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wipe out the glories of our history, ably in the study of a character absoand libel the memory of the noblest lutely unique, and in the re-examinaof our ancestors, did we interpose our tion of heroic deeds, on the motives conservatism to shield a tyrant from and difficulties of which considerable the wrath of an outraged people. light has been thrown since the date We are enabled to greet Garibaldi as of their occurrence. the agent of revolt and change, be- The simplicity of Garibaldi's life cause he has done for the Italians at Caprera has been charmingly demuch what William the Third did for picted by Colonel Vecchj, one of his

He has given them freedom of faithful companionsin arms, and lately government and of conscience toge- his secretary, in a little book transther. He has not destroyed, but built lated by Mrs. Gaskell. Vecchj's adup a nation. Civil discord and disor- miration for “my General” finds the ganization have not followed his most glowing expression ; but this sword, þut order and peace. He has perfectly honest and spontaneous not, indeed, been unvaryingly wise; enthusiasm, is a powerful testimony but this no man disputes-that to his to the attraction of the patriot's bearmagnanimity and intelligence that ing. All through his life, and in the unity of Italy is referable which, later Italian scenes of it more paralone, guarantees the continuance of ticularly, he has shown a marvellous the new and happier state of thing power of attaching to himself single

Garibaldi came amongst us with no minded and thorough men, and of flush of recent victory upon him. The animating them with his own undemonstrations in his honour were not selfish spirit. Caprera is Vecchj’s the reward of a general hot from the Paradise. He is satisfied with the field. He had emerged, rather, from hardest labour and the coarsest fareunder a cloud. Since the affair at, for Garibaldi's military family all Aspromonte, he had lain at his island assist in tilling his little farm-to be retreat, shattered in health, and com- near his beloved chief. Nor is this promised by the imputation of inex- feeling confined to the General's secrecusable rashness. His very appear- tary. In 1862 there were, besides, ance disappointed the popular concep- among the suite of the hero several tion of the hero of the Volturno-his of his principal lieutenants, as fondly greatest battle, won certainly by his attached to his person as when he led own hand. Still, such is the abiding them to fresh victories daily. Nino lustre of his achievements, the perfect Bixio, who had the confidence at once honesty of his nature, his unparalleled of the Italian Government and his disinterestedness, his want of egotism, leader; Fruscianti, who has steadily that it is impossible to keep within followed Garibaldi's fortunes since restraint the admiration which his he first served under him, as a comname inspires.

mon soldier, in Rome, in 1849, and It is not our business here, however, now leads the life of a colonist, to notice, even in the briefest manner, working from dawn to sunset among the various features of Garibaldi's his master's vines and vegetables ; visit ; nor do we aim at pointing the Specchi, another of the brave men moral of the event. These interesting of 1848, who, though afterwards tasks have been admirably performed settled in America, abandoned that by the daily journals—those volumin- country to join the modest circle on ous and picturesque, for we can no the barren Italian rock, and give up longer say “brief and abstract," his days to hunting and fishing for chroniclers of the time, to which the Garibaldi's table ; Stagneti, also an public owe so much on occasions of exile, returned from America to share the sort.

his former commander's glorious isolaWe have thought it useful rather tion ; Carpeneti, formerly Sardinian to take a retrospective, glance at cer- Consul-General at Tangiers, who lost tain points in the career of General his position by entertaining the future Garibaldi, which will probably be author of Piedmont's greatness in found to have their interest revived 1849 ; Basso, a sailor, and the comand freshened by current events. panion of many of Garibaldi's voyages; Trite as the subject is supposed to and Adolph Wolff, a Bavarian, who have become, the reader will find hurried from London when the war much to engage his attention profit- in Italy broke out, to offer his sword

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to the emancipator-these all resided and causes the flags to be always cheerfully at Caprera in 1862, sharing slimy and wet. On each side of the the illustrious proprietor's humble fireplace are book-cases 'containing fare, and pursuing the commonest works on shipping, history, and milioccupations, after his example. And tary tactics ; but books and bundles not only do Garibaldi's old friends of papers, to tell the truth, are all and fellow-soldiers thus respect him ; around, lying on every available piece every visitor to the island, of whatever of furniture; the countless bundles country, is hardly there a day until he of newspapers are removed as soon has yielded his heart to the influence as the General has read them. Over of the General's unaffected and in- the mantel-piece hangs a portrait in spiring demeanour.

oil-colours of his infant daughter, Garibaldi's house at Caprera has Rosita, who died at Monte Video. At been much improved since the cala- the head of the bed, in an ebony mity at Aspromonte. Those of his frame, hangs a lock of hair, his wife followers who accompanied him back Anita's, the brave woman who is no to his refuge have built, with their more. Under this hangs the portrait of own hands, a considerable addition to C. Augusto Vecchj, placed between the its humble accommodation. The pre- portraits of two officers who fell, one sents of admirers--some of them at Melazzo, the other on the Volgrotesque enough—have contributed turno. On the wall over the writing to its ornamentation. The farm and table hang the hero's famous sword, gardens are now in better condition, his revenque (a sort of Brazilian whir), the proprietor himself having la- and the sword of the brave La Tour boured incessantly, despite his lame- d'Auvergne, whose fame still lives ness, to make the most of an infertile although he fell long ago on the field patch of soil. One who visited Ca- of glory. The warrior's relations have prera, in August, 1861, found only one placed the weapon in the General's chair in the hero's house, and it was hand as the most worthy guardian of partially broken. The first chairs so honourable a relic. possessed by the soldier and patriot, When Vecchj resided at Caprera the who had given away a kingdom, were days were spent in what Garibaldi the gift of the officers and crew of called “ amusement,” the building the ship Washington, and bear the of walls, the training of vines, the names of the donors, who must have hoeing of vegetables, and other simibeen Yankees, ostentatiously engraved lar occupations, in which many of the on the back. Garibaldi's house has General's visitors respectfully joined been often described. It occupies a whose workmanship gave anything but level spot, protected on one side by evidence that they were accustomed so high rocks, and on the other by walls, to amuse themselves. The fatigue of lately built. “ The hero's room”. certain dilettante tourists after a few every particular about him is interest- hours of manual labour of this sort ing to the British people—"contains caused no little mirth in the settlea small plain iron bedstead, with mus- ment. After a plain but substantial lin curtains hanging from a cane tester, dinner-fish, roast partridges, wild a walnut-wood writing table, and a boar, with Calabrian fruits and Capri chest of drawers with a dressing- wine,--the evening was passed in glass on the top, blocking up a window friendly converse, the ladies—Terethat looks to the north. Close to the sita, Garibaldi's daughter and Mabed stands a deal stool covered with dame Deiderj-playing the pianoforte, books and letters. On a cord stretched and the Italian gentlemen singing the from the walls across the room are choicest passages of the best operas. hung to dry the General's red shirts, Garibaldi himself sings well, and once drawers, trousers, and stockings, for in his earlier life escaped from the he changes his clothes every time he French in Genoa by delivering with changes his occupation. The fire- Italian fervuur one of the noblest of place is in the middle of the wall at Beranger's songs. Specchi and Salví, the end of the room ; some logs are who, in 1861, were of “the family always kept blazing in it on account at Caprera, lave sung at the Paris, of the damp; for beneath the stone London, and New York opera-houses. floor is the cistern which receives the The materials for a capital concert, water from the gutters when it rains, therefore, were always at hand. Ga

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ribaldi was at this time, however, partook of Garibaldi's hospitality, subject to fits of depression, and pronounced his viands excellent, spent wont to slip off towards the shore, several very pleasant days in the unattended. “ He loves solitude and island, and when taking his leave, the sea, conducive to dreams and deep placed a covetous eye upon emotions,” continues his quondam pair of strong-nailed shoes of Nice aide-de-camp, describing the genuine manufacture, which he had seen amiability of his character,

under the General's bed. It was

impossible to yield to this demand, “ He respects every one, be they humble however ; for, as Garibaldi goodor exalted. I never heard him speak ill naturedly intimated to the polite of any one. He is as kind to the brute highwayman, he had but one pair, creation as to man, and is so pained to see an animal struck, that he never permits it and the shoemaker lived at a great in his presence. He takes special delight in distance. “They,” added Garibaldi, planting and cultivating useful vegetables,

are the souvenir of my native land.” and is highly displeased if a plant be trod- Turning to a cord, however, on which den on, or pulled up by mistake. He who several red shirts were drying, he is so renowned for his use of the sword, presented one of these with a grave would like to see the accursed steel turned humour to his modest guest, who was into a ploughshare. He has led in this cen- good enough to profess himself satury a life in accordance with the chivalric tisfied. age, for he has always drawn his sword in at this period, one came from a priest

Among Garibaldi's letters the cause of the oppressed. His lamented at Foggia, who declared Italy to be wife was as heroic as himself; she followed him everywhere, and fell a victim to her

possessed," and called on Garibaldi devotion; their first-born saw the light in to exorcise it with fire and sword. the desert, with nothing but a poncho to The Pope he described as the reprewrap him in."

sentative of Lucifer, and the cardinals,

archbishops, bishops, and monks, as Retiring early, the General awakes demons of various degrees. Another at three in the morning and reads letter offered an infernal machine to and answers letters, some contain- destroy the Quadrilateral in an amazing the most extraordinary requests, ingly short space of time; whilst others tendering spiritual counsel; a second diabolical invention was others denouncing him in terms of guaranteed to annihilate an army of genuine Ultramontane vulgarity and one hundred and fifty thousand men indecency; others calling upon him by one stroke. The writer of the latter, to exterminate the Pope and Anto- however, patriotically merciful, was nelli (these last chiefly from Italian careful to stipulate that the men depriests); others soliciting his sword stroyed should not be French. in the cause of an oppressed nationality” at some distant corner of the An epistle, couched in very angry earth ; others containing frightful phrase, attributing to Garibaldi the sonnets (English these, generally); promotion of anarchy, and charging others accompanying presents in lu- him with "envy, vanity, and impodicrous discordance with the manner tence,” gave occasion for such a stateof life of the recipient. The Generał ment of his principles, in a converreplies to those communications in all sation at Caprera, about this time, as cases courteously. The epistles beg- his career more perfectly justifies than ging trifling articles as memorials of superficial students imagine. “I deCaprera and its occupant are the clare to you,” said Garibaldi, addressmost troublesome. The ladies who ing his friends who surrounded him, honour the General with their cor- that by a Republic I only mean respondence usually beseech a lock that Government which gives the of his hair. Had he complied with people the greatest possible national the request of a tithe of these fair prosperity. I do not care whether at applicants, he would have been long the head of such a government there ago condemned to the ignominy of ă be a king or a president. We have wig.

as a gift from Providence our excepLadies, however, were not the only tional King, a prince and honest, a --must it be written ? - torment- citizen and a soldier ! This forms a

There was a certain English centre of loyalty for the 'union of the nobleman, according to Vecchj, who different States of Italy, and will arm

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them to rescue the dislocated pro- national military organization in vinces. We have made him amid the Italy, under the auspices of the plaudits of the world. I love him, King=not to carry war into other Victor! You love him also. But if countries, not to play the knightanybody doubts whether I am a errant for “oppressed nationalities,” Republican, let him come here and but to secure the independence judge. Do you think we lead a very of his native land, alike against aristocratic life ?

sinister alliances, and Austrian and These constitutional sentiments, Roman intrigues. He may have exwhich establish a wide distinction aggerated the danger involved in between Garibaldi and the mere Re- Count Cavour's compact with the volutionist, were made more striking Emperor of the French. He may by frequent statements of his abhor- have unwisely resisted the large prorence of war. Even since his coming jects of the statesman, which his mind to England he has been depicted by was ill fitted to appreciate ; but his his enemies, of a particular faction theory was by no means a foolish or a mere minority of the population ignoble one. It may be shortly exhappily-as one who delights in con- pressed as-Italy constitutionally flict, from a wild and fierce instinct, free, united, and self-contained. At the result of his early South American an early stage of the struggle, before adventures. How different his real the sword of Louis Napoleon had spirit is may be gathered from the been thrown into the scale, he held words which he used during a memo- that Italy, alone, was able to perform rable political discussion at Caprera, the task before her. Count Cavour when the portion of his policy that judged differently; and although the seemed to many the most rash, was course adopted by the latter was that thus defended :

of prudence, it cannot be taken quite

for granted that Garibaldi's plan "My plan for a national arming was would have failed. Certainly, had based on the old Piedmontese statute. It the Austrians been expelled by the only required calling into force. Did you Italians unassisted, the kingdom of see how perversely it was annihilated ? They would disarm but the men they

Italy would have rested on a broader have drilled into inert sticks. Yet, if they and more glorious basis, and the comwanted preservers, sincere patriots; if they pletion of her liberty, by the abolition were not concealing secret plans, they of the temporal power of the Papacy, would not doubt me and mine; they would would have been inevitable and impermit us to institute a force like the Eng- mediate. The intrusion of France, fish Volunteers in the United Kingdom. however useful—and it is popularly I repeat, I abhor war, I have to struggle considered to have been of vital value with myself every time I order a battalion to the aspiring Piedmontese Stateto charge the enemy; but it was to avoid brought with it engagements, rewar that I wanted the Government to arm the nation. Diplomacy will feel quite dif- straints, and demands for rewards, ferently towards us, drawn up in battle which have seriously narrowed the array, six hundred thousand strong, ready benefit of the Revolution. It was for to fight for our country from the Alps to the interest of Europe that the conthe Guarnero. The French will remember stitutional changes inaugurated by that Rome is Italy, and that we are not Garibaldi should have gone much men to permit any excess against the Va- farther. The hand of the French motican, or the poor old priests saying their narch checked the process. Garibaldi orisons there. The Austrians will under- writhed under this disappointment, stand that the hour strikes for them to clear out of Venice. Nor will Spain ask when, as a senator, he saw in power at

Turin a Minister little more than the of her patron what attitude she should as

Nor Prussia look with an evil eye creature of Napoleon the Third. It on Austria's humiliation. Nor Russia raise

was then that he took the field again the Ukase to frighten us. Nor England be in his last unfortunate exploit. Garidispleased to have us for a strong, loyal baldi's appearance in Rome, and the friend."

fall of the Pope-events which might

have occurred in a few days—would To arrive at a fair estimate of Gari- not have suited the plans of the Embaldi's career, it must be borne in peror; and as there was no Cavour then mind, first of all, that he repeatedly at Turin to act the part of “the daring urged the importance of a grand pilot in extremity,” the hero was

sume.

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sacrificed. It is to France he owes serve my country, “and you know the wound received at Aspromonte. that I shall put all my heart into

the work. Here, however," he That Garibaldi contemplated added, “in presence of our Re Gathroughout a constitutional monarchy lantuomo, I must be permitted to only, under the Re Galantuomo, is speak my mind openly. Am I to proved by the fact that he was the understand that you are going to sumfirst to present Victor Emmanuel to the mon all the forces of the country, and, people of Southern Italy as their declaring war against Austria, to atlegitimate sovereign. He stood spon- tack her with the irresistible

power sor for him when Cavour conceived of a national insurrection ?" That the idea of a single great kingdom, is not precisely our plan,” rejoined under a Piedmontese dynasty; and Cavour, “I have not an illimitable had Garibaldi taken different faith in the power of the insurrectioncourse, the French plan for Italy's ary element against the well-drilled future, devised at Villafranca, would legions of Austria. I think, morehave succeeded, and the redemption over, our regular army too small to of the people have been again post- match the 200,000 men our enemy poned. And it is in this respect has massed on the frontier. We must, that Garibaldi presents so marked a therefore, have the assistance of a contrast to Mazzini. The Nizzard powerful ally; and this is already certainly caught up his first inspira- secured." Garibaldi needed no further tions as a patriot from that gifted elucidation of this alliance, and stated man, who, whatever his faults, exer- his views frankly and immediately. cises a wonderful charm over those in “Although my principles are known contact with him ; but he has never both to you and to the King,” he rebeen a mere dreamer like Mazzini- joined, “I feel that my first duty is he has never been a Republican of that of offering my sword to my counthe stamp of Mazzini. On the con- try; my war-cry shall, therefore, betrary, when he yielded up the kingdom Italian unity under the constituhe had conquered to Victor Emmanuel, tional rule of Victor Emmanuel.'that magnanimous act was only the Such a declaration is sufficient to carrying out of the principle which satisfy the most conservative Englishhe had at once, and of his own accord, man; and the war-cry of the hero has avowed on the occasion when Cavour never changed since. The same spirit sent for him, and solicited his aid, animated him at Calatafimi and at previous to the war with Austria. Aspromonte. The key to his seeming That remarkable passage in the life eccentricities is found in the warning of the General is too much forgotten, which, not without reason, he proand to recall it here will serve the ceeded to utter, on the memorable useful purpose of dispelling the ca- morning in question. “Mind, howlumny which ascribes to Garibaldi ever," said the General, sympathy with the “Reds."

are about, and do not forget that the In April, 1859, as Count Arrivabene aid of foreign armies must always be states the circumstances, on high paid for dearly. As for the man who authority,", Cavour sent suddenly has promised to help us, I ardently for Garibaldi. So pressing was the wish he may redeem himself in the matter in hand that the General eyes of posterity by achieving the was admitted to an audience of the noble task of Italian liberation." As King, attended by his distinguished Colonel Vecchj reports this conversaMinister, at the moment of his tion in pretty much the same terms, arrival in Turin, the hour being it may be accepted as a fair statement five o'clock in the morning. This of what took place. interview took place in the palace of This adhesion of Garibaldi to the Piazza Castello. Cavour opened the constitutional cause made Victor Emconversation, or negotiation, with the manuel King of Italy. As soon as it words—“Well, General, the long ex- became known that Garibaldi had pected day is near at hand: we want joined the King's service, the “best eleyou." Garibaldi had not been satis- ments of Lombardy, of Romagna, and fied with Cavour's policy, which he the Duchies,” flocked to him, says did not, in fact, fathom, and answered Count Arrivabene. His Guides and cautiously-"I am always ready to Genoese Sharpshooters had to pro

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