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Nearly fifty miles of coast they inspected, but raising small dwelling-houses, and in disposing the long-sought good-a convenient harbor—was of the adjacent ground. In respect to religion, still undiscovered. The pilot, however, had vis- everything had been determined before their emited those regions before, and assured them, that barkation, and in respect to civil affairs, they had if they would trust themselves to his guidance, already adopted their polity. Popular government, they would reach a good haven before night. But in its fullest extent, was the element both of the civil the elements did not seem to favor this prediction. and of the ecclesiastical constitution, which they had The heavens become dark. Heavy rain and snow before approved, and which they now confirmed. begin to fall; the wind becomes boisterous ; the Their state polity, indeed, was the pure and natusea swells; and in the tossings which follow, the ral result of circumstances ; but their religious rurluer is broken, and the boat must now be steer- polity, as that of an independent or congregational ed by oars. The men look with anxiety to the church, they ascribed io a higher source-the sky, the sea, and the land ; but all is gloomy, authority of Holy Scripture. Had New England pililess, and menacing. The storm increases ; it been colonized at an earlier period in our history, is perilous to bear much sail, but all that can be or had its first successful settlement originated in borne must be spread, or it will be in vain to almost any other manner than that we have dedream of reaching the expected shelter before scribed, everything in its social condition would night. A sudden wave throws the boat upon the have derived a strong impression from the older wind ; in a moment, her mast is rifted into three institutions of the mother country. But now, all pieces-mast, sail and tackling are cut away with was free, and the great advantage of beginning the utmost speed, and are seen floating on the dis- well was secured. tant waves. The tide, however, is favorable, but But, intent as the settlers were on raising their the pilot, in dismay, would now run the boat on places of abode, their labor in that respect proshore in a cove full of breakers. The moment is ceeded slowly. The season of the year left them as the hinge of life to all on board. A stout- only short days, and often on those days only brief hearted seaman exclaims—"If you are men, about intervals, between the storms of sleet and snow, with her, or we are gone!" The words are that could be so employed. Nearly all were sufelectric; the prow of the boat is again turned to fering from fevers, and coughs, and general sickthe elements, they make their way through the ness, brought on by long exposure to unwonted surf; and within an hour, they enter a fair sound, hardships. As the cold increased, disease strengthand shelter themselves under the lee of a small ened, and deaths became frequent. The compararise of land. It is now dark; the rain beats tively healthy were little able to bestow the furiously; that dimly-seen shore is the home, required attention on the sick, and every funeral probably, of savage men ; to descend upon it and was as if the dying had been called to the burying io kindle a fire must be perilous-may be fatal. of the dead. At one season, there were not more But the men are so wet, 80 cold, so exhausted ! than seven persons capable of performing such They resolve to land. With difficulty the newly- offices. Amongst those who were the earliest cut gathered wood is made to send forth its welcome off, was a son of Carver, the governor. His own glow ; and then they make such provision as they sickness and death soon followed ; and then his may for the night.
affectionate wife sunk broken-hearted to the grave. As the day began to dawn, they found the place Carver was a man of a noble and generous nature. on which they had landed to be a small island within He had sold considerable estates, and had assigned the entrance of a harbor. This day was Saturday, the whole value to the benefit of his companions. and many of their company were so weak and In all their trouble, no man descended more readily sickly, that the greater part of it was given to rest, to the humblest service in behalf of the meanest. and to such preparations as were necessary for ex- The mourning colonists buried him with such ploring the country. But the next day, being the military honors as they could command, dischargSabbath, could not be so employed. The pilgrims ing several volleys of musketry over his grave. felt the advancing season, knew the haste of the William Bradford, the subsequent historian of the captain and crew to return, and remembered the colony, was chosen bis successor. But in the suspense of their families and brethren, from whom course of this melancholy winter, of the hundred they had now been absent three days; but nothing and one settlers, fifty were removed by death! could induce them to overlook the claims of the In March, the cold abated, the wind came from Christian's day of rest. On the morning of Mon- the south, and “the birds sung pleasantly in the day, the 11th of December, old style, these fathers woods." The Mayflower_now left the harbor, landed at a point, to which they gave the name of and returned to England. But after so many had New Plymouth, in grateful memory of the hospi- fallen victims to exposure and climate, the retality shown them in the last English port from mainder were in danger of perishing from want. which they sailed. On that spot they resolved to in the autumn new emigrants arrived. They fix their settlement. The anniversary of their came without provision. The pilgrim families landing still calls forth the gratitude and reverence could not see them die of hunger, and during six of their posterity, and the rock on which they first months they all subsisted on half allowance only. planted their foot, may be seen, within an appro- “ I have seen men stagger,” says Winslow," by priate inclosure, in front of a building of the reason of faintness for want of food.” At one modern town, which bears the name of the Pil-juncture, it appeared to be their doom that famine grims' Hall.
should destroy them. They were saved by the In a few days, the Mayflower entered the harbor compassion of fishermen, whom foul weather had of New Plymouth. But the shore was such, that driven to their coast. Nor did these things soon in landing their goods, it was necessary the men end. Even in the third year of their settlement, should wade considerably in water, which added their provisions were so far spent, that, in their greatly to the subsequent sickness among them. own language, “they knew not at night where to On the 19th, all quitted the ship, and were im- find a bit in the morning.” It is said, that in the mediately employed in building a storehouse, in spring of 1623, they were reduced to the last pint
of corn. That precious pittance, we are told, was | days afterwards, Samoset revisited the colony, parched, and distributed equally among them, and bringing along with him several of his countryyielded them five grains apiece. In the summer men. The chief of this company wore a wildcatof that year, they had no corn whatever, during a skin on his arm, as the badge of his superiority; space of three or four months. When some of the rest were partially clothed in deer-skins, but their old friends from Leyden arrived to join them, Samoset was naked, with the exception of a gara piece of fish, with a cup of spring-water, but ment of leather worn about his waist. Their hair without bread, was the best supply to which they was short in front, but hung at great length down could bid them welcome. Yet their heart drooped their backs. They are described as being tall,
The God who had tried them, would not well-formed men, of a gipsy color in complexion. forsake them. Such was their faith, and such has The colonists feasted their visitors, and their become their history.
visitors in return amused them with some Indian One cause of this protracted suffering was the dances ; and, on taking their leave, promised to common property system, on which the settlement bring Massasoiet, their king, to pay his respects to had been founded. Even in a colony of pilgrims, his new neighbors, very soon. such a merging of the individual in the general On the 22d of March, Massasoiet, with his brointerest was found to be too large a demand on the ther, and about sixty of his people, came to New self-denial of human nature. Religion and phi- Plymouth. They came without arms. Captain losophy may dream of communities as prospering Standish received them at the head of a file of on such a basis, but it will be all a dream. Amidst musketeers, and then conducted the king to the the extreme privations of the spring of 1623, it seat of state provided for him, which consisted of was resolved that this policy should be abandoned. three or four cushions piled upon a green rug. Each family was in future to possess its own piece | The person of Massasoiet was tall and well proof land, and to reap the fruit of its own toil. Con- portioned, his countenance was grave and thoughttentment and general activity were the result. ful, and his words were few. Almost the only Even women and children went into the work of ornament which distinguished him from his attendthe field, and before many more springs had ants was a chain of fish-bones, which he wore passed, the corn raised in the neighborhood of about his neck. His face was painted of a red New Plymouth became an important article of color, and on this state occasion both his face and traffic.
his head were washed over with oil. Happily, the danger of the colonists from the ernor entered the apartment, preceded by persons Indians in those early days was not considerable. who marched to the sound of the drum and Had they proceeded, according to their original trumpet. Massasoiet rose and kissed his excelintention, to the Hudson River, the tribes in pos- lency, and governor and king then sat down session of those parts were so powerful as to leave together. The result of this interview was little room to doubt that the fate of so feeble a treaty of amity between the colonists and the company would have been to perish by the weap- natives, Massasoiet ceding to the pilgrims the pos ons of the natives. But in the neighborhood of session of the spot on which they dwelt and much New Plymouth, the tribe which had for some time of the adjoining territory, and becoming himpeopled that district had been of late almost wholly self a subject of their sovereign lord King swept away by the ravages of the small-pox-an James." apt illustration of that freedom from disease which These negotiations were much facilitated by the some romantic speculators on the history of society services of an Indian named Squanto. Squanto are disposed to reckon among the many felicities had been taken captive by the Spaniards, but of savage life. Is it not strange that these senti- making his escape to England, and having been mental votaries of primitive barbarism are never kindly treated by the English master in whose seen making any attempt towards returning to the hands he had fallen, this rude son of the wilderstate to which they do such worship? They load ness manifested his gratitude in his disposition to our civilization with every sort of abuse, and still think well of all Englishmen. He had acted as they cling to it-cling to it, in all its forms, with interpreter between Massasoiet and the governor, a tenacity inferior only to that with which they in their conference; and when the king returned, cling to life. It would be amusing were some of the interpreter remained with the new-comers, these amiable personages for once to become con- and rendered them, in many respects, important sistent; but, unfortunately, there is little prospect service. of such a consummation—this, however, by the In the following July, an embassy was sent by way. Some small groups of Indians hovered at the settlers to the residence of Massasoiet, and intervals in the neighborhood of New Plymouth, Squanto was again called to the office of interprefrom the time when the pilgrims took up their ter. In the country through which this embassy abode in it; but it was not until the 16th of March, passed they saw many corn-fields and considerable about three months after their landing, that the pasture land, but the late pestilence appeared to first conference took place between the strangers have left every place without inhabitants. The and a native. On that day, an Indian, who had subjects of Massasojet, who came to meet the amlearned a little English from some English fisher- bassadors, showed the friends of their monarch no men, entered the town; his bow and arrows were little kindness-supplying them with the best proin his hand, but his manner, while erect and self- visions, bearing their persons on their shoulders possessed, was peaceful. He exclaimed, and across the rivers, and carrying their luggage many repeated the exclamation—"Welcome, English!'' miles under the scorching heat of a midsummer The name of this man was Samoset; the country sun. When introduced to the king, the Englishof this trihe extended to about five days' journey men presented his majesty with a red cotton coat, distant. The settlers showed their best hospi- trimmed with lace, which the monarch received tality to the visitor, and obtained from him infor- with manifest tokens of pleasure, and in return mation concerning the nature of the country, and carried out his utmost notions of courtesy in his the number and condition of its inhabitants. Some conduct towards his visitors. Mr. Winslow,
chief man of the embassy, was lodged in the royal that the pilgrims boldly explored the harbor of bed. That luxury, however, consisted of a few Boston, and the whole of the Massachusetts Bay. planks only, raised about a foot above the ground. They regretted much that their way had not been The king and his queen slept at one end, under a directed thither, rather than to the spot they had thin cover of matting, and iwo or three of the chosen, but it was now 100 late to ihink of rechief men of the tribe had their place at the other moval. In the following year, an attempt was end. As the bed accommodation was indifferent, made by other parties to found a colony in that so was it with the board ; and if the stay of the quarter. No great principle influenced those ambassadors at the court of Massasoiet was shorter parties. The desire of gain, or the pure love of than might have been expected, the plea of hunger adventure, made them emigrants. They had is said to have had something to do with hastening imagined that the colony at New Plymouth would their departure.
soon become a thriving settlement, especially by But the object of the mission was accomplished; means of its traffic in furs, and they were eager to the treaty of March was confirmed; the friendly enter into a division of the spoil. With this view dispositions of Massasviet and his people towards they instituted the colony of New Weymouth, on their new allies were strengthened ; and the latter the south shore of the Boston harbor ; and as they had succeeded in inspecting the country, and the commenced under much better auspices than their numbers and resources of the aborigines, without countrymen in the older settlement, and were exposing themselves to danger, or calling forth not burdened—as they frequently boasted-with suspicion. Squanto, the learned person who acted women and children, they commenced with the as interlocutor on these diplomatic occasions, with full expectation of soon outstripping their neighall his good qualities, had a strong infusion of the bors in the race of power-getting and moneyknave in him. He more than once gave evidence getting. But in the language of those less ostenthat the morality which trusts to the end to sanc- tatious neighbors, these enterprising gentlemen tify the means, is an obliquity of the human con- lived much too fast for persons in their circumscience which must be traced to causes much more stances; and it is certain, that in place of making remote than the conventionalisms of particular the progress on which they had calculated with churches, or of particular schools of philosophy. so much confidence, they sunk within one short On one occasion, being desirous of frustrating a year to such a state of weakness, that they were combination amongst the neighboring tribes against indebted to the compassion of the Indians for the people of New Plymouth, this man who had means wherewith to subsist, and to their contempt seen the world, gravely assured the belligerents, for permission to live. It is to the immortal honor that should they attack the English, they would of the people at New Plymouth that they received find that among the extraordinary powers pos- these men, as sent out to establish this rival sessed by that people, was the power of corking colony, with the utmost cordiality; that they up the plague, or of sending it abroad at pleasure. showed them great hospitality when that could not He admonished them that several of the barrels in be done without great sacrifice ; that they assisted the storehouse of the colony were assuredly filled them to commence their seulement; and when with the small-pox; and that were the strangers they were reduced to their lowest state, interto loose the bung of one of those fatal vessels, in posed, at great hazard to their own interests, to any district, all the people would certainly be de- save the remnant remaining from destruction, restroyed by means of that pestilence. Squanto, ceiving some to their own home, and furnishing however, in common with all men who pride them- others with the means of returning to England. selves on this sort of wisdom, was in the end 100 Men who are childless and alone are not always wise to be prosperous. He died some years after-the men to do great things—the scale often turns wards, but not until he had fallen from the re-on the other side. The family man may have his sponsible office of state interpreter, in consequence motives to caution, but how many other motives of being often detected in the indulgence of his has he-motives to self-government, endurance, powers of invention, and his fancy for being effort—of which the solitary man has no knowlthought wiser than his neighbors, on occasions edge ! which furnished less excuse than the one above Robinson and the church at Leyden were in mentioned.
constant communication with their brethren, and In the course of the first summer, the English earnestly desirous of joining them. But the comfurnished all necessary evidence to the natives of pany of merchant adventurers at Plymouth threw their being prepared for war, though desirous of constant impediments in the way of their departpeace; and such was the impression made by ure. Those thrifty gentlemen were much more ihuse timely displays of friendliness and courage, disposed to favor the colony at New Weymouth, that by the month of September in that year nine which they hoped to preserve from puritanism or Indian chiefs signed a treaty of peace with the congregationalism, and to retain in a dutiful relacolony, and subscribed themselves as subjects of tion to the established church of the mother counKing Jamnes. Canonicus, a chief of a powerful try. Delay from this cause was protracted until tribe which had not suffered from the late pesti- 1626. In that year Robinson died. The family lence, was inclined to pursue a different policy of that estimable man, and the remainder of the As his manner of declaring war, he sent to the church, succeeded at length in joining their breth governor at New Plymouth a bundle of arrows ren at New Plymouth. Not long afterwards, wrapped in the skin of a ratilesnake. Bradford the people of that settlement purchased an exempremoved the arrows, stuffed the skin with bullets tion from all further control on the part of the and gunpowder, and sent it back thus charged to chartered company in England. Friendly and the enemy. Canonicus shrunk from a conflict prosperous colonies rose at convenient distances with men who could command such terrible on either side of them; and before the oldest of means of destruction. He sent no more war the pilgrims was removed by death, it became messages.
manifest that the small company which left EngIt was before the close of their first year, also, land in the Mayflower had been the means of founding a new empire in the New World--an superior to littleness of soul-men of exalted and empire not only additional to all that had gone generous sentiments. They lived not to thembefore, but different in its spirit, its institutions, selves. It was their study that their path might and its religion, from all that had hitherto ob- be that of benefactors to the living and to the untained a place in history.
born. While many of the exiled_independents re- But strong as was the attachment of these conmoved from Holland to New England, many re- fessors to that order in church government and mained in the former country, in hope that the worship which they were so careful to observe, all posture of affairs at home might become such as principle of that nature was viewed as subordinate to allow of their return. It was pleasant to think to piety, and was valued in proportion to its supthat their ashes might still be laid in the land of posed conduciveness to piety. What feeling intheir fathers, and that something might still be ferior to that of a most conscientious homage to done by them towards the enlightenment, the the Invisible, could have led these people to exfreedom, and the happiness of their native coun- pose themselves to so much suffering, or could try. These hopes were not indulged in vain. In have sustained them under the pressure of that 1642, just about two centuries since, the change suffering? In all their ways they sought a higher came which had been so devoutly wished, and guidance than that of mortals. The day of fastfrom that time Independency has never ceased to ing and prayer went before every step of moment be one of the forms of Christianity professed in in their history. Their first act on touching the this country. But what has been its history ?- soil of the New World, was to prostrate themwhat is its present condition? During the times selves in the exercise of their spiritual priesthood of the civil war and the commonwealth, the sa- before God; and when exploring the winter shores gacity and energy allied with that system were not of that region, you see them employed hours bealtogether unworthy of it—but what has it done fore day in presenting thanksgiving and supplicasince? We admit that almost everything around tion to their Maker. They believed in God; they it has been uncongenial. Its greatest foes, how- were assured of his presence; they confided in ever, have been from within. It has too often him with the fear and the affection of children. fainted in the face of rebuke—it has not always The elements were of him-men were of himfolded its vesture about it, and fronted the storm and could do no more than his bidding. They as it should have done--it has been wanting, too, loved their polity because it aided their piety. In we think, in some graver matters. Indeed, in their case it was not a barren framework, thrust all the points in which the Pilgrim Fathers were into the place of piety. It was valued because it strong, modern independency has shown itself gave them a real Christian fellowship, and because weak.
in so doing it strengthened their Christianity. Nothing is more marked in the character of Hence it happened, that the strength of their the devout men who found their home at New adhesion to their principles as congregationalists, Plymouth, than the clearness with which they was not more remarkable, than the catholicity of apprehended their distinctive principles, and the their spirit towards devout men of all other comimportance which they attached to them. It was munions. " Their residence in Holland," it is that they might save those principles from again said, “ had made them acquainted with various falling into oblivion that they had become exiles, forms of Christianity; a wide experience had emanand that, having become exiles, they still com- cipated them from bigotry, and they were never mitted themselves to the perils, and hardships, betrayed into the excesses of religious persecuand griefs, of becoming colonists—colonists in tion.” Such is the testimony of Bancroft, whose one of the most distant and inhospitable regions work on this interesting department of modern of the known world. Men who hold principle history is the most authentic and able in our lanwith a grasp of this order, always hold it to some guage. But this result, so little to have been expurpose. The truth thus embraced, is truth that pected in those times, may be traced to the per
sonal character of Robinson, fully as much as to Then there were the children of these people. residence in Holland. In respect to certain great The good most valued by the parents, it was principles, that excellent man concluded that he natural they should be most concerned to bequeath had arrived at certainty ; but in many things, as to their offspring. Every father in the memora- we have seen from his own language, he supposed ble forty-one who embarked in the Mayflower was that both himself and others were still in need of as the father of Hannibal—the war against error further light. Independency in his hands was being committed as a legacy to his children. It fixed in regard to its great principles, but was left was the fact, that some of these were seen falling to a candid latitude in respect to lesser things. from their steadfastness by reason of their con- Hence, Mr. Edward Winslow, some time governor nexion with strangers, and the hope that such of New Plymouth, speaks of the rule of this first danger would be effectually precluded by such re- proper congregational church in respect to commoval, that prompted the heads of the pilgrim munion in the following terms :-“ It is true we families to their memorable expedition west- profess and desire to practise a separation from the ward.
world and the works of it, and are willing to disBut these plain, thoughtful men looked not to their cern an appearance of the grace of God in all we immediate children only; they looked to a distant admit to church fellowship. But we do not reposterity, to the future church of God—the future nounce all other churches ; nay, if any joining 10 generations of mankind. There was magnanim- us formerly at Leyden, or here in New England, ity in them, largeness of thought and largeness have, with the confession of their faith, held forth of feeling. In their instance, professions of this the duty of an entire separation from the church nature were not so much mere sentimentality~ of England, I have divers times heard either Mr. not a selfish vanity taking the guise of better af- Robinson our pastor, or Mr. Brewster our elder, fection. Their conduct towards the settlers of stop them forthwith, showing that we required no New Weymouth is evidence that they were men such thing at their hands, but only to hold forth
may not die.
faith in Christ Jesus, holiness in the fear of God, " When it is seen, on the other hand, that this and submission to every ordinance and appoint- disease never attacks persons who pass their lives ment of God."
in the open air, and manifests itself always when Such, then, were the elements of character they abide in an air which is unrenewed, and this most observable in the Pilgrim Fathers. Do whatever may be the extent of other causes, it apmodern independents possess them? In many pears evident that the non-renewal of the air is a they may no doubt be seen-seen in a degree necessary condition in the production of scrofula. marking a true spiritual lineage. But too com- Invariably, it will be found on examination, that monly we see the obscure in knowledge in place a truly scrofulous disease is caused by a vitiated of clearness, and the cold in feeling in place of air, and it is not always necessary that there should ardor ; or else the substitution of a zeal for polity have been a prolonged stay in such an atmosphere. in the place of a zeal for piety, allied too often with Often a few hours each day is sufficient; and it is an intolerance of temper, incompatible with a just thus that persons may live in the most healthy estimate of the better qualities which belong to conntry, pass the greater part of the day in the the devout of every communion, and leading, not open air, and yet become scrofulous, because of only to onesidedness and misconception, but to an sleeping in a confined place, where the air has not indulgence in misrepresentation, invective, and been renewed. This is the case with many sheppersonalities little consistent with loud professions herds. It is usual to attribute scrofula, in their of attachment to the principles of general freedom. case, to exposure to storms, and atmospheric We know that early independency had its faults of changes, and to humidity. But attention has not this nature in other connexions; but Robinson of been paid to the circumstance, that they pass the Leyden and the men whose character he moulded night in a confined hut, which they transport from were nobly free from them. We venture to say, place to place, and which protects them from wet ; that if modern independents would be the power. This hut has only a small door, which is closed ful body in this country, which two centuries when they enter, and remains closed also during should have made them, it must be by a more gen- the day ; six or eight hours passed daily in a vitiated eral return to that model of temper and action air, and which no draught ever renews, is the true which is before them in the history of the Pilgrim cause of their disease. I have spoken of the bad Fathers. Their wisdom will be found in looking habit of sleeping with the head under the clothes, thus to the standard they should follow, much and the insalubrity of the classes where a number more than to those wrongs and provocations—a of children are assembled together.” plentiful crop, no doubt—which naturally dispose An instance is adduced in corroboration : “ At them to indulge in the spirit of retaliation. Temp-three leagues from Amiens lies the village of tation comes to all, but while some men fall into Oresmeaux; it is situated in a vast plain, open on the snare, others know how to turn it to advan- every side, and elevated more than 100 feet above tage.
the neighboring valleys. About sixty years ago,
most of the houses were built of clay, and had no SCROFULA. *
windows; they were lighted by one or two panes The startling facts brought forward as to the of glass fixed in the wall ; none of the floors, somecreation, we may call it, of scrofulous affections by times many feet below the level of the street, were impure air, are new, and present some of the paved. The ceilings were low; the greater part gloomiest features of the volume, inasmuch as of the inhabitants were engaged in weaving. A they prove the fatal effects of the pernicious in- few holes in the wall, and which were closed at fuences complained of, in the existence of a will by means of a plank, scarcely permitted the deteriorating population, diseased in themselves, air and light to penetrate into the workshop. and bequeathing disease to a still more wretched Humidity was thought necessary to keep the posterity. Joseph Toynbee, Esq., one of the wit- threads fresh. Nearly all the inhabitants were nesses examined, appears to have devoted special seized with scrofula, and many families, continually attention to this part of the subject : on being asked ravaged by that malady, became extinct ; their last as to his observation of “ the effect of defective members, as they write me, died rotten with ventilation," he replies—" The defective ventila- scrofula. tion appears to me to be the principal cause of the “A fire destroyed nearly a third of the village ; scrofulous affections, which abound to an enormous the houses were rebuilt in a more salubrious manextent amongst our patients. When I have had ner, and by degrees scrofula became less common, a scrofulous patient come before me, I have always and disappeared from that part.” Other facts are been able to trace this as one of the agents.” He brought forward, all tending to prove the fatal cites the work of a French physician, M. Baude- effects of vitiated air, and the beneficial results of loque, in which it is stated" that the repeated a constantly pure atmosphere, not only on the resp&ation of the same atmosphere is the cause of health, but on the morals of the people. Other scrofula ; that if there be entirely pure air, there authorities–Dr. Blacke, Dr. Blakely Brown, Dr. may be bad food, bad clothing, and want of per- Duncan, and Professor Alisen-fully confirm these sonal cleanliness, but that scrofulous disease cannot statements ; in addition to which, we are informed exist." The following facts are further quoted :- that “defective ventilation may be considered one “ The development of scrofula is constantly pre- great cause of all the diseases of the joints which ceded by the sojourn, more or less prolonged, in we so frequently meet with, as well as of the air which is not sufficiently freshened. It is impossi- diseases of the eye and skin-shingles, lepra, and ble to deny that hereditary disposition, the lym- porrigo, or ringworm. Besides the eye, the ear phatic temperament, uncleanliness, want of cloth is injuriously affected by vitiated air, which thus ing, bad food, cold and humid air, are of themselves becomes the cause of many cases of deafness. It circumstances non-effective for the production of is a fact, that at least two times more of the scrofula.
children of the laboring-classes are affected by From an article in Chambers' Journal, upon the first earache and deafness, than of children of the rich volume of the Report of the Health of Towns Com- and better-conditioned classes, less exposed to the miss.on.