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own officer? Their “Explanatory Pa- paper,” or a “revised rule,” as to give
per,” printed with the Parliamentary the least possible indication of the po-
return, is an elaborate evasion of all licy which it covers. The special talent
the points at issue. The Resident Com- of the resident scribe may be recom-
missioner, of whose practised hand mended to the compilers of Queen's
the essay bears evidence, goes into speeches. But this last attempt at
a history of the old convent schools least has failed to deceive the public.
of the Board, and of convent schools The protests elicited by it have been
before the Board came into existence referred to already. These have been
-does everything, in fact, but ad- endorsed at a number of public meet-
dress himself to the questions he was ings and ecclesiastical conventions in
required to answer.

Ulster, and have found utterance in
Along with this poor piece of special the House of Commons from the lips
pleading the Commissioners print of one no less careful with regard to
their entire voluminous array of rules, his facts and the use made of them
by-laws, trifling regulations, lists of than Sir Hugh Cairns. Nor is it
school requisites, and it is hard to say likely that those feelings will subside;
what not besides, in order to bury at all events, confidence will never be
among these leaves the single New restored in the Commission among
Rule they were asked to produce. If any considerable body of the Protes-
this “revised” rule were really so in- tant population until the offensive
nocent a thing as the “ explanatory sectarian rules are simply rescinded.
paper” would have it supposed to be Several prominent members of the
-merely a resolution declaratory of Presbyterian Church have, it is true,
what was in operation for years be- given the Board to believe that if
fore--why is there so much mystery their denomination be but treated
made about it? After groping through with a corresponding liberality, they
a great amount of adroitly accumu- will readily condone the offence of
lated irrelevancies, we detect the Rule the convent schools grant; it would
in question in this form:-

be discreditable, however, if a sel

fish sentiment of this nature were “The members of the community (Con- the highest rule of action known to vent) may discharge the office of literary the entire body, and it is fairer to take teachers, either by themselves, or with the the public documents of the General fit to employ; the salaries of such assistants Assembly as exponents of the course to be defrayed by the community, except in likely to be pursued. From one, enthe case of Monitors.

titled a “Statement of the Element-
"The amount of salary awarded to Con. ary Education Committee of the
vent schools is regulated by the average Presbyterian Church in Ireland on
number of children in daily attendance, ac- the subject of Convent and Monks'
cording to a scale laid down by the Com- Schools, and of the recent regulations

of the Commissioners of National
The “except” here is a slight ad- Education,” the subjoined passage
dendum ; who would imagine that it may, be suitably extracted; the
involves special expenditure in the whole document, which is marked
support of convent establishments by ability and honesty, bears the sig-
amounting to a sum not much short, natures of John Edgar, D.D., and
if short at all, of £12,000 per annum ?
It will be borne in mind

that not only The special importance of the memo

the Rev. L. E. Berkeley, as Chair

man and convener of the Committee.
are these monitors in,as the too cunning randum arises from the fact that it
framer puts it again,
efficient schools, to be paid, but they takes the shape of a reply to that
are to have a rate of salary some-

explanatory paper” of the Com-
what higher than that of paid moni- missioners, which we have just cha-
tors of the above (or ordinary]grades.” racterized as an evasive and unworthy

production. The Language it is said was given to man

Presbyterian to conceal his thoughts. These score

Church, after a fuller consideration
of Commissioners, minus the quartett of the “first-class monitors)”

of protesters, seem to have attained says :-
by Iong practice an unexampled faci- “The Assembly's Committee now 50-
lity in so constructing an “explanatory lemnly renew the protest of the Church

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against the exceptional legislation of the “For such reasons the Committee resolve Commissioners. They consider that mem- to reiterate the protest of this Church bers of the religious orders of the Church against the connexion of Convent Schools of Rome ought not to be included as with the National System so long as their teachers under a system of united National teachers are not required to submit in every Education, and especially when clergy, respect to the regulations of ordinary men' of all other denominations are ex- schools, and to endeavour to prevent the pressly prohibited from acting in that capa- Parliamentary sanction of the changes city. Convent and Monks' Schools are recently proposed by the Commissioners." esse ally sectarian and denominational institutions. According to the letter of the Right Hon Mr. Stanley, dated Octo- vations on the inevitable effect of the

Before making any further obserber, 1831, announcing the determination of the Government to constitute the changes now in progress, in introBoard, even the suspicion of proselytism' ducing an entirely new system into

to be banished from its schools. the management of National eduThat is not and cannot be the case in Con- cation in Ireland, a reference to the vent and Monks' Schools, where denomi- Estimates for 1864-5 will show how national badges are continually worn, and skilfully the project of subsidizing where the whole character and aspect of the convents by means of salaries the school is so peculiar. Their connexion to their “religious” teachers is being with the Board is contrary to another of worked out. "It has been stated that its rules, which affirms that “no emblems the New Rules remain

still unacted upor symbols of a denominational nature shall be exhibited in the schoolroom during the on. An examination of those Estimates hours of united instruction, nor will the tells a different story. There is an inCommissioners in future grant aid to any crease proposed in the votes for 1864-5, school which exhibits on the exterior of over 1863–4, of £10,753 9s. 9d., the the buildings any such emblems.'

total grant being raised to £316,770. This document, coming as it does A closer inspection of the figures, after the

Commissioners have had the however, shows that the Commisadvantage of putting the best face they sioners intend next year to lay out could upon their case, possesses pe under the two heads—“Salaries of

over £15,500 more than last year culiar force ; we therefore quote from it again :

Teachers, &c.;” and “The Inspection

Department. The balance between "It is proposed, for the first time, to £10,753 additional asked for, and the institute a class of superior monitors, or sum proposed to be expended, is pupil teachers, the overwhelming majority obtained by cutting down a number of whom will necessarily be given to schools taught by members of religious Model Schools, the book depart

of items, and most seriously the orders, to the great detriment of the Model Schools of the Board, in which the prin- ment, and the supply of school reciples of the system are fairly carried out, quisites. As the System is said to and in which the practicability and value be extending, it would seem to outof united education are

80° well illus- side observers that these are the very trated.

departments in which an increase " The time when this is proposed to be was desirable. A little reflection, done renders the proceedings peculiarly, however, explains the anomaly. The suspicious-a time when the hierarchy of Commissioners have reduced the nethe Church of Rome are forbidding the children of their people to attend Model cessity for their Model Schools-and Schools, and when they are demanding there will be less necessity for them separate training for their teachers. The next year, if their plans succeednecessary consequence of the new regu- by substituting Convent Schools lation, if sanctioned by Parliament, will for them. In other words, they be that in a few years the great mass of have entered into a competition the teachers connected with the National with themselves, and are effectually System in Ireland will be trained by mem- doing the work of the ultramontane bers of religious orders, and trained in bit, hierarchy, by “extinguishing" their ter hostility to that very system of united schools under State management, education in connexion with which they have been nurtured, and which they wil by a gradual but sure process, to rego forth professing to administer. Sectarian place them by a class of exclusive rivalry and religious animosity will be ecclesiastical schools, which, besides inavitably increased, and the educational all their other objectionable pecuprogress of the country greatly retarded. liarities, have this in addition, that their teachers will not submit to the Orders, many of them really unpaid, authority of the Board, accept its and their nominal salaries going to the methods of classification, or acknow- support of the convent or monastic esledge the authority of the State in tablishment. Under a scheme thus any practical form. It is to those wholly subordinated to ecclesiastical teachers, under various designations, control, it must be manifest that the that the major part of the new grant Roman Catholic portion of the public is to go, which, added to what they grant would become the solid resource enjoy already —and they have been of a potent and universal agency for gaining ground pecuniarily since 1861 proselytizing purposes, in addition to - will enlarge by a substantial sum being an instrument of the ultrathe revenues of the conventual es- montane reaction in Ireland, which tablishments of Ireland. It was re- means a revival of superstition, agitapeatedly stated, and generally be- tion, and poverty. lieved, some time since that the It is plain, then, that by their Pontiff

, in his difficulties, had levied a “superior monitors' "scheme-which serious contribution from the monks they have had the hardihood to reand nuns of this country, and it may present by the mouth of the Attorbe that, among other reasons, the ney-General in the House of Commanagers of these establishments of mons as a slight extension only of an “religious” have been impelled by existing and legitimate practice—the a motive of economy to gather large Commissioners have finally democrowds of children into their schools, lished any claim of their system to to the prejudice—the ruin, in fact be considered a “mixed” one, and --of the lay schools in their neigh- have introduced sectarianism in its bourhood, and to claim on their most objectionable form. They were account new subsidies from the warned that this would be the ultiCommissioners.

mate result of the policy of weak This is a source of revenue which, compliances, so far back as the besides being convenient, and pos- time when Arch bishop Whately sessing the virtue of elasticity, has seceded. The Rev. Mr. Rutledge, in also the special advantage of intro- a masterly speech delivered at the ducing the principle that the ultra- last meeting of the Church Educamontane episcopacy wish to see uni- tion Society, quoted the motto affixed versally adopted. It is the thin end by the late distinguished prelate to a of the wedge, driven a good way, too, pamphlet addressed to his clergy after by one effective blow. It seems to he had resigned his place on the Board. them but a single step more to This motto consisted of a passage from complete triumph-and what that Thucydides, to which Dr. Whately triumph is to be, it behoves the pub- gave a significant and forcible applilic to consider. It was reiterated very cation. * For this small matter,” it significantly on a late occasion, that ran,"contains the very thing that is nearly four-fifths of the pupils in the to put your resolution to the test, and National Schools of Ireland are Ro- if you give way to these demands, a man Catholics. The Roman Catholic still heavier burden will presently be body practically distribute at present, laid upon you.”Various burdens, therefore, four-fifths of the grant, or each heavier than the preceding, have probably close upon a quarter of a been laid upon the shoulders of the million sterling per annum, on an

Commissioners since 1853, and now, education in all respects such as they at last, they have bent their backs could reasonably desire. But their to one which crushes them to the convent schools aggression shows earth. Sir Robert Peel, speaking that they are not satisfied with this. with all the responsibility of his posiThey aim, in fact, at obtaining, four- tion of Chief Secretary for Ireland, fifths of an expanding grant, in the and certainly with no feeling but a form of a sum of money handed friendly one for the system, has deover to them, to be disbursed by clared that the change they have their Church upon a scheme entirely made involves a sacrifice of "fundaexclusive, having its secular books mental principles.” of the Church's preparation—its in- At this crisis in the history of the dependence of intrusive inspection - National System, it is proper to inand its teachers belonging to the quire how far it has succeeded in really educating the people. We see during the process of instructing the that in its political relations it is an generation nowin early manhood, comenormous disappointment. We turn paratively few of whom have emigratto the Census Report for 1861, on Edu- ed. The Roman Catholic Church has cation, for information as to its success given it the warmest support, and or failure in what is its real task. worked it out earnestly. Every parish There is much here that is very cheer- has had its National school; and yet, less. The Census Commissioners say, after at least twenty years of an effort with reference to elementary instruc- embracing all parts of the country, tion, that the Society of Friends is the result mentioned is the saddening that in which it is most general, there record. In Leinster, 34'9 per cent. of having been only 4:1 per cent. of its the Roman Catholics can still neither members, five years old and upwards, read nor write ; in Munster, 48:4; in returned as unable to read or write. Ulster, 444; and in Connaught, 59-4. The Independents come next, with The Commissioners say that'" the 6'8 per cent.; the Methodists third, difference in favour of the members with 90 per cent. ; the Baptists of the Established Church and the fourth, with 9'2 per cent. ; the Pres- Protestant community generally, bebyterians fifth, with 11'1 per cent.; tween the per-centage of their ignorthose tabulated under the head of ant and that of the ignorant amongst “All other Persuasions,” sixth, with the Roman Catholics, may be account118 per cent.; the Jews seventh, ed for to a great extent by the social with 119 per cent. ; the members of position of the two bodies ;" but the Established Church eighth, with surely, making every allowance for 160 per cent.; and the Roman Ca- this consideration, it is depressing in tholics ninth, with 45*8 per cent. the highest degree, that after so long From these remarkable statements and full a trial of the education exit appears that the Church population, periment, there is nothing better to though excluded for a generation from show than this. The phenomenon is the advantages of a State grant, stand calculated to awaken suspicions and almost as well as the Presbyterians excite serious inquiry. In Ulster, too, who have enjoyed and used it with it must be remembered, where the skill and perseverance. The slight Roman Catholic general population difference between the Presbyterian more nearly approach in their conbody and the Church population in dition in life the Protestant people, this point is attributable to the dif- the per-centage of totally ignorant is ferent circumstances of the poorer 44:4. It appears, moreover, that 19:1 classes of Protestants, in the north per cent. of the Roman Catholics in and in the south. But when we Ireland could “read only” (one can come to the figures relating to the well fancy how trifling a test of literRoman Catholic inhabitants we are ary acquirements this was, as applied really amazed. Nearly half the by the enumerators), and 35:1 per Roman Catholics in Ireland cent. could read and write. Startled neither read nor write after thirty by these figures, the Census Comyears of a National Education sup- missioners themselves say -“Upon plied with ample funds. Is this the whole, while regarding the ability creditable? Does it show that those to read and write, or to read only, who have managed the system deserve ascribed to individuals in the Census public gratitude? The more the Returns, as but an inadequate test of painful fact is examined the less does the diffusion of elementary instrucit tell in their favour. Of the emi- tion, it must be admitted, on the other grants of the last ten or fifteen years, hand, that the want of that power is a it is not too much to suppose that very sufficient indication ofignorance. a great proportion were unlettered It would be obviously unsafe to persons. They were in the prime of life, institute any very close comparison and had not enjoyed in their youth the between the educational statistics of advantage of the National school. 1834 and 1861, but it is, nevertheless, Their removal ought to have reduced remarkable that in the former year very greatly the relative number of there were not less than 9,657 schools the inhabitants unable to read and in Ireland. · In 1861 the number was write. On the other hand, the National 10,170—but a slight increase. In system has been in effective existence 1834 the Protestant pupils numbered


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162,953; in 1861, 127,173. As the System is a failure in respect of the
former figure must have been pretty numbers it is educating, the degree
accurately the total of the Protes- of proficiency, to which the educa-
tant scholars in 1834, the remainder tion it supplies is carried, and the
may be set down as having been Ro- local efforts on behalf of popular in-
man Catholics. There were, there- struction which it has evoked. It
fore, about 470,993 Roman Catholic is also plain that the religious de-
pupils in 1834 ; in 1861 there were, nomination least disposed to help
according to the figures of the second themselves, and most disposed to rely
school inquiry of that year, 339,645. upon the State in the matter of edu-
The difference in the totals of the po- cation in Ireland, is the Roman Ca-
pulation for 1834 and 1861 is to be tholic. The members of that creed
taken into account, however; the contribute so miserable a sum to the
population in 1834 was 7,954,100 salaries of their teachers, that, accord-
(probably much too high an estimate), ing to Mr. Thom's Almanac—whose
and in 1861 it had sunk to 5,798,967 information on this subject is stated
-a difference of 2,155,133. Relatively with admirable brevity and lucidness
to the population, there is rather the Commissioners have intimated
more education in Ireland now than to the teachers of National Schools
then. Still, it is a fact of no little sig- (of whom the greater number by far
nificance that, despite the encourage- are Roman Catholics) that the local
ment given to National education provision in aid of their salaries is
during the last thirty years, the abso- wholly disproportionate to the sum
lute progress should be so trifling. contributed from the public grant,
The total number receiving instruc- and that any addition to their re-
tion in 1834 was 633,946 ; in 1861 it muneration must be sought from the
was 436,873. The total number of parents of the pupils, or from the
pupils in attendance at the National managers or other persons locally in-
Schools on the 17th of May, 1861, terested. This language, however,
was 304,162; in Church Education has not been held, we may remark,
and Parochial Schools, 43,842; in to the Convent Schools; and, perhaps,
Christian Brothers' and Monks' its use now, in the case of the ordinary
Schools not under the National Board school teachers in poor districts, is due
(many of which have, probably, been to the necessity which the Board feel
since introduced), 25,819; in schools under to economize their general ex-
under other societies (most of these penditure, that they may better sus-
ought in fairness to be ranked among tain the schools of the religious
Scriptural schools), 25,099; in private Orders.
schools, 43,624. But in the National It is unquestionable that the Na-
Schools the large number of 222,250 tional System has educated a genera-
were in 1862 learning the first book, tion, of whom a vast number have
or little more than the alphabet : emigrated, and succeeded in life, in
these formed nearly forty per cent. of America and Australia, in conse-
the whole. The average daily at- quence of the primary instruction re-
tendance, moreover, was as low as ceived at home. A large portion of
284,870. It is further remarkable the emigration from Ireland is to be
that the province having the largest placed to its credit, as the natural
number of schools was. Ulster, the result of the intelligence which it has
disparity between the northern and diffused. Still, that it has failed to
the other provinces in that respect educate the Irish people in the truest
being thus shown:-National Schools sense is manifest, yot only from the
in Connaught, 927; in Leinster, 1,388; comparatively small number of chil-
in Munster, 1,462 ; in Ulster, 2,233. dren forming the average daily at-
In connexion with this feature in the tendance in its schools, but from the
working of the system it should be fact that its own principles of pro-
mentioned that of the total moneys fessed toleration and liberality have
available for the teaching staff of not made sufficient way, after thirty
National Schools-£265,506 in 1862 years, to preserve it under ultramon-

-as much as 82:73 per cent. was tane attacks. There is a much less derived from the State funds. From liberal feeling, in fact, with regard to these particulars the general conclu- education now than in 1834. The sion seems to arise, that the National Roman Catholic Church demands at

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