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sometimes Smihmer, Smitberg, or “Scandalous falsehoods," "personaliNissen. When in Spain he had re- ties,” says his son.

But these asserceived money, through the interest of tions were scattered through the his wife, for the purpose of raising island“ so boldly,” that they actually a German regiment, and had made gained credit with the people among away with the money. He had plun- whom,” says the son, “credulity and dered people of all nations; and a ignorance were predominant”-sympSpanish gentlemen had just written toms which Theodore remarking, he over a terrible account of his chica- found it necessary to make some anneries in that country.

swer to the Genoese document; and But there can be no question of the accordingly, a broad-sheet was scatlittle incidents in his Leghorn life, so tered everywhere, commencing pomplately as the year before, because they ouslyappeal to legal acts and documents. THEODORE I. ; first by the grace The whole, too, has a probable air, of the Holy Trinity, and secondly and is only a necessary incident in an by the device of the true and glorious adventurer's life. He had got in- deliverers of the country, KING debted to the Leghorn banker Tabach OF CORSICA. And he proceeds to for 515 pieces of eight. He was ar- refute each statement by a series of rested at Cologne, put in the public bitter tu quoques. Granting that he gaol, caught a dreadful malady there, had brought three Blacks with him, and was released on getting with “it was not with the design of pluntrue adventurer's ingenuity--a small dering friends and enemies, as the householder to be his bail; then Genoese of old had done.” By this getting back to Leghorn, conti- stroke he thought he had stayed the nued this fatal document, appealing mischief; but it is said that confito a notary's Act of the date of 6th dence in him was a good deal shaken September before one Jean Baptiste -rather it was the natural fickleness Gumano, of that city-was consigned of a rude and excitable multitude. to the public hospital--the Bagno--- Meanwhile, he had really made like a common pauper.

progress in the serious organization of He was then traced to Tunis, where the country. He carefully kept up. he set up as a quack. But here, the the old state, and the semblance of Genoese admit that he contrived a court. He was “The Baron de somehow to have secret interviews Neuhoff, Grandee of Spain, Lord with the “chief of the Infidels, ,D'Angleterre, Peer of France, Baron and had brought him over to give and Prince of the Holy Roman Emthose supplies of arms and money. pire, and King of Corsica.” As the Then they pitilessly analyzed the first and most appreciable exer“suite” which he brought over from cise of royal prerogative, he began to Tunis, with a sort of accuracy which coin money, both silver and copper. shows they must have had tolerably These were but rude performances, sure information. The chaplain" and of the class called by the French, became a sort of disreputable priest, Piéces de Necessité," and very clumcalled Portoferraio, whom the mis- sily struck. The silver pieces were sionaries at Tunis had turned out very few in number ; and such was of their body; the colonels and the curiosity of the world looking on captains were two young Leghorn at every trick of this little pantorunaways, named Attiman and Bon- mime, that all those pieces were delli; and one of the three blacks greedily bought up at fabulous was à certain Mahomed, who had prices, and when the supply failed been a galley slave at Tuscany. Thus spurious ones were manufactured in were all King Theodore's theatricals numbers and found places in the ca-his gold-paper crowns, and glass binets of collectors. Mr. Boswell jewels, and his hired supernumeraries, succeeded in picking up a copper dressed up for the night, blown into five sous piece, with a crown and the air. I say, again, the whole seems “T. R.," on one side, and“ Pro bono awkwardly probable, allowing even a publico, Re. Cor.,' on the other. wide margin for malicious magnifying. Another coin had a figure and inscrip

Of course it was all “ lies”—“ les tion “Monstra te esse matrem,” too. choses les plus horrible,” says Theo- He even put together a small code dore's friends, telling the story. of civil law, very simple, and suited


to their state. He himself used to his mistake, and told the people that administer justice personally, in the their only chance of liberty was in the patriarchal manner, examining with Spanish saying—Consejo pelago y great pains into the truth of the Roma." stories brought before him. He took The people were, however, murparticular care that criminal law muring; and he even detected some should be administered fairly. He conspiracies, and loud murmurs were invited over trained officers to in, heard through the island when it struct his raw soldiers, he lightened was said that he had summarily put the taxes. He actually got together to death three of the ringleaders. a sort of army of nearly 15,000 men, However, he had now to take the and contrived to support it on the field, and had actually laid siege to money he had brought with him. In Bastia, sending a haughty summons short, every act of his in this little to Rivarola, who was in command. drama showed a sort of prudence The reply was a discharge of canand wisdom.

non, which compelled him to retreat To make all complete he had his precipitately;. He then broke up his “great seal” of the kingdom, a forces into divisions, and proceeded crown surmounting a shield on which to besiege various small towns, with were a broken chain and a Black's successful results. The capture of head with two wild-looking figures Bonza gave him the command of the carrying clubs for supporters, and the navigation of the Gulf of St. Fiomotto " IN TE DOMINISPERAVI.” Pa- renzo ; then, flushed with success, he tents of nobility granted lavishly, ex- returned to Bastia, and, wasting the hibited this token of high authority. country about, began to blockade it.

Giafferi and Paoli became thus During these operations, he never counts and generalissimi, and were forgot his stage business. He used to be addressed as “ Excellences ;" to be seen on the top of hills, with D'Costa was Chancellor and Keeper a telescope, anxiously looking out toof the Seals. Another, Doctor Cafferio, wards the sea, as if for succour. was Secretary of State. Arighi, his Sometimes great official packets were soldier, was Secretary of War, Fa- brought over to him from the mainbione, Vice-President, &c. This little land, which he announced to be desYvetốt was complete at all points. patches from royal persons acknowSurrounded by five hundred mounted ledging his power, and promising soldiers, with drawn sabres, His aid. Majesty rode about in state.

Nor was the Republic idle. Troops It was not likely that the new king, were continually coming across. The who had passed through what the admiral's galley was cruising in the French call“ une vie orageuse,” would waters, and they had set their ambe specially noted for sanctity. Yet bassador in London at work, who had it would have been expected that he been so successful at the Court of might have learnt discretion enough, St. James as to obtain a proclamanot to speak so freely and openly tion, published in the London Gazette, against the religion of the country warning all British subjects against as he was said to do. These speeches, giving aid of any kind to "the rebelreported to the Corsicau priests, lious Corsicans. And one of the soon caused a feeling against him. odd rumours of the time which drifted Another false step was proclaim- over to the island was, that the Enging liberty of conscience, which was lish Captain Dick, who had brought meant to draw, and did draw, to over Theodore, had pistolled himself the island, a disorderly miscellany of at Smyrna, from fear of being arJews, Greeks, and even Moors, to rested and punished. whom he gave ground for churches A very welcome piece of news, and cities, and who forthwith set to however, now reached the Genoese. ork to build. He long after saw

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THE State undertook a task of enor- break-up, depriving it of distinct prinmous difficulty when it assumed the ciples, paralyzing its operations, and office of national teacher in Ireland. denying it a character for solidity or To establish a successful system of permanence. Thus, to all but the primary instruction in a country partisans of the National Board, it where it was not appreciated by the has been apparent throughout its people would have been a work of history that the institution continued immense labour, had no greater ob- to exist only by reason of the changes stacle existed than popular apathy. it was undergoing, in the nature of But religious and political issues were concessions to this section or to that, raised in this case which any thought- as agitation demanded. At an early ful man might, even thirty years ago, period in the project now hasting have seen no perseverance would to dissolution, principle was thrown outlast or empirical treatment solve.' to the winds. The object was to A mechanism of compromises would gain over new sects, parties, and work for a time, longer or shorter ac- cliques, by an assent to their terms, cording to the craft with which it provided only the proselytes conwas adjusted to meet fresh discon- sented to "join the Board,” and tents ; but there would always hang avow the fact, just as the Roman over the system the danger of a Pontiffs have permitted various peo

* National Education, Ireland." Parliamentary return of the whole of the Revised Rules recently sanctioned by the Commissioners of National Education : of any Dissents from, or Protests against the adoption of all or any of the above Rules on the part of any of the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland, and given in by any of the Commissioners to the Board: and of all Memorials to his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland against the recent Changes in the Rules and Regulations of the Commissioners of National Education, and the Replies of the Commissioners thereto."-Obtained on motion of Sir H. Cairns, 18th March, 1864.

Copy of Corrrespondence between the Chief Secretary for Ireland and the Chief Commissioner of National Education in Ireland, relative to the recent Alterations in the Rules of the-Board."-Obtained on motion of Sir H. Cairns, 6th April, 1864.

Estimates for the Civil Services for the year ending 31st March, 1865. Public Education (Ireland). Estimate of the sum required by the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland for year ending March, 1865, £316,770.

Report of Inspector Sheridan on Convent Schools. Published in return to an order of the House of Commons of 26th February, 1864.

A Letter or Memorial to the Board of National Education from Baggot-street Convent School, Dublin, applying for payment for Training Teachers, and the Answer of the Board thereto." VOL. LXIII. —NO. CCCLXXVIII.



ples to retain their old creeds, cus- It is idle for the apologists of this toms, and forins of faith, even when enormous failure to pretend that preantagonistic, on their consenting no- sent circumstances do not furnish a minally to acknowledge the Papal complete justification of the course supremacy. One body and knot of pursued by nine-tenths of the clergy persons after another, accordingly, of the Established Church in Ireland. was brought into an ostensible union The sincerity of their opposition to with the National system ; and the the National system has been tested extraordinary measures adopted to by a quarter of a century of prosecure their alliance betrayed the scription and persecution, of pains, consciousness of an inherent weak- penalties, and perpetual calumny.

Under the circumstances, the The convictions must have been deep new adherents could add no strength which survive a trial so fiery and to the scheme, and the only effect of protracted. They must have been the pains taken to satisfy their ex- intelligent, also; for had the position actions was to institute a rivalry, of the clergy been Ingically weak, it under which the advantages obtained would have been surrendered long by one religious denomination con- ago to the pressure of argument or stituted a basis for aggressions by the force of ridicule. In our political another. Every privilege accorded to history there is no parallel for the one section was resented instantly by tenacity of opinion here exhibited, the representatives of jealous and op- accompanied by a readiness at all posing parties in the Commission ; times to break a lance with the adand in that game, naturally, the most versary which spoke the abiding and powerful in numbers, the subtlest in vigorous consciousness of an unasorganization, and the least scrupulous sailable position. The leading minds in means, came ever off victorious in among the Irish clergy and laity saw, the highest degree. So that, now, the not only that the scheme was wrong whole undertaking seems about to in principle which made the State, fall to pieces, after all the possibili- and the Protestant patron of a school, ties of compromise and concession active and responsible agents in withhave been exhausted, because there drawing the Scriptures from a people is nothing more to be given, in the not unwilling to receive them, but way of special favours, to buy the also that the political effect of the good-will of the dominant party, un- System would be to foster the exless the management of the institu- tremest and most dangerous form tion in all its branches, and for all of foreign influence in our domestic its recipients, be simply handed over affairs. During the controversy that to Ultramontanism.

has raged without intermission for so Against the last "modification of many years, the former, as the more the Rules,” which all but effects this palpable and more grave objection, revolution, numerous and indignant has been well-nigh exclusively in protests have been made by those sisted upon ; but it is worthy of refinally worsted in the competition mark that the first and keenest oppojust described ; but all dispassionate nents of the National Board disobservers perceive that there is in covered afar off the political consethis ultimate result of the working of quences now upon us, and warned the National Board nothing that has the Ministers of their day that the not flowed directly from the original eventual result would be to commit and essential faultiness of the plan. to a priesthood without native symIt has required a longer time to work pathies in the superior grades, a power the scheme out to the inevitable that would be found more than inconissue than its early opponents sup- venient, and to blot out the liberties posed, but their prophecies have of the Roman Catholic laity, in adproved to the letter true. We are dition, in favour of aspirations and called on now, in fact, to record their intrigues paralleled only in the times fulfilment—to officiate at the obse- immediately preceding the Revolution quies of a system that, in becoming of 1688. ultramontane, has lost whatever When some years ago a movement title it possessed to the respect of in favour of the National system the enlightened portion of the com- suddenly arose among certain Church. munity.

men in Ulster, and the late Lord

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Primate, impressed too deeply with duced a ground of complaint, pro-
the difficulty of maintaining Scriptural fessed dissatisfaction with the consti-
schools in localities where the Pro- tution of the Commission. Their or-
testant gentry were sparsely resident, gans throughout the country, with the
stated it as his opinion that the cler- simultaneousness customary among
gyman who could not support his them, so plainly indicating organi-
school would do better to accept the zation, clamoured this grievance in
State's conditions than to close its the ears of the timid and short-
doors, it was thought by superficial sighted official then in the post of
observers that the

contest was at an Chief Secretary for Ireland. Mr.
end, and that the Established Church Cardwell in due course succumbed,
clergy were about to attach them- probably under the special influence
selves to the Board in a body, as the of the Resident Commissioner-the
Presbyterians and Methodists had evil genius of the scheme—and the
done before. A number of the clergy Board was enlarged

to the number of of the diocese of Down did announce twenty, ten to be Roman Catholics, their adhesion, and several indivi- and the other ten distributed among duals of eminent position among Scrip- Churchmen, Presbyterians, and Unitural educationists, with a strange tarians. By this constitution the felicity in the choice of their time first-named obtained a continual of conversion, followed their ex- ascendancy. In any Board where ample. The Government, dazzled the number of Roman Catholic refor a moment by the prospect of an presentatives and of Protestants are imininent adoption of their principles equal, the former will enjoy a pracby the Irish Church, rewarded those tical majority, their Church's control prudent proselytes with bishoprics over the personal action of her lay and other substantial marks of fa- delegates never failing to secure

That movement did not fail, zealous and constant service; but therefore, for lack of patronage. Thé in this instance the Ultramontane encouragement supplied to it was so hierarchy had not to trust to a maostentatious, indeed, as hardly to be jority of that nature, for the “ modicovert bribery. And still, the new fication” of Mr. Cardwell secured for advocacy of the System made little them an absolute numerical preponway. Articles appeared daily in derance upon every question of adpraise of the liberal-minded converts, ministration affecting their ecclesiasand in abuse of those who preferred tical interests. A glance at the list of principle to promotion. Pamphlets Commissioners proved this. Abstractrained upon the public, the composi- ing from it the votes of those whose tion of persons of all classes, from position and antecedents showed that ex-chancellors to expectant prelates they might be depended upon to For some six months the Govern- take an independent course, there ment zealots pressed their case with remained on the side of the Ultraearnestness, and among other things montane episcopacy fully thirteen contrived to foment dissension among votes. At all events they could the friends they had quitted and be- always count upon two in addition to trayed. Yet not more than thirty their own men- “ Chancellor Brady clergymen in all joined the Board and Alexander MacDonnell.” TO during that crisis. This fact offered indicate the character of Mr. Cardas strong a proof as it is possible to well's “reform" in the constituconceive, that the scheme had not, in tion of the Board, it is enough to say, its working, conciliated the most edu- that of the eight persons added in cated and independent portion of the 1861, six were Roman Catholics, all Irish public.

of the more pronounced character; Events soon proved that this section one an official, in this instance, as it of the community had again judged chances, a lawyer of constitutional wisely. Not long after, in perfect bias; and the other a young Presbyaccordance with the principle of com- terian clergyman. That Board was petition among the negotiating sects not long in making itself felt. It had before adverted to, the Roman been selected, really, by the Roman Catholic hierarchy, making conces- Catholic episcopacy, for a special pursions supposed to have been granted to pose, and in due course, this purpose the few "Churchmen recently intro- began to be put in train for accom

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