; Cumberland Presto Greenland. In 1732 two Moravians, Dober and byterian, 1876; Evangelical Association, 1876; AdvenNitschmann left Europe as miesionaries to St. Thomas lists, 1876 ; Reformed, German, 1878; Associate in the West Indies. The same year the Moravians sent Reformed Synod of the South, 1878; Methodist Protesmissionaries to Greenland, in 1734 to the American tant, 1878; Baptist Southern Convention, Colored, 1880; Indians, in 1786 to the Hottentots and Bushmen of South Free Methodists, 1881; Tunkers, 1881. Africa. The Society for the Propogation of the Gospel Continental.-Basle, 1815; Danish Lutheran, 1821; in Foreign Parts was organized in 1701, but did little Paris, 1822; Rhenish, 1828; Leipzig, 1836; Gorsner, 1836; mission work in heathen lands until the present century. Berlin, 1836; North German, 1836; St. Chriechona,
In the latter part of the eighteenth century the labors 1840; Norwegian, 1842; Lund's, 1845; Jerusalem, 1845; of Wesley, Whitfield and others in England spiritual. Hermannsburg, 1849; Stockholm Stads, 1853; Java, ized the Church and started missionaries first to Amer. 1855; Ermelo, 1856; Netherlands, 1858; Utrecht, 1859; ica, and afterward to the East Indies, West Indies, and Dutch Reformed, 1859; Christian Reformed, 1860; other lande. The English Baptist Society was organized Angarius Union, 1865; Finnish, 1868; Free Church of in 1792.
Canton de Vaud, 1869; Mennonite, 1880. William Carey, who is called “the first Englishman The above are the leading Foreign Missionary who was a Foreign Missionary,” went from England as Societies. There also a number of Woman's Missiona missionary to India in 1793. Before the close of the ary Societies and several Independent Missions. century there were organized the London Missionary There are over one hundred Foreign Missionary Or. Society (1795); Scottish Missionary Society (1796); ganizations with about three thousand ordained foreign Netherlands Missionary Society (1797); English Church missionaries, seven hundred lay foreign missionaries, and Missionary Society (1799); Religious Tract Society twenty-four hundred female foreign missionaries. They (1799).
are assisted by about twenty-four hundred ordained natives, and twenty-seven hundred other native workers. practices of its adherents leave the mass of the people The native communicants number about 780,000. dependent upon a lifeless formalism for salvation.
There are 190 squares representing 190 millions of
Roman Catholics. They are found chiefly in Italy, The World divided Religously, and our Responsibility. Austria, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, France, Ireland, Mex.
The chart on this page was arranged to show the com- ico, and South America, and in considerable numbers parative proportion of the population as they are divided in many other countries. Calling themselves Christians, religiously. It is not exact, but gives a general idea of the great majority evidence the sad result of elevating the subject.
the teachings of man above the Word of God, and It will be seen that there are 1424 squares. Each of the “ Traditions of the Pharisees” are repeated in tho of these represents one million, thus giving the popula- binding nature of the decrees of Councils and Popes. tion of the world as 1,424,000,000.
There are eight squares representing the 8 millions of Jews, to be found chiefly in Europe. Refusing to receive Christ Jesus as their Messiah, many still look for his appearing Proud of their lineage they are the “scattered race,” a “nationality without a nation."
There are 170 squares representing the 170 millions of Mohammedans, chiefly in Turkey, Persia, Northern, Eastern and Central Africa, and found also in China, and India. Deeply religious, intensely opposed to all other religions, vindictive and bitter in spirit, the effort to reach them with the Gospel has been, so far, almost entirely futile.
There are 855 squares representing the 855 millions of Leathen, more than one half of the human race. A portion of these are not more heathenish in their beliefs and practices than some not so designated, but as a rule they are idolators practicing rites, the tendency of which is to degrade, and which testify to the dense darkness of their minds respecting the God we worship. The most degraded are the inhabitants of some of the islands, and the people of Central Africa, Central South America, Northwestern North America, and South Eastern Asia. A higher type is seen in the Brahmans of India : the Buddhists, of India, Burma, Siam, China, Japan, Tibet, etc., the Shintooists of Japan and the Confucianists of China.
Leaving the divisons made by the Chart, we see the work and responsibility devolving on the Protestant Church.
It is probable that at the present time there are 1,450 millions of persons on this earth. Of these about 133
millions are adherents of Protestantism. The first 116 squares are the lightest, and represent Of these Protestants in name, about 25 millions are the Protestants, numbering 116 millions, to be found communicants in the different branches of the Protestant chiefly in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Church. They profess to love and to serve Jesus, and Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, and in smaller to believe that they possess the Word of God in its puricommunities in every country in the world. The ty, and that Jesus bas commanded them to give the squares are not white, for probably not more than one in Gospel to every creature. five are communicants of the Church, and many of the What are these 25 millions to the 1425 millions un. four-fifths evidence by their conduct that they are making saved? What a mighty leavening power these 25 milDo effort to obey Jesus, but still they range themselves lions would be, if every one possessed a burning conunder the banner of Protestantism rather than under any trolling desire to evaneglize the world ! other form of religion.
The need is great, and responsibility commensurate There are 84 squares representing the 84 millions of with opportunity. Stewards of God, the time of accountthe Greek Church. These are chiefly found in Russia, ing will soon be here. Are you getting ready for it? Greece, Bulgaria, and European Turkey. Claiming to There are 100 millions of souls in Protestant lands who be Christians, the superstitious beliefs, teachings, and must be converted, or they will be lost.