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home, and the prosecution of all work in the regions Since returning to this fair land of the West, and immediately about us. The old Arab proverb is illus- surveying afresh some of its many attractive spots and trated ; “the water poured on the roots of the cocoanut regions, I have been deeply impressed with the immense tree comes back to us in the sweetened milk of the contrast between what one sees on every side here, and cocoanut that falls from the top.” The streams poured the general aspect in India. What may be called the into the arid desert field of missions return on the countryside is totally different in the two places. I wish churches in heavenly showers.

it could be placed distinctly before the readers of this But we have no adequate space at present for the periodical. further expansion of this thrilling theme. Let me close There, setting aside the river bottoms where are often this series of papers with a few emphatic words. The fertile fields and dense vegetation, the most frequent fullness of the times has surely come for the last great features are desolate plains, treeless wastes, wide tracts crusade against the powers of Darkness. Everything of solitude and poverty-stricken villages. Both in is providentially ripe and ready. Nearly fourscore North and South India, as the visitor is carried along missionary societies enclose the globe in their golden day after day by the iron horse, he is painfully struck network. The walls of nations lie flat, and challenge us with the nakedness and emptiness of the land, the air of to move from every quarter, and move together and at decay and neglect, the lack of signs of thrift and enteronce, and take the very capitals and centers of Satan's prise, and the monotonous flatness of the scenery. dominion. The Word of God may be had in every lead. But, perhaps, strangest of all strange things, and cering tongue, and the miracle of Babel is reversed and the tainly most typical of all that makes the country what miracle of Pentecost crystalized into permanence! The it is, are the villages. Can they be described? They coffers of disciples contain wealth so vast, that a tithe of are very numerous, not far from 500,000; and very much it would furnish all the funds for a world's evangeliza- alike, so that he who has seen one has seen about all. tion; and the numbers of disciples are so vast that a The unit of the village, so to speak, is the compound, tithe of them would give one missionary to every one a piece of ground perhaps two or three rods square, enhundred of the population of the globe. Time and closed by a high mud wall. Within this are one or more space are practically annihilated and all nations are mud huts, the number varying with the wealth of the neighbors. And in addition to all, from out the shining owner, placed against the wall so as to leave a space or pillar of a luminous and leading Providence rings out court-yard open to the sky in the center. Each of these the trumpet voice of God, bidding usgo forward!huts is a single room some twenty feet by ten, low in

What opportunity and what inspiration! We need the roof, covered by a thatch of grass, without windows only organization and consecration to carry dismay and or chimney, and with but a single door. The floor is of defeat to the allied powers of hell. Wm. Carey's grand earth-there is no word in the Hindustani language to motto of 1792 should be emblazoned on the banners of express a wooden floor, the same word that means a Church that gathers all her hosts for one final, resolute ground stands for floor also. and overwhelming charge: “EXPECT GREAT THINGS The furniture is of the simplest description, Grass FROM GOD. ATTEMPT GREAT THINGS FOR God.” All mats upon the ground, or rude bedsteads composed of around the signs are appearing which indicate, to him four low posts and side pieces between which grass who watches, that a more momentous era is at hand cords are strung, serve for sleeping. A very few brass than historic pen ever chronicled, or artistic pencil ever and earthen vessels answer for cooking and eating purillustrated.

poses. Fingers take the place of knives and forks, and Dr. Anderson said with sadness, "the grand defect in since all dip into one central receptacle there is no need the practical Christianity of our age is, that it does not for a variety of dishes. There will be, perhaps, a pestle respond as it should to the call of God's Providence.” and mortar for husking rice, a hand-mill of two stones Let us roll away that stone of reproach, and it shall be for grinding grain, a box for clothing or other valuour privilege to behold, issuing forth from the sepulchre ables, and a hoogga or long pipe, for even the poorest of old but dead faiths, nations now hopelessly entombed; smoke tobacco. we shall see them, at the sound of the Word of Life, If there are a number of huts in the compound, indi. come forth, to cast off the cerements of idolatry and cating that the owner is well-to-do, one will be for the superstition, and to be clothed with the white robe of women and children, one for the kitchen, one for the the saints.

store-room, one for cattle, one for a son's family, etc. Philadelphia, Pa.

But, as a rule, there is only one hut, and this must do

duty for everything. A Village In Hindustan.

The village consists of from twenty to one hundred of The rural scenes of any land are those which best little pretence to order. Wall joins to wall, so that the

these compounds pretty closely huddled together, with express its most characteristic life. Cities are much the same everywhere. It is in the country that the pecu- directions a continuous barrier. Narrow lanes, with an

outside of the village next the fields presents in most liarities of a people come out most strongly, and that occasional wider street, wind about miscellaneously. the heart of a nation is revealed.



Single trees here and there scattered among the houses

Books on Yudia. throw a pleasing shade. And a grove, usually of mango, is nearly always preserved close by without the

I have been asked about books on India. An intend- . walls, lending variety to the scene and answering a num

ing missionary to India should have at least a few books ber of useful purposes.

on the country well read before leaving home. These There is also commonly a large tank, sometimes more

are possibly not what others would recommend, but I than one, formed when the earth was taken out, for give them for what they are worth. building the village, and kept, in ordinary seasons, more

“Hanter's Brief History of the Indian People.” or less full of water and mud. Here the people wash both themselves and their clothing, here the cattle come

“Wheeler's Short History of India.”

“Robson's Hinduism in its Relation to Christianity." to drink, and here the huge, ungainly, black buffaloes

“Sell's Faith of Islam." love to be immersed. In the court yards of the houses, or near by, stand the carts and cattle and primitive course of study in the North India Conference.

These four books are part of a missionary's five years ploughs. Cow-dung cakes, the common fuel, lie about course of study in the North India Conference. heaped in piles, or spread to dry in the sun, or plastered

“History of Protestant Missions in India," by Rev. for the same purpose against the mud walls, and bearing M. A. Sherring, published by Trubner & Co., of London. very distinctly the impress of the hand that has stuck it Revised Edition-one vol. there. Naked babies and small children likewise nude,

“Hinduism," by Monier Williams. play merrily about after the fashion of their kind the

“The Quran," its composition and teaching by Sir world over. Some wild creepers or vines perhaps

William Muir. clamber over the weather-worn thatched roofs, and give

The latter two books are small manuals costing less a touch of brightness to the otherwise dingy back than one dollar, but are by master hands. (William's ground.

“Hinduism” is worth committing to memory). These Here and there a well, not too clean, supplies the in-are but two of a series of six hooks on new Christian dispensible water, and furnishes also to the women, as

religious systems—all valuable. they come with leather bucket and rope to draw, a con

“My Missionary Apprenticeship,” by Rev. J. M. venient place for gossip. Perhaps at the foot of some Thoburn, D. D., of Calcutta, for sale by Phillips & peepul tree, or in a small cheap temple, stands an idol Hunt, New York, and “The Life of Alexander Duff, smeared with red and surrounded with offerings of rice D. D.,” published by the American Tract Society in or flowers.

one vol., are very valuable biographical books full of Possibly one but contains an apology for a school, one interest, inspiration and information. is set apart for a kind of traveller's rest-house or village

A list of “Books on India," comprising some fortymeeting place, and there may be one or two used as five different authors may be found in the “Manual of shops where a few necessities are sold. But usually the Methodist Episcopal Church for April, 1882,” people go to purchase on stated market days to the probably still obtainable from Phillips & Hunt.-(The bazaar or market place in some central spot that accom

same periodical for October, 1881, had a valuable list of modates a number of villages. It is at such places, too,

“Books on China.") that the potter, the blacksmith, and the carpenter ply

A missionary candidate would find much of value in their vocations.

our India newspapers and magazines. “ The India Such is the Hindustani village, surrounded, we should Witness” and “The Bombay Guardian,” are well edited not fail to add, invariably on all sides, without the walls, weekly papers costing about five dollars a year and pubby the level fields, separated from each other by low lished in connection with the Methodist Episcopal ridges of earth and most carefully cultivated.

Church, but fully representing general mission matters. It is among these villages that the missionary finds “The Indian Evangelical Review,” Calcutta, and his best chance of telling “the old, old story of Jesus “ The Christian College Magazine,” Madras, are able and his love." It is these villages that yield nearly all reviews full of mission topics. the converts. Instead of the country districts being the

The Tract Society at any of the following cities will ones most emphatically “pagan” and “heathen,” as in send catalogues of books and periodicals if applied to the early days of the Church in the Roman Empire, in on a foreign Post Card-Calcutta, Bombay, Allahabad, India Christianity seems likely to win in them its chief Lahore, Madras—much information may thus be trophies. Hence we have attempted this description of obtained. their chief features, which will serve, we hope, to make

The several reports of the “Decennial Missionary them better known to the readers of the GOSPEL IN

Conferences" held every decade by the United Protest

ant Missionaries are extremely valuable for their treatALL LANDS.

ment of every live topic connected with the practical Whitinsville, Mass.

working of the field. None is more valuable than the The above account of a village in India ought to in- last published in Calcutta by the Baptist Mission Press, crease our interest in its people, and our desire to give them the gospel.

Bureilly, India, Oct., 1885.

Buddhist Priests In Barma.

fraternity passes. At funerals and on festival occasions BY REV. J. E. ROBINSON.

many and costly presents are made to the poongyees; Occasionally our Methodist Sunday School in Ran- the rich citizens vie with each other in building Kyoung goon is graced with the presence of two or more poongo or Monasteries for them; and high officials are ever yees, who appear to greatly enjoy the singing of our ready to do homage to them. Under British rule their one hundred and twenty bright boys and girls. They influence will be lessened. do not understand a word that is said or sung, but the Poongyees are the recognized, ex-officio instructors of sight is so novel and altogether different from anything Buddhist youths, but they confine all their efforts to the they ever witness iņ connection with their own religion, boys, quite willing to leave the girls in the darkest ig. that their attention is riveted while they remain. norance. Probably a larger percentage of Burman

A poongyee, or Buddhist priest, is easily recognized boys can read and write than of the boys of any other by his shaven, uncovered head and loosely-fitting, bright country in the world. Primary education is an integral yellow robe. He cannot dig, but he is not ashamed to part of the Buddhist religion. There are no absolutely beg. Every morning the poongyees start ont on their unlearned Buddhists, for every boy is taught to read begging rounds, carrying their bowls, into which the and write. Here in Burma every Burmese village has people put handfuls of rice. They are forbidden to re- its poongyee kyoung (whatever else it may or may not ceive money, and the most honored and exalted are have), which is open to boys of all classes, and in which under obligation to beg their daily food; but they must they may learn to read and write their vernacular withnever ask for anything.

out charge. To beg with the tongue is contrary to the rules of the A few months ago two young Danish missionaries order, and so also is working with the hands. They arrived at Rangoon with the object of proceeding to the are not allowed to partake of food after the noonday hill country to engage in work among the wild Red hour, and the drinking water used by them must always Karens. Remaining in Rangoon while the selection of be carefully strained, lest life should be destroyed, a field of labor and other preparatory matters were which, to them, is heinous sin.

being settled, they expressed a desire to gain some Poongyees are not priests in the same sense as the knowledge, however slight, of Burmese. So I took priests of other religions, say of Hinduism or Roman them over to the Kyounz (monastry), near our girls Catholicism. Buddhism knows nothing of a personal school, and after our desire was made known to the head God to be propitiated, prayed to, worshiped, loved or poongyee, had the pleasure of enrolling the two Danes feared; hence the people do not feel any need of the as pupils. offices of a priest or minister to intercede for or guide Day after day for a few weeks they squatted on the them in the way of salvation. The poongyees are in no floor after the manner of Burman school boys, and resense ministers of religion. Their principal business, ceived kindly attention from all the inmates of the indeed their only business, is to live meritoriously and Kyoung, except, perhaps, the many pariah dogs which seek their own deliverance out of a cumbersome state infest that as they do all other Kyoungs in the country. of consciousness into a state of nothingness, so to be In broaching the question of remuneration to the poongforever free from thought, desire, and the possibility of yee, we were frankly informed that while he would not knowing or feeling anything.

ask for anything and could not accept money, he had The presence of priests, therefore, is not at all neces- no objection whatever to a present of a cloth, which was sary at Buddhist marriages and funerals, or at the dedi- accordingly given him. cation of pagodas, etc. They are under no obligation With the single exception of the instruction that they to study homiletics, for they have no sermons to prepare impart, I know of no more useless and apparently inor preach. Nor are they liable to be roused at all hours dolent class of men than Buddhist priests. Their inof the night to visit the dying, as Christian ministers Auence over the masses, such as it is, does not seem to

They have no responsibility whatever for be the least on the wane. They are a formidable bar the souls of the people.

rier in the way of the progress of Christianity, as can be Notwithstanding that the offices usually pertaining seen at a glance when it is remembered that the entire to the priesthood have no place in Buddhism, the male youth of the population are obliged to pass poongyees are held in high honor by the people. They through their hands. are exempt from all pains and penalties of civil and Yet missionaries occasionally report cases of the concriminal law, and their persons are held sacred and in- version of poongyees, some of whom have taken rank as violable. Of course British law, which, theoretically at faithful preachers of the Gospel. The conflict with least, is no respecter of persons, makes no scruple of Buddhism is not likely to be a short or easy one; but dealing out justice to poongyees as well as to ordinary sooner or later the sceptre now wielded by the “ Light mortals.

of Asia” over so many millions of souls will be transBut in Upper, or non-British, Burma, much reverence ferred to our glorious King Jesus, the “Light of the is paid to the priests ; women kneel on the roadside and World.” men make lowly obeisance when one of the mendicant Rangoon, Burma.


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Tai Siu Shi, the Veteran Chinese Christian.

tian chapel and heard the Gospel. The following year he was converted, and settled himself in Shanghai. He was

now 38 years old, a fine, robust, manly Chinaman, intelMr. Tai Siu Shi, the subject of this sketch, was ligent, and of no little talent as a Chinese scholar. born in the viceregal city of Nankin, in the sixth year of

He became acquainted with A. Wylie, Esq., agent of the reign of Tao Kwan, 1826 A, D., consequently being the British and Foreign Bible Society, and was engaged now 59 years of age.

by him to proceed to the Province of Kiangsi to sell the His father was a satin merchant, and resided to the Scriptures. This was in 1864, soon after Kiukiang, its east of the Porcelain Tower, upon the bank of the little river port, was opened to foreign trade. river which flows from the romantic mountains, whose

The province, up to that time, was unbroken territory; verdant peaks are discernable some fifty miles southeast it had 72 hsien cities, and several populous trading cities, of the city. Here, upon the banks of the little stream, which had not been entered by preacher or colporteur. he passed eighteen of his fifty-nine years.

The Bible was an unknown book. The twenty-six mil lions of souls computed to dwell within the jurisdiction of those cities had not looked upon the precious Word of Life, and the preaching of the gospel was an unknown sound.

It took considerable pluck in a native to traverse this most conservative, most hostile province to Christianity, and present to the people books which contained those doctrines which they so much hated.

With a large supply of books contained in boxes, he sailed up the lake and its tributaries, into all parts of the extensive territory, selling the Word. Success crowned his efforts until he reached the great city of Kan Chao, at the extreme south of the province, 500 miles from where he commenced his journey (Kiukiang)

Here he met with open hostility, his books were destroyed, his boat was broken up, his personal effects looted, and he was driven out without money or friends. He found his way back to Kiukiang.

Soon after this he engaged himself to foreigners in the Customis as a personal teacher, in which avocation he became quite famous.

In 1868, when our mission was established, we found the subject of this sketch living a consistent Christian life. For some time he aided as a teacher, and preached Sundays, and led prayer meetings, and was made a class leader.

From that time to this he has resided at Kiukiang and His father was a man of some means and kept him in bas rendered good service to our mission in very many school until he was eighteen years old. From this time ways. He has been a local preacher for many years and till he was twenty-four years of age he aided his father has magnified his office. He has never refused any duties in the satin business. He was married at 24.

which the mission has seen fit to assign him. During the great Tai Pin rebellion he led a very event- He was elected to local deacon's orders in 1883, but ful life, going from city to city prosecuting his business was not able to go to Foochow for ordination. At our with indifferent success. He remembers, and relates with annual meeting in 1884, which was held in Shanghai, the great animation his first sight of the English sailors from old gentleman was ordained by Bishop Wiley. the ships of war, which came to Nankin in 1842, under It was unsought by him, but nevertheless greatly apthe command of Sir Henry Pottinger, to execute a treaty preciated, as his beaming face testified. Although 59 with the Imperial government.

years of age, he is an incessant worker, preaching upon He passed three years during the rebellion, while Nan Sundays, teaching in the college during the week and a kin was in the hands of the rebels, at the rich and popu- regular catechist to the day schools. lous city of Soochow, two years at Sungkiang, from He has also aided us materially in acquiring land for thence he went to Tsungmin, where he engaged in the the hospital in Nankin. May we ask the prayers of the manufacture of satin. The product of his looms he took home Church for a veteran warrior for Christ in this land to the foreign mart of Shanghai for sale.

where it means something to be a true Christian? Here he strolled like many other strangers into a Chris- Nankin, China.





received at Calcutta before he joined the army, and now he gets a pension.

Najibabad is entirely a native city and derives importFrom Bareilly to Najibabad is a distance by the ance from two facts-one that it is on the much freOudh & Robilkbund railway of about 125 miles. I quented pilgrimage routes to Hurdivar-the other that left B. on Friday, 11th of September, and reached my it is the nearest mart of trade to the Gurhwal hills and destination at 3 A. M. on the 12th. The railway to this hither a great deal of trade (such as it is) centers. The city has only been finished a few months. From Naji- bankers and principal merchants of Srinagar Gurhwal babad to Kotdwara, (the southermost limit of Gurhwal) were originally merchants of this city. A few build. is only fifteen miles. Never before had we such comings of comparatively palacial dimensions bear witness fort in traveling in these parts, and we have journeyed to a condition of things now past and gone. The rail. by "bail gari” (slow bullock cart), by“ baile” (fast way, however, promises to bring in better days, and it bullock cart), by dooley (palanquin) and by saddle. is rumored that sanitaria for railway officials and bar

'Sitting in a comfortable railway car as we rolled racks for troops will shortly be located on the foothills through the Bijinour district we distinctly called to of the Himalayas almost in sight from this place. This mind the time when over the same ground in the rainy means a revival of business for Najibabad and opportuseason the floods of the Ganges extended. On every nities for service to hosts of poor Garhwalees. side of us was water like a little sea as far as the eye Our Mission is the only one here and has the only could reach. Often the road was only kept by the aid English school. The native brother in charge is a local of the shade trees on its margin, and the dooley bearers deacon, Rev. Benjamin McGregor, who has maintained betimes had to put their shoulders underneath the doo an enviable reputation here for fifteen years. He was ley, leaving the pole high in the air. When the weather educated in the La Martineu school in Lucknow and was dry the march was always long and tedious. But expects this year to join our Annual Conference. these days are past, let us hope, forever.

During a former visit I was much gratified in seeing The railway intended to be a highway for commerce a blind convert, a boy, reading the Gospel of St. Matthew and a miiltary road for the British soldier is also, as in his own language from a book with raised letters. Providence ever orders it, a path for the feet of him The shape of the letters was like short-band characters, that bringeth glad tidings, that publisheth salvation. I and the invention was that of a godly English officer. spent the Sabbath at Najibabad and held several services The boy's teacher was Sister McGregor, who used to be with the brethren there. At Sacrament some fifteen a Bareilly orphanage girl. (By the way several blind persons united with us in the solemn service and all girls at Bareilly are now learning to read.) Alas, in the afterwards spoke in the Love Feast. The chapel was interim some wiley Mohammedan relatives had led away crowded at Sunday school and at the preaching service the blind convert and made him a Mohammedan again. -over 100 persons being present.

Our mission has a nice bit of property in the heart of An inquirer was introduced to me here who, while I Najibabad. It has been extended since my last visit stayed, came to talk with me several times. The last by the addition of a piece of ground once occupied by a time he brought in his hand a book which on noticing smithy. This is now gone and the whole surrounded by I inquired about its contents. Its name was “ The a substantial brick wall. The school house (whose Graces of the Devil” (Farzilat Shaitan) and it was in main room also answers for a chapel) was built by the lithograph Urdu and printed at the Gyan Press Lodiana. Rev. H. Jackson. It is very commodious and substantial, My inquirer did not turn out to be a hopeful character. with four good class rooms surrounding the chapel. The talk I had with him and several of his friends The plastering, long postponed for want of funds, was showed plainly they were not anxiously seeking instruc- lately completed, and now it promises to be servicable tion but were ready to dispute and argue on any relig. for generations to come. ious topic.

I visited here in the outskirts of the town the grave Among my visitors here was a clerk from the native of a Christian hermit. He died but a short time ago all magistrate's office, named Kanbhiyerlal, a young Hindoo, alone in his hut. After his baptism he tried to give up an alumnus of our Mission School at Moradabad. He the life of a devotee, but by a strange fascination he seemed very glad to see me and brought his little son was drawn back to it and the people continued to feed of eight years to pay his salam. This young man has him, though they knew him to be a Christian. The passed the Calcutta University entrance course and tells money and property he possessed at death yielded sufme he still betimes reads the Bible.

ficient to bury him decently and to build a brick tomb, The native doctor here in charge of the Government but his Christian influence never amounted to much. Hospital also called. He proved to be an old soldier There are but three or four Christian families in who had served his Queen Empress as a cavalryman Najibabad. with a detachment doing duty in the Red Sea. He Before daybreak Monday morning I was at the rail. talked intelligently of Abyssinia and Egypt, and of the way station here waiting for the rest of our party to state of the country there. His medical knowledge he arrive. We got a little wood and made a fire between

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