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are to be taken for what they are worth], Fremantle's work, which will be found and who was in attendance, waiting to re- full of interest, as a plain, straightceive the commission, which was then being forward account of what befell the made out. Mrs. Lincoln came into the tourist, and of what he saw, during President's office, asked what commission it was that he was signing, and, on being told, his three months of travel through seized it from his hands, and tore it in pieces,

the South. The style is clear and saying that she had promised it to Lam- correct; sometimes, indeed, it verges mon,' and he should have it, else her name on the picturesque. In the first place, was not Mary Lincoln.'”

the author bears the most willing and

hearty testimony to the hospitality When the Federal agents entered of the Southerners. Wherever he the residence of Mrs. Greenhow, in went with Confederate officers, Washington, to place her under arrest, whether they had much or little, and search her premises and person, there was a part for the English milishe had very important papers, which tary man, although towards the con: she contrived artfully to keep from clusion of his tour, the Southerners them, eating one of them. Respect- were beginning to feel annoyed at the ing these exploits, she makes, herself, conduct of England towards them. the masculine comment, " that the He found among them the manners devil is no match for a clever woman. of gentlemen. They had gone into It is a curious illustration of the ex- the war in no reckless spirit, but with citement that prevails in American a resolve to secure independence for society, to find that this shrewd their country, and their patriotic person believes an attempt to have ardour was increasing with their been made by the Abolitionists to sacrifices and difficulties. Their poison President Buchanan. To carry soldiery were often put to sore shifts, out their diabolical scheme, it appears long and harassing marches, scantiness that they purchased thirty pounds of of food and clothing, the necessity to arsenic! It is coolly added, " between fight battle after battle with the fifty and sixty persons fell victims shortest intervals for rest and reto this wholesale poisoning experi- organization. Still the practised ment.”. Mrs. Greenhow makes light eye of the traveller detected no indisof M'Clellan as a soldier. Brigadier- cipline, no fatal irregularities, no General Butler, of New Orleans cele- excesses. In great part this satisfacbrity, is naturally her abhorrence. Mr. tory condition of the Southern troops Secretary Seward does not escape well is due to their extreme respect for from her hands. Jove nods at times, their generals. Lee, Beauregard, and Mr. Seward, who is as reticent as Longstreet, Johnstone, Jackson, Polk, Talleyrand in the morning, is, after Hardee, Ripley—these are all names supper, genial and confidential. Fre- deeply rooted in the affections of the mont is a “peculator," and Fremont Southern people, and almost worshippère was a French dancing-master. ped by the rank and file. The prinStanton is arrogant and servile. In cipal title of these leaders to respect fact, Mrs. Greenhow has a good word is their personal courage. The Confor none of her country's enemies. federates have shown that they do not They had in her an exceedingly trou- underrate strategic talent—their comblesome prisoner, and, despite all their manders have lately made some of the precautions, she seems to have con- ablest dispositions, and worked out tinued to assist her countrymen, by some of the most masterly plots ever sending them timely information. Her known in warfare ; but before their book, however, will do the Southern men placed confidence in them they Confederacy no service in this coun- were obliged to prove that they detry. It is written in too angry a served it, by exposing themselves to spirit, and, in fact, is chiefly remark- real and visible perils. The Southern able as proving how determined the troops seem to have a theory that no Southerners are to fight, as their foes can be an able general who is say, “ to the bitter end," and how en- not a notably brave man. tirely impossible it is that these two The author of this work adds peoples can ever again be reconciled, greatly to its interest by supplying so as to live peaceably together under portraits of Mr. Jefferson Davis, and a joint rule.

of Generals Lee, Longstreet, Polk, We are anxious to pass to Colonel and Beauregard, the heads of the Con

ond

federacy. Mr. Davis is a tall, lank, found his staff, as well as those of the sallow man, with rather a “Yankee” other Southern generals, to be comface, but not ungentlemanlike in posed of thorough gentlemen. Beauappearance. He has a good head, regard and Longstreet are nearly of prominent cheek-bones and chin, and an age, the former, perhaps, being a a firm mouth. His aspect is that of couple of years older, though he looks a self-possessed, sagacious, conscien- younger. His hair has become much tious person, who might, one would more gray, some affirm, “from the say, be entrusted with the most im- cares and anxieties of the last two portant responsibilities, and relied on years.” “The real and less romantic to discharge his duties at all times reason," says the author, “is to be to the utmost of his powers. Although found in the rigidity of the Yankee reared a soldier, he is the statesman blockade, which interrupts the arrival of the South. His face bears traces of articles of toilette." "He is rather of hard work; and, since the war a handsome man, and speaks French began, he must have undergone an fluently. Beauregard is a New Oralmost superhuman amount of labour. leans creole. He has not only served Next to him, the most remarkable the Southern Government well as Southern is Ĝeneral Lee, the great an engineer officer, but has a speVirginian commander. He is an ex- cial organizing talent; the Virginian ceedingly handsome man, courteous, and Tennesseean armies were brought dignified, brave as a lion, yet gentle to their present etficiency by his efwithal, and cheerful. He has none of forts. He conceives a war between the small American vices. He does the Northern States and England to not drink, or gamble, or smoke, or be inevitable, and thinks our best chew, or swear. On the most arduous policy would be to form an alliance marches he looks smart and clean. with the South, so that, whenever an He generally rides a handsome horse, attempt was made on Canada, they and in that respect alone is “particu- might assist us by marching into the lar.” He is fifty-six years of age, tall, Federal territory. well-proportioned, and vigorous. He This does not seem the place to roughs it with his men, and is their enter upon a discussion of the general idol. He has the reputation of being prospects of the Confederacy, or the a religious man, and is a member of relations of the European Powers the Church of England. “Stonewall” towards it. Nor would it serve any Jackson had the highest confidence in purpose to speculate upon the military his military judgment. He is, in situation-whether Washington is short, the main reliance of the Con- likely to be entered by Lee, or Richfederate Government, and has done mond by Meade; whether Charleston, more for its cause than any other man, like the impregnable Sebastopol, will hardly excepting Mr. Jefferson Davis succumb at last, and Tennessee be himself. After Lee, the most promi- cleared of Confederates ; or whether nent figure is that of Longstreet. Bragg, reinforced by Johnston, will He is a native of Alabama, and recover the character he lost at Chickaforty-three years of age, stout, well- mauga, and, in conjunction with Longbuilt, resolute, the special admirer street, inflict decisive defeats on Grant and trusted lieutenant of Lee, who and Burnside. These are topics for has been co-operating with him of the daily journalists, who deal with late with great adroitness. Long- them competently. It is enough for street is considered the“ best fighter us, in this paper, to have indicated in the whole army.”. He is a rigid briefly the character of the books disciplinarian, and has frequently published on America during the restrained his soldiers when they past month, which, certainly, do not manifested a desire to plunder the give us reason for despairing of the Northerns and devastate their soil. Confederate cause, but tend, rather, He is particularly taciturn, but when to strengthen the views of those who once induced to throw off his re- think that the shortest and surest way, serve, his observations prove him even to negro emancipation, will be to be an intelligent inan and com- found through the independence of petent soldier.

Colonel Fremantle the Southern States.

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The great statesman, lawyer, and ed that a much longer time is requirorator, who has recently departed ed for the subsidence of personal prefrom among us, has already been judices which spring from political -weighed in the balance by a multi- contentions than for the decline of tude of critics, and carefully described any other class of prepossessions. by skilful and well-informed biogra- The reason is, that so much longer a phers. To the facts of his life which period must elapse before it can be are recorded on these literary tablets finally decided which of two parties we have nothing to add ; nor with the was in the right. The victorious verdicts returned upon his character party for the time cannot well afford have we, upon the whole, much fault to be generous, for it dare not bate to find. The points in his career sus- one inch of its vantage ground. The ceptible of a malicious construction vanquished are afraid to acknowledge have not been more maliciously con- that they may, after all, have been strued than is usual with political op- mistaken, while it is yet possible that ponents. All that his enemies have posterity should reverse the verdict. ventured to call in question is his As the leading facts in the career honesty; and, as that question is the of the deceased chancellor must be, one which a pre-eminently able man by this time, tolerably familiar to our has always to expect from those to readers, we shall content ourselves whom his principles are obnoxious, with a very brief recapitulation of we cannot say that Lord Lyndhurst them, premising that we are indebted has been harshly treated. The time, for our knowledge to the same source perhaps, has not

even yet arrived when as was The Times, namely, a memoir the whole constitutional import of of his lordship, which was published those great struggles which ushered in the The Law Magazine, of London, in the present generation can be clear- almost exactly eight years ago. Lord ly apprehended.

Lyndhurst, then, was born at Boston, “ Majus ab hâc acie quam quod sua sæcula

in America, on the 21st of May, 1772,

where his father also was born, in ferrent Vulnus habent populi"

1737. His grandfather emigrated

from the county of Limerick, carrymay yet be the final verdict, and it ing with him, as his wife, Sarah, the may not be, perhaps, till another youngest daughter of John Singleton, century has passed away that due al- esq., whose family are now representlowance will be made for the con- ed by the Singletons of Quinville flicting obligations and perplexing Abbey, county Clare. The father of problems of that stormy crisis. It is Lord Lyndhurst, who married a Miss likewise and collaterally to be observ- Clarke, of Boston, settled in England, VOL. LXIII.-NO. CCCLXXIV.

9*

as a portrait painter, in 1775 or '76, ed libel on Colonel Maceroni, that and soon became distinguished as an Copley first fixed the attention of artist. He died in September, 1819, the Tory leaders as a desirable auxihis widow, Lord Lyndhurst's mother, liary. He conducted the defence ; surviving him some twenty years. and the Duke of Wellington, Lord The son was educated at Cambridge, Liverpool, and other ministers of where, in 1794, he came out as Smith's Government, having been subpoenaed prizeman and second wrangler. He as witnesses, were seated on the was a good scholar as well as a mathe- bench. Immediately the trial was matician, and acquired, at the same over, they made him an offer of a time, some knowledge of chemistry seat in Parliament. The offer, unand inechanics. It is said that at this fettered by any conditions or pledges time he had designs of entering the of any sort whatever, was at once acChurch ; but, if so, they were proba- cepted, and in the year 1818 he was bly nipped in the bud" by the visit returned to the House of Commons which he paid to America, imme- for the Government borough of Yardiately after taking his degree, where mouth, and was soon afterwards aphe became imbued with republican pointed Justice of Chester. He was ideas not exactly in harmony with now, therefore, fairly mounted, and the tone of the English Church under the pace at which he rode was rapid. Pitt. On his return to England he In May, 1818, he made his maiden was chosen a Fellow of Trinity, and speech upon the Alien Bill, which adopted the bar as his profession. showed at once that Sergeant Copley He was called by the Society of Lin- was not one of those whom the forum coln's Inn, in 1804, rather late in life, had spoiled for the senate. In 1819 it is to be observed, as he had then he was made Solicitor-General. In just entered upon his thirty-third 1820 he convicted Thistlewood and year. Hejoined the Midland Čircuit. his gang of high treason, and appearBut the first ten years of his profes- ed as counsel against Queen Caroline. sional career have supplied no ma- In 1824 he was Attorney-General. terials to any of the memoirs we have In 1826 he was returned for Cam

In 1813 he became Mr. Ser- bridge University. In September of geant Copley; and, in either 1816 or the same year he became Master of 1817, he so distinguished himself by the Rolls;

and in April of the year folthe conduct of a case at Nottingham, lowing, Mr. Canning appointed him that he rose into the ranks of those Lord Chancellor. He retained the whom attornies are eager to retain. seals, after Mr. Canning's death, As a consequence, partly of his new under Lord Goderich; and, after him, won reputation, partly, perhaps, of under the Duke of Wellington, retirthe political opinions which he was ing, with the rest of the ministry, to supposed to entertain, he was about make way for Lord Grey, in Novemthis time entrusted with the defence ber, 1830, having sat upon the woolof James Watson, indicted for high sack rather more than three years and treason; though, as his coadjutor in a-half. the case was the tough old Tory, Sir From Lord Grey he accepted the Charles Wetherell, it is quite possible post of Chief Baron of the Exchequer. that his political opinions had nothing In November, 1834, when Sir Robert whatever to do with it. His speech Peel was entrusted with the formaon this occasion enhanced his reputa- tion of a new ministry, his lordship tion still further; and one story is, again became Chancellor, and conthat it was in consequence of this tinued so till Sir Robert's resignation logical and eloquent performance that in April, 1835. He had, however, Lord Castlereagh, who heard it de- retained his office of Chief Baron all livered, first conceived the design of the time, a post which he did not reenlisting him in the service of Go- sign till the following December, vernment. Some say that the speech when, it would appear, that he was which impressed the foreign minister required to devote himself more exwas in the cause of Thorpe v. the clusively to his political friends. Governor of Upper Canada. A third From this time to 1841 he was out story is, that it was during the trial of office. From 1841 to 1946 he was of a prosecution against the publisher Sir Robert Peel's Chancellor ; he reof the Quarterly Review, for an alleg- signed with him in that year; and

seen.

from 1846 to the year of his death he with a large family circle assembled never again resumed official harness. to celebrate the day. When Lord Derby came into power, On the 21st of last May, he was in 1852, Lord Lyndhurst was eighty still well enough to take part in the years of age, and had ceased to covet family festivity, but towards the the laborious honours of the woolsack. autumn he began to sink; though so But till quite lately he took an active, much had he been withdrawn from and even commanding, part in the de- the public eye during the last year or bates of the House of Lords ; and for two, that until we heard he was dead, his noble constitutional stand against few

knew that he was ailing. He died life peerages in 1856 a deep debt of in London, on the 13th of October gratitude is owing to him. The last, the sole survivor of a brilliant present writer had the good fortune circle of conteniporaries, who, very to hear him speak on that occasion, little older than himself, had almost when his upright and defiant figure, passed into history, when Lyndhurst his low but still clear and harmonious was still vigorous. He was eight accents, and the profound respect years younger than Lord Grey. He with which he was treated by the was only three years younger than house, made an impression never to the Duke of Wellington and Lord be effaced.

Castlereagh, and he was only two The last occasion of all upon which years younger than Mr. Canning. Lord Lyndhurst addressed that great It is known to even the most assembly, where for nearly thirty cursory of political students that the years he had exercised a sway second Whig party which had been shattered only, if second, to that of the Duke into fragments by the secession of of Wellington and Lord Eldon, was 1793, and had remained in a state of on the amendment moved by Lord insignificance as long as the terrors Monteagle to that part of Mr. Glad- of Jacobinism still hung black and stone's budget which involved the bloody before the eyes of the British repeal of the paper duty. Lord nation, began to recruit its strength, Lyndhurst rose before Lord Mont- and regain some of its popularity, eagle to argue the point of privilege, with the suppression of anarchy in and to show the distinction which France, and the conviction that Nanot only existed in theory, but had poleon was not, after all, so vile, if frequently been observed in practice, he would only not invade England. between the origination or amend- The heavy expenditure of the Peninment of a money bill, and the abso- sular war was a topic for Parliamenlute rejection of it.' By a curious tary declamation which never failed coincidence, the debate took place the Whigs; while the final refusal of upon the 21st of May, Lord Lynd- the King to hear any thing more hurst's eighty-eighth birth-day. His about the Catholics, secured them hale and vigorous appearance was often the support, and sometimes the generally remarked by the peers permanent alliance, of the old Liberal present; and though his voice and Tory party. The leadership of this gesture were slightly marked by the party was disputed for by Canning infirmities of extreme old age, none and Lord Grenville. And Lord Grenof those remarkable powers for which ville, as is well known, went over he had been always famous seemed bodily to the Whigs, carrying the the least abated. The lucid exposi- whole influence and interest of the tion, the cogent inference, the weighty house of Buckingham to the side of exhortation, the finished diction, were Fox and Grey. Thus fortified, the all there as of old ; lighted up at in- Whigs became a powerful opposition; tervals by touches of that gay satire and, backed up by the favour of the which is not felt the less because it is Prince of Wales, no doubt, promised perfectly good-humoured. Conclud- themselves a speedy restoration to ing a speech of some length with a that good land from which they had parting lunge at Mr. Gladstone, who so long been evicted. But two unreminded him, he said, that'" the foreseen events marred their calculasatis eloquentice sapientice parum was tions. The King again lost his reason, not an irreconcilable combination, and this time without hope of rethe veteran retired from the house, covery. The Prince suddenly disand went home comfortably to dinner covered that the Whig idea of the

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