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of English platforms, and the super- and, until lately, Lee had never above ficial exhortations of the home press, 60,000 effective men under his comhave had no deceptive effect upon these mand. But no Confederate soldier growers. They know their position per- receives his discharge on being even fectly. They may realize a good deal badly wounded. He is attended by of money while the sun shines, but it ladies, who voluntarily undertake the is an April gleam only of warmth and duty, and employed, as soon as he has brightness, soon to be overcast. The become convalescent, in whatever complaints to which vent has been labour in the public service he may be given in England, with regard to the able to perform. The slightly wounded slowness of the Indian cultivator in return to the ranks as soon as possible. taking up the cotton agriculture, ra- Colonel Fremantle saw a fine-looking ther show the ignorance or selfishness man, of Polk's corps, both of whose of those that make them, than stu- hands had been blown off at the pidity on the part of the ryots, who wrists, by unskilful artillery practice are sufficiently alive to their own in- in one of the early battles. A curryterests, and have acted with a rational comb and brush, however, had been
a caution in the extent to which they fitted to his stumps, and he was enhave changed the character of their gaged in grooming artillery horses crops.
with considerable skill. Clerks, orThe anxiety of the Confederate derlies, and railway servants, are, for youth to enter the army is so great the niost part, mutilated soldiers. that it has been necessary to forbid The Confederates were surprised on them from joining the ranks at an the third day of the memorable strugimmature age. Far from being run gles at Gettysburg, when their last to the last extreme for lack of fight- invasion of Maryland failed. They ing material, the Southern govern- fought desperately, as Colonel Frement say they can keep their armies mantle's account of the battle shows, recruited up to their present strength but the original error of unpreparedfor several years.
If the worst comes ness was never recovered, and Meade's to the worst, they will arm the negroes. reputation was made by a Federal vicThey are prepared for any sacrifice. tory. But the admirable organization One of their generals declared to of the Southern army was never more Colonel Fremantle lately that they seen than in the orderliness of their would prefer the supremacy of the retreat, and the coolness of the bearEmperor of China to that of the ing of their officers under a crushing Federal President. That author's disappointment, for they had supposed observation led him to think that that Washington was theirs. Of all the Confederates can, if they choose, the Northern generals, Rosecranz is convert a large number of the negroes the most esteemed in the South, both into soldiers, who, “from the affection for the qualities of gallantry and diswhich undoubtedly exists, as a general cretion. Banks is despised ; but a rule, between the slaves and their subordinate officer in the Federal sermasters,” would prove more efficient vice, a German, named Weitzel, has a than “black troops under any other high character among the Confedercircumstances.” But this will be a ates. Next to their own principal last resort, partly from the value of generals, the Southerns seem most to the negroes for their labour, and value General Stuart, the famous partly from a fear that when the raider.” Jeb Stuart, as they call passions of the blacks were aroused, him, on account of his initials, is, in they would commit excesses. The fact, the darling of the rustic populaSoutherns, however, have contrived tions. It is curious that so dashing a to economize their men to an impor- guerilla leader, whose enterprises are tant extent, by employing negroes in usually characterized by singular darthe service of the army-in raising ing, should be a sort of fop; yet so it fortifications, conveying supplies, and is. He is very fond of popular apmanufacturing implements and ma- plause, and was lifted to the third terial.
heaven on an occasion when he was The Southern armies have always conducted through a Virginian town, been outnumbered immensely in their his horse covered with garlands of battles. Altogether, the Southern roses. forces do not tot up more than 400,000, Not the least remarkable of the
Southern leaders is that “Bishop' slaves. It was the success of these Polk, to whom his parents, with the efforts which pointed him out as the passion of Americans for imposing divine best suited for the office of a Christian names, have given the missionary bishop, whose territory pagan, but illustrious, prefix of Leo- was to be of an extent so vast, connidas. He is cousin to President prising as it did part of seven States, Polk, with whom he has been some- that he could not conclude his visitatimes confounded by English writers. tion-for the American prelate did Like most of the chiefs of the Con- really visit his clergy and not the federacy he is in the prime of life, clergy him--in less time than half a being only fifty years of age. His year. He afterwards became Bishop appearance indicates a man of good of Louisiana, and in his view sphere, average capacity, who has all his it has been stated that he has been powers well in hand, and ready at the most active agent in the erection any moment for any duty. A certain of no less than fifty churches, church air of command is the only soldierly extension being his passion. When feature about him; otherwise he still the war is concluded he means to relooks more of the churchman than sume his mitre, and prosecute more the warrior. The military instinct, earnestly than ever the work in which however, appears to have been always he has been interrupted. What he strong in him, and when the war broke considers dire necessity has made him out he conceived the defence of his for the time a soldier. country to be his primary duty. He There is an adventure of this soldierhas proved himself no less zealous as bishop, which possesses considerable the commander of an army than he interest, as related modestly by himwas as a prelate, and though never self, and confirmed by his officers. entrusted with military tasks as im- The story, indeed, is one of the marportant as those committed to Isee, tial feats destined to figure in the Jackson, or Beauregard, he has dis- early history of the Confederacy. tinguished himself repeatedly in the "Well, sir," said the quondam Bishop, field, and acquired a character second “it was at the battle of Perryville, late in to that of no other Confederate gene- the evening, in fact it was almost dark, ral for organizing and disciplining an when Liddell's brigade came into action. army.
Shortly after its arrival I observed a body The previous career of this indi- of men, whom I believed to be Confederates, vidual is not less interesting than standing at an angle to this brigade, and that of Jefferson Davis or Stephens. firing obliquely at the newly arrived troops
. Leonidas Polk has Irish blood in his be stopped," so † turned round, but could
I said, “Dear me, this is very sad, and must veins. His grandfather took part in find none of my young men, who were the siege of Derry. His father dis- absent on different messages; so I detertinguished himself in the American mined to ride myself and settle the matter. revolutionary war. Polk himself is Having cantered up to the colonel of the a North Carolinian, and was educated regiment which was firing, I asked him in for the military profession, first at angry tones what he meant by shooting his the university of his native city, and
own friends, and I desired him to cease
He answered with sursubsequently at West Point Academy, doing so at once. where he went through the full course, take about it; I am sure they are the
prise, 'I don't think there can be any misand afterwards received a commission enemy. Enemy! I said, “why I have in the artillery. He remained in the only just left them myself. Cease firing, army, however, for a few months sir ! what is your name, sir?! My name is only. Influenced powerfully by reli- Colonel
Indiana. And gious feelings, he offered himself as a pray, sir, who are you ?' Then, for the candidate for holy orders, and after first time, I saw, to my astonishment, that a proper probation, became assistant he was a Yankee, and that I was in the ninister in an Episcopal church in
rear of a regiment of Yankees. Well, I Richmond. Soon after he travelled, saw that there was no hope but to brazen and visited England. His property, obscurity befriended me, so I approached
it out, my dark blouse and the increasing inherited partly and partly acquired by marriage, being in Tennessee, he quite close to him, and shook my fist in his
face, saying, “I'll soon show you who I am, subsequently settled down there, and sir ; cease firing, sir, at once! I then laboured with much enthusiasm for turned my horse, and cantered slowly down the spiritual improvement of his the line, shouting in an authoritative manVOL. LXIII. —NO. CCCLXXIV.
ner to the Yankees to cease firing; at the and in number inferior to those opsame time I experienced a disagreeable sen- posed to them. sation, like screwing up my back, and cal
It has been said, indeed, that the culating how many bullets would be between
patriotism of the planters did not exmy shoulders every moment. I was afraid
hibit itself in any very remarkable to increase my pace until I got to a small copse, when I put the spurs in and gallopped way until Mr. Lincoln had issued his back to my men. immediately went up
Emancipation edict. That document, to the nearest colonel, and said to him, it is true, added fuel to the flame. Colonel, I have reconnoitred those fellows It left the Secessionists no retreat. pretty closely, and I find there is no mistake It proclaimed a war ad internecionem. who they are; you may get up and go at As an incitement to servile insurrecthem.' And I assure you, sir, that the tion, it maddened all classes of the slaughter of that Indiana regiment was the Southern population, and did more to greatest I have ever seen in the war.”
recruit the divisions of Mr. Jefferson
Davis than any expenditure of money The personal sacrifice made by Bi- in bounties the planters could have shop Polk in joining the army is only attempted. Nevertheless, it is incora type of the spirit which has animat- rect to refer the origin of their ened the whole Southern nation since thusiasm to that circumstance. It the conflict began. Rich planters had a much earlier date. When the have entered the ranks as privates. children of a heavenly Mars," as Others have subscribed to the extent John Brown, of Harper's Ferry, called of one-third of their whole means to the Northern troops in his almost aid the Government. Some have prophetic doggrel-set apart, sealed, equipped and supported companies and anointed”-- had invaded the throughout the campaign of the last South, with the view of stimulating two years at their own sole expense, the slaves to massacre as the means in remarkable contrast with the sel- of victory, the South rose as one man, fishness of their Northern opponents, and the scabbard was thrown away, and the vicarious patriotisin which but long before that time the flower fights battles with German and Irish of the Southern chivalry had fallen mercenaries. To this patriotic self- gloriously on well-fought fields, and denial among the wealthier inhabit- the people, high and low, had shown ants of the Confederacy, more than that a reunion of the shattered Reany other non-physical cause, are the public was impossible. As an illusmilitary aptitudes developed by the tration of the heroic temper of the Southern people in the course of the Southerns even of the humbler class, war owing. Such a temper is infec- Colonel Fremantle states that having tious. It extends from the higher slept, on a certain occasion, in the classes of society to the lower, and tent of General Polk, that officer told unites all in a common bond of sym- him, before going to rest, the story of pathy and suffering. Thus it was an humble widow, who had lost three that in a wonderfully short period sons in the war, and had only one of time scores of thousands of sol- left, a boy of sixteen. Commiserating diers were brought together, drill- her in her bereavement, General Polk ed, and raised to a high point of went to offer her some consolation. efficiency in the South ; and the same She looked steadily at him, and when influences have recruited their num- he had finished his condolences, said, bers and preserved their discipline. quietly—“As soon as I can put a few Badly uniformed from the first, badly things together, you shall have Henry, shod, often condemned to harassing too.? The tears filled General Polk's marches that must have seemed to eyes, as he added, “How can you subthem without object, fighting for the due such a nation as this ?" most part on the defensive, and stint- Mr. Stephens, the Vice-President ed not unfrequently in food, the of the Confederacy, who made the Southern troops have never Suc- unlucky speech at an early stage of cumbed to the vices such a state of the war, in which slavery was dethings generally produces in an army, scribed as the "corner-stone” of the but have won several of their greatest Southern nation--a sentiment unfields, and added the highest lustre derstood to be repudiated by many to their reputation, when literally of his fellow statesmen--is about ragged, hungry, worn out by fatigue, fifty-two years of age. His father,
planter of moderate means, having phens, if he lives, will be President died when the future politician was of the Confederacy after Mr. Davis young, and his affairs being embar- has laid down the rod of office. Mean rassed at the time, Stephens became as his presence is when he is at rest, indebted for the means of entering the the people who are familiar with his University of Georgia to a benevolent impassioned utterances entertain for lady in the neighbourhood where his him an affectionate regard. He is family had resided. When he gradu- understood to enjoy the confidence ated in 1832 he was at the head of of the slaveholding section of the his class, and having been soon after Southern community, in the fullest called to the bar, almost immediately degree. And in this connexion it took a leading position. His elon may be useful to correct the erroneous quence is striking, his language being idea of some persons with respect to simple and direct, but his manner the supposed predominance of the fervent and effective. He entered slaveowners' interest in the South. political life in 1837 as a member of It appears by the census of 1850, the the State Legislature of Georgia, and last available, that among a white in 1843 became a member of Congress. population of about seven millions He was always a vigorous working there are only 347,525 slaveholders, representative, and among the most and not more than 37,662 of these useful of her delegates to the South. hold more than twenty slaves each. Immediately after the Secession he This fact it is obviously of the greatest was pitched upon as the man most importance to remember when specufitted to stand at the right hand of lations are entered into with respect Jefferson Davis, to whom he is in- to the future position to be held by ferior in knowledge of the world, the negro in an independent Southern powers of organization, and the gov- nation. Those who think that the erning faculty, though superior in all tendency under the circumstances of points of scholarship and in the class the State would be to emancipate, of gifts commonly called popular. will find support for their views in Mr. Samuel Phillips Day has given a the circumstance that the slaveholdgraphic account of the personal ap- ing interest is comparatively so small; pearance and mental characteristics and its influence will be greatly reof one who ranks high among the stricted by the development of manucelebrities of the South, and has factures in the South as a consequence vastly served the young nationality, of the long continuance of the war though his duties have not brought and the vigour of the blockade. When him often before the public.
the time of peace arrives, and the “Mr. Stephens (says Mr. Day) suffers ization of their political system, the
Southern people set about the organfrom an organic derangement of the liver, which gives him a consumptive appearance. planters will probably be found in a He has never weighed over ninety-six very small majority in the Confederpounds, and to see his attenuated figure ate Congress, and it is remarkable bent over his desk, his shoulders contractedthat there exists already the nucleus and the shape of his slender limbs, visible of a party in the South whose printhrough his garments, a stranger would ciple it is that the Southern Republic never select him as the modern John Ran- will best consult for its permanence dolph, more dreaded when in the United and prosperity by a gradual mitigaStates Congress as an adversary, and more
tion of the institution of slavery, with prized as an ally in a debate, than any other
a view to its ultimate abandonment member of the House of Representatives. When speaking, he has at first a shrill, sharp at no distant date. voice; but as he warms with his subject, the
Such an emancipation would obclear tones and vigorous sentences roll out viously be better for the negro than with a pleasing sonorousness, He is witty, that of the North, which means norhetorical, and solid, and has a dash of keen thing more than the declaring of men satire that puts an edge upon every speech. free who cannot find their next meal He is a careful student, but so very careful otherwise than by clinging to their that no trace of study is perceptible as he masters. An experienced and caudashes along in a flow of facts, arguments, tious Scotchman, writing with the and language, that to common minds is al- fullest knowledge of what slavery is most bewildering."
and necessitates, has lately said, It is not improbable that Mr. Ste- "Any sudden and wholesale manu
mission would be at once dangerous is more than twice the size of the to the master and disastrous to the British Isles, and of greater extent slave. The deliverance of the South than the whole of Germany, which must be a growth-a gradual progress contains 43,712,174 inhabitants ; towards enlightened and efficient in- whilst Texas has only 605,950, industry. No philanthropic juggle or cluding slaves. legislative sleight of hand can trans- After the Southerners had selected form a horde of helots into a nation Mr. Jefferson Davis and the Hon. of noble workers.” The Southern Alexander H. Stephens as their prinpeople have before them this great cipal officers, they chose for the other task. Internal necessities will prob- chief posts, namely, the Secretaryship .ably coerce them to take it in hand of State, that of the Treasury, and soon after their independence has that of War, their three best remainbeen fully secured; and there is, hap- ing men, Messrs. Toombs, Memminpily, every likelihood that the people ger, and Lee. Two changes affecting who have displayed such temper and this arrangement have since taken capacity during protracted and trying place. General Lee's duties in the campaigns will find ways of dealing field have rendered it necessary to wisely with this gigantic problem. supply his place, and Mr. Toombs has In the efforts they may make to free given way to Mr. Robert M. T. Hunthe negro, without ruining him in ter, a man of great sagacity and inevery moral and material respect, dustry. Memminger's management they ought manifestly to receive thé of the Southern finances has been special sympathy of Englishmen, masterly, and it is entirely owing since it was under our rule in Ame- to him that the nation occupies a rica that the slave institution grew pecuniary position much more favourup:
able than that of the North. As It need hardly be added, that there against their enormous responsibiliis ample room within the borders of ties the Southern Government have the Southern States to carry out any an immense quantity of cotton, purplan that might be adopted for eman- chased from the planters with their cipating and resettling labour, or bonds. In the absence of informaotherwise, for developing and extend- tion as to the amount and value of it, ing slavery, if such a policy should however, no estimate can be made of unfortunately be adopted instead. their liabilities in comparison with The Southerners, however, it is to be those of their rivals, but it is probaborne in mind, have solemnly pledged ble that their real debt is a good deal themselves against the slave trade. less than that of the Federals. Virginia is 270 miles long, and 200 Mr. Hunter is also a financier. He broad, and contains above 61,000 is a man of about fifty-four years old, square miles of territory. North Car- and, like Stephens, a lawyer. From olina comprises 45,000 square miles, the year 1837, the date of his first and South Carolina 28,000; Georgia speech, till the present time, he has is 300 miles long and 240 broad; Flo- been a consistent and energetic freerida is 385 miles long, and though trader. He has also at all times its breadth varies more than other shown himself to be a man of cool States, it has an average width of judgment. In the great Oregon disover 150 miles wide. Alabama has pute he was on the side of reasonable 50,672 square miles of territory; and equitable compromise ; in 1846 Louisiana is 240 miles long, and 216 he resisted the incorporation of the broad ; and Texas includes no less Mexican States with the Union, althan 325,000 square miles; whilst the ready labouring under a plethora of State of Tennessee is 400 miles long, territory. In 1847 he became a memand that of Mississippi 339; Arkansas ber of the United States Senate, and being 240 miles long. It will give a afterwards chairman of its better idea of these figures to say, finance committee. In 1858 he was that Virginia and Tennessee united re-elected senator for the third time, are considerably more extensive than only ten out of one hundred and France; that Georgia alone is some- sixty members having voted for other what larger than Denmark--the suc- candidates. Thus, all the leading cession to whose sovereignty threatens men of the Confederacy served their to convulse Europe ; and that Texas full time to the duties of the adminis