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From the British Quarterly Review. | agitated society, were comparative novelties. The

wonders of the new world, and of the whole southTHE PILGRIM FATHERS.

ern hemisphere, were discoveries of yesterday. History of the Colonization of the United States. National questions, accordingly, were debated with

By George BANCROFT. Vols. i., ii., iii. Bos- a degree of passionateness and earnestness, such ton and London.

as we seldom feel; while distant regions loomed

before the fancies of men in alliance with everyIt is instructive to observe how much is done in thing shadowy, strange and mysterious. The old the government of the world by the ignorance of world seemed to be waking at their side, as from men more than by their knowledge.

What we

the sleep of ages; and a new world rose to their do from design is of small amount compared with view, presenting treasures which seemed to be what we do beyond our forethought. In all our inexhaustible. The wonder of to-day was sucplans we prophesy in part. The action of to-day ceeded by the greater wonder of to-morrow, and generates the action of to-morrow. The scheme the revelations seemed to have no end. At the widens as it advances from purpose towards ac- same time, to very many, their native land had complishment. The one thing intended, brings become as a house of bondage, and the waters of along with it a host of things not intended ; and the Atlantic were the stream which separated as our vision takes a wider compass, consequences between them and their promised home. and contingencies are seen to multiply. One man That feeling is now among the bygone in our creates the void, and another gives it occupancy. social history. But the traces of it are still at One agency unlocks the stream, and a multitude times discoverable. The broader and deeper are in waiting to affect its course and issue. Evil stream, now rolling on, leaves its nooks and eddycomes from good, and good comes from evil. ing points, where something of the past still retains

Thus mockery is cast over all human foresight. a place, and still secures to it some influence over In this twilight of perception the greatest men the present. It is now about twice seven years have labored—Wycliffe and Luther, Columbus since we passed a few pleasant weeks in one of and Bacon. Much that was in their heart they the less peopled districts of Dorsetshire—that have done, but much more which their heart never county which Charles II. is said to have described conceived have they accomplished. Being dead, as the only county in England fit to be the home they still speak and they still act—but the further of a gentleman. What the qualities were which, the undulations of their influence extend, the less is in the estimation of royalty, gave so much of the the semblance between the things which are realized air proper to the home of gentle blood to the and the things which were expected. They have county of Dorset, it will not be difficult to condone less than they hoped, and more-much that jecture. Dorsetshire is remarkable for the almost they would have done, and much that they would total absence of the usual signs of trade and mannot have done. In short, in the providence of our ufactures. It is no less remarkable, as a natural world, enough is plain and fixed to give pulsation consequence, for the absence of any considerable lo virtue and hope in the right-hearted; but enough middle class to separate between the serfs who till is obscure and uncertain to rebuke impatience, and the ground, and the lords who own it. Even to suggest many a lesson of humility.

agriculture is prosecuted within such limits as may It was the pleasure of Elizabeth, and of her suc- consist with leaving an ample portion of its surface cessors James and Charles, to take upon them the in the good feudal condition of extended sheepoffice of the persecutor. In that honorable voca- walks and open downs. Such Dorsetshire has tion they found coadjutors, of suitable capacity and ever been, such it still is; but, thanks to projected temper, in Whitgift, Bancroft and Laud. The railroads, such we trust it is not always to be. sovereign and the priest gave themselves to such On the occasion adverted to, we were indebted employment, in the sagacious expectation that the for a season to the hospitalities of an honest yeoopinions of men were matters to be shaped accord- man, whose residence had been occupied, in other ing to the royal pleasure, with little more difficulty days, by personages of much higher pretension than the order of a court ceremonial. But the than our host. It was an ancient mansion on a policy intended to secure an abject submission at hill-side, overlooking an extended valley, which, home, became the unwilling parent of an enlight- s from the corresponding forms of the hills fronting ened independence abroad. Intolerance of freedom each other, resembled the bed of some departed forced it upon new experiments, and proved emi- Ganges, or St. Lawrence. The lower part of the nently favorable to its development and power. valley was cultivated and wooded, but the high The seed cast out found a better lodgment, and sent slopes of the hills were treeless and shrubless, ex.. forth a richer fruit. The new world afforded space cept on the spot where the dwelling of our yeoman for its germination and growth which the old could friend presented itself. That structure, with its not have supplied ; and the new world has reäcted somewhat castellated front, with its long ascent upon the old, in the cause of freedom, as the old of half-decayed steps, its mutilated balustrades, could not have acted upon itself. Even now, also, and its ample terrace, rose amid lofty elms and we are only in the beginning of that great outburst chesnuts, forming a picture, not the less pleasant of enterprise and improvement which we trace to to look upon, from its contrast with the surroundthose memorable times, and, in great part, to ing barrenness. Altogether this Dorset mansion the narrow and selfish policy of the agents above was of a sort to work powerfully on that supernamed.

stitious feeling and credulity, which are so deeply The mind of the people of England, two cen- rooted in the mind of every rural and secluded turies since, teemed with thoughts and excite- population. The sounds which came after nightments, of which the men of our time have no just fall, in the autumnal and winter season, across conception. Our knowledge in this respect must that valley, from the distant sea, and which passed depend on the force of our imagination, hardly less in such wild and strange notes through the than on the extent of our reading. The great branches of those ancient trees, and through the questions, both in politics and religion, which then crazy apertures of that more ancient building, did.






not fall upon the ear without some awakening age, conducted a correspondence, exceeding that effect upon the imagination. The dead, who once of all the princes of Europe taken together. Many had paced those terrace walks, were not forgotten ; such works were there, and many learned volumes and where could there be a more fitting haunt for which had strayed from their fellows, and which those sights which “we, fools of nature," shrink bore upon them the marks of having suffered much from, than the spaces covered with the deep in their wanderings. But the point which has shadows of those overhanging trees--the living brought the old Dorset hall on the hill-side, in this things, which budded and grew in the times of manner to our memory is, that, among the printed other generations, and which seemed to lift them- works in this long-neglected library, was a number selves aloft, as in a proud consciousness of being of tracts, and pamphlets, and small publications, more associated with what has been than with relating to the countries of the new world, and to what is. Within, also, there was much to the marvels of recent voyaging. Some of them strengthen fancies of this complexion. There bore date as far back as the times of Elizabeth, were the gloomy stairs, with their dark walls, but most of them were of the time of James I., their long worn steps, and their railwork of massy and a little later. oak. Apartments, with their antique panellings, Some hours passed, and we were still beguiled their faded tapestry, and their concealed doorways. by the perusal and comparison of these remains, At night, the birds, who chose their lodgment which, like some newly-discovered fossil bed, amidst the ancient masonry of the chimneys, failed pointed our imagination to a former condition of not to send their tokens of inquietude into the society, if not to a former world. We felt as chambers below, as the gale from the neighboring though drifted back to those times. We thought channel came with tumultuous force upon the land. we saw good Mr. White, the puritan minister of Part of the building, also, had become a ruin, the neighboring town of Dorchester, as he went thickly mantled with ivy, where owls might have forth the spiritual leader of the little band, who, pleaded their long holding as a right of tenantry, more than two centuries since, sought their spiritand from which they sallied forth at such times, ual as well as their natural home on the shores of as if glad to mingle their screams with the night New England. We seemed to listen to the talk storm, or to flap their wings against the casement of such men as the brave John Smith, and the of the sleeper.

Governor Winthorp; and to be witnesses to the To one apartment in that interior a special conferences of such men as the Lords Say and mystery attached. It bore the name of the book- Brooke, Harry Vane, and John Hampden, as they

Of that room the master of the house cogitated their schemes of settlement for injured always retained the key. It was a part of his and free-hearted men on the other side the Western tenure that the contents of the book-room should Ocean. We remembered Queen Elizabeth, too, on no account be disturbed. Among those con- the grave men who were honored as her countents, beside a curious library, were many other sellors, her own stately presence, her own pliant «curious things—such as a bonnet, said io have but masculine temper, and the skill with which ibeen worn by Queen Elizabeth when visiting those she dispensed the tokens both of her pleasure and western parts of her dominions; also a fan, which of her pride. Her aris of cajolery 10-day, her had been wielded by that royal hand; a whole haughty invective to-morrow, her ambition- her suit of kingly apparel, reported to have been worn innate love of rule at all times, and in all things. by Charles II., and to have been left at the Her successor, also, we remembered—the king mansion by its royal visitor. Above all, a skull whose flesh gave signs of fear at the sight of a was there. It was the skull of a murdered man. drawn sword. One of the most timid among men,

The mark of the death wound was visible upon it. having the place of chief over the bravest of Tradition said that the victim of human violence nations. The monarch who presumed that he was an African-a faithful servant in the family was born a great king, and who supposed that he which once found its stately home beneath that had made himself a great clerk. The ruler whose venerable roof. Amidst so much pointing to the soul was below all feeling of enterprise, presiding dim past, we may be sure that the imagination of among a people with whom that feeling was the dwellers in the old hall on the hill-side was strong, irrepressible, almost boundless. The frivnot by any means unproductive.

olous imbecile, whose days were spent at the chase Of course we must not confess to any partici- or at the cock-pit, and whose nights were given pation in such susceptibilities in our own case. It to court gambols, sensuality, and drunkenness ; was, however, a dark night, and a rough one too, while around him were minds teeming with prinwhen we obtained our first admission to the mys- ciples of the most solemn import, and with feelings terious book-room. By the aid of our lamp, we of the purest and loftiest aspiration. The king explored the matters of virtu which it contained ; who hated the name of freedom, and who strained examined the dreaded cranium, and found the his feeble and tremulous nerves to curb the genius mark of the wound upon it, strictly as reported. of a people determined to be free. The least manly But our attention was soon directed from the curios- of all the sovereigns of Europe, claiming to be ities to the literature. The contents of the library honored as a demi-god by a nation animated with we found in no very orderly condition, and not a the stern thought, and full-grown feeling of manfew of its treasures had evidently suffered much hood, beyond any other nation in Christendom, from the state of uselessness to which the whole and perhaps beyond all the nations of Christendom had been for so long a time reduced. The books collectively in that age. were partly on shelves and tables, and partly in In all this we see a large amount of the unheaps upon the floor. Among them were many natural, and the source of much inevitable mis

existing in all the venerableness of the times before chief. But this mischief fell with its greatest the invention of the printing-press. One of these weight on religion, and on the consciences of : sets proved to be an illuminated vellum transcript devout men. Many of the restless spirits of the of the epistles of Innocent III.—a pontiff who, in time—the gallants as they were called-manifested common with many of his race, during the middle their inquietude beneath this uncongenial control ; and no scene of action being open to them, either has been otherwise. But in our own earlier hisas soldiers abroad, or as inviting them to do some tory, the adherents of that system, while they fine thing at home, they many of them turned their claimed exemption in some things from the interattention to the newly-discovered regions of the ference of the civil power, in other, and in greater earth, and to plans of colonization. But your things, they have clung to the aids of that power gallants are not good at colonization. That sort with a marked tenacity. The history of English of enterprise demands something more rare than presbyterianism, accordingly, has been too much a courage, and something more valuable than ordi- struggle for ascendency, and too little a struggle nary worldly sagacity: Social virtue is nowhere for frecdom. But ascendency, not based on right, tested as in infant seitlements. Men who go upon must not be expected to work rightly. It is the such experiments need rooted principle, no less rule of the strongest, and it must be sustained by than stoutness of heart, and a spirit of patient mere strength, more than by principle, virtue or endurance.

goodness. In England, at the time to which we refer, it Even in the age of Elizabeth, however, there was on minds of this better order that the pressure were men who had passed beyond the point adin favor of emigration came with its greatest verted tommen who could draw the line, not with force. Elizabeth was the sovereign of a double an infallible, but certainly with a vigorous hand empire. She claimed dominion over the soul as between the secular and the spiritual-men who truly as over the body. By her ecclesiastical maintained that membership in a Christian church supremacy, she took under her jurisdiction, not should be restricted to persons of Christian charonly the things which belonged to Cæsar, but the acter; that the ministers of churches so constithings which belonged to God. Her prescriptions tuted should be Christian men, approved as such on the matter of religion, embraced all that her by the persons to whom they minister; and that people should believe, and all that they should do. the worship and discipline of those voluntary asFrom her pleasure they were to receive every semblies should be determined wholly by themarticle of their creed, and every direction, even the selves, and not at all by the secular power. In minutest, in regard to worship. No pontiff had the reign of Mary, an act of state had set forth ever exercised a more rigorous domination in this the whole people of England as constituting a respect, when seated in the midst of his cardinals, popish church. On the accession of Elizabeth, an than was exercised by Elizabeth, when presiding act of state had set forth the same nation as conin her assembly of ecclesiastical commissioners. stituting a protestant church. In both cases the The men who should deny the right of the pope to people were the same, and the priesthood for the assume such powers might be burned before St. most part remained the same. The bold men to Peter's. The men who made the same denial in whom we refer demurred to this manner of prorespect to Elizabeth were hanged at Tyburn. ceeding. The mixed multitude of people so The queen, indeed, was head of the church in a spoken of, no doubt included many enlightened more intimate degree than of the state, her eccle- and sincere Christians, but could not, it was alsiastical functionaries being generally much more leged, be described in any sober sense as being manageable in relation to the one, than her parlia- truly a church. In like manner, the ministry of ments were found to be in relation to the other. such a church might include many devout men ; Her power in this department was greater than in but the validity of a ministry so appointed must any other; and by her proud Tudor temper it was rest on moral grounds, and not in any degree on guarded with proportionate solicitude, and exer- the state sanctions which might be urged in its cised with proportionate freedom. In her view, favor. to deny her right to rule the conscience of her These principles, simple and harmless as they subjects, was to deny her right to rule at all, and may now seem, struck at the root of the ecclesiastherefore treason, and an offence to be punished tical supremacy then claimed by the crown. Eliza

beth saw that if such doctrines became prevalent, In stating thus much, we are not venturing upon the one half of her empire, and the half which she ground open to debate. We merely refer to the especially valued, must pass to other hands. Opinunquestionable facts of history—facts deplored, ions of this nature, accordingly, were in her view we presume, by the modern churchman as sin- treasonable-treasonable in the worst sense. They cerely as by the modern dissenter. The quarrel embraced that very principle of divided allegiance between Elizabeth and the puritans did not involve which had caused Romanism to become so obany direct impeachment of the ecclesiastical su- noxious. The catholic gave his conscience in premacy of the crown. The complaint of the religious matters to his particular church. This puritan was, not that the queen had presumed to new sect of protestants gave their conscience immeddle with church affairs, but that she had not mediately to God. In either case, the body and exercised her authority in such matters after the the outward only were reserved in allegiance to puritan fashion. It was deemed just that the sov- the throne, the soul and the inward were given ereign, as such, should uphold sound theology, to another. In the judgment of Elizabeth, the and scriptural discipline and worship; but the man holding such a doctrine could be only half a puritan claimed to be the judge as to the doctrine, subject, and its natural tendency was to reduce regimen, or ritual, which should be so regarded every crowned head to the condition of being only Hence conflict ensued between the royal-con- half a sovereign. science and the subject-conscience. Opinions which Robert Brown, a clergymen by education and the crown had ruled as being scriptural, the puri- office, and a kinsman to the great Lord Treasurer tan denounced as erroneous; and regulations en- | Burleigh, distinguished himself, about the middle joined as seemly and devout by the one, were de- of the reign of Elizabeth, as the promulgator of scribed as superstitious or profane by the other. such opinions. This divine was a personage of

In the ecclesiastical history of England, the ready, earnest, and impassioned utterance, and in genius of presbyterianism has never proceeded his pulpit exhibitions was eminently popular. beyond this point. In Scotland, of late years, it | Crowds assembled to hear him at Cambridge, and

as treason.

the press.

subsequently at Norwich, where he was bene- were issued to suppress these irregular proceedficed. As a preacher he was well known through ings, and many of the alleged delinquents were great part of England, and with his itinerant made to feel that these intimations of the royal and irregular services in that capacity, he con- pleasure were not so much empty threatening. nected the publication of his opinions from Two Brownist ministers, named John Copping

One seal of an apostle was not and Elias Thacker, were imprisoned in Bury St. wanting in his instance. In prosecuting his vo- Edmund's, on the charge of dispersing books opcation, he found that bonds and imprisonment posed to the ecclesiastical supremacy of the crown, commonly awaited him. These he bore through and acknowledging the authority of the queen in many years with the most dogged obstinacy, if civil matters only.

Within our own memory, not with the most exemplary patience. It confinement in a jail, especially in some provinwas his boast that he had been committed to cial districts, has been connected with enough of more than thirty prisons, in some of which his the loathsome and the horrible. But of the mishand could not be seen at noonday. To escape eries of such a durance in the age of Elizabeth, we from this inconvenient usage, and from some more have little conception, except as suggested by severe treatment with which he was threatened, some of those painful descriptions which have Brown fled to Middleburgh in Zealand, and insti- reached us from the cells of such sufferers. Coptuted a church in that city after his own model. ping and Thacker might have obtained their libBut the pastor soon found occasion of disagree-erty on renouncing their errors, and promising ment with his new charge, and returning to Eng-conformity. During five long winters their wants land, he submitted to the authorities to which he and wretchedness were made to plead on the side had been so much opposed, and again became a of submission, but though examined once and beneficed clergyman. Brown lived to an extreme again, they wavered not. At length they were old age, but the last forty years of his life were apprised that their life would be the cost of their the years of a sorry worldling, and his death is further contumacy. On the 4th of June, 1583, said to have been brought on by one of those Thacker was led to the place of execution. The fits of passion and self-will to which he was lia- books which he had been convicted of dispersing ble.

were burned in his presence, and the injured man The story of this unhappy man is instructive. gave noble proof that his religious principles were He was one of a class—a zealot in religion, with stronger than his fear of death. Two days afterout being religious. His hatred of some real or wards, Copping was conducted to the same spot, supposed Christian abuses, was presumed to be and having witnessed the same proceedings, died evidence of his own Christian character ; but while with the same martyr firmness. It is something doing so much to mend the religion of other men, to meet death as the soldier meets it, when multiit was ere long to be manifest that he had no re- tudes share in the common peril; it is more to ligion of his own. Passionate opposition to error submit to it in the comparative solitariness of is not the surest way to truth. Piety is self-gov- martyrdom, when nothing can come from man ernment in its highest form. It is ihe Christian except the influence of distant sympathy or adınitemper which must regenerate Christian institu- ration; but these sufferers bade adieu to earth tions.

amidst circumstances which left them no sustainIt was natural that the men who embraced the ing power, beside their simple hope of heaven. principles once avowed by this apostate should be The scattered and bleeding remnant who would solicitous not to be called by his name. But their honor their memory, were a people despised as enemies were no less solicitous to fasten that re- much as they were wronged. The heart is formed proach upon them. To call them Brownists, was to crave a sympathetic power from other hearts, io identify them with the extravagant, the fickle, and can be strong without it only as strength shall and the base in the career of Robert Brown. come to it from a much higher source. Man beWhat theologian, or what philosopher even, could comes superior to the terrors of this world, in be expected to forego so felicitous an occasion of such circumstances, only as he can take firm hold using a nickname. The principles of the said on a better. Brown were one thing, and the character of the The houses of persons suspected of embracing man another. But how much was to be gained the opinions professed by these men were often by not seeming to perceive that distinction ?. The rigorously searched. The officers employed on learned and the vulgar-philosophy and Billings- those occasions frequently ill-treated even the gate--are found, on such occasions, to possess women and the children of such families, and, much more in common than is commonly sup- under various pretences, often added the spoiling posed.

of their goods to insult and oppression. In 1592, But whatever may have been the case with fifty-six men of this sect were apprehended while their persecutors, the conscientious men holding the holding a secret assembly for religious worship in principles which Brown had abandoned, were phi- a large room in the parish of Islington. The place losophers enough not to allow themselves to be of meeting was that in which the persecuted proscared from great truths by the accident of an in- testants had often worshipped during the reign of felicitous association. They held their secret as- Queen Mary. These persons were committed to semblies. They possessed a private printing- the dungeon in Newgate, the Fleet, Bridewell, press, and issued tracts and treatises, sometimes and other prisons in the metropolis. One of their grave and sometimes satirical, impugning the number states that their persecutors “ would alorder of things in the established church, and in- low them neither meat, drink, fire nor lodging, culcating their own widely different views on such nor suffer any, whose hearts the Lord would stir subjects. In some of these pieces the language up for their relief, to have any access to them ; employed was not always the softest which purposing, belike, to imprison them to death, as might have been chosen. But men perishing they have done seventeen or eighteen others, in under the weight of hard blows, may be excused the same noisome jails, within these six years." if they sometimes use hard words. Proclamations Most of these men were needy persons, with fami

It was

lies dependent for subsistence on their industry. summoned from their cells. All that had taken Their offence was declared to be unbailable, place on the preceding day proved to be a mockery, and according to the bad usage of those times, a It was not true that the bitterness of death had jail delivery, in place of coming at brief and cer- passed. They had again to gather up the strength tain intervals, as with us, was an event which the of nature which might enable them to meet that government managed to evade in particular cases, stroke from the hands of a public executioner, and so as to punish, by means of imprisonment, to any thus, mentally at least, it was their hard lot to unextent, denying to the imprisoned their right to an dergo the penalty of a double dissolution. They open, a legal, and a speedy trial. Many, accord- were now conveyed to the same spot with more ingly, died in prison, and the prayer of the men secrecy, and were there disposed of in the manner who had been apprehended at Islington was, in which society has been wont to dispose of ma“We crave for all of us but the liberty either to rauders and cut-throats. die openly or to live openly, in the land of our The case of John Penry was similar to that of nativity ; if we deserve death, it beseemeth the Barrow and Greenwood, but, in some respects, is majesty of justice not to see us closely murdered, a still more affecting illustration of the tyranny of yea, starved to death with hunger and cold, and the times. Penry was a native of Wales. He stifled in loathsome dungeons ; if we be guiltless, had studied at Cambridge, and had taken his dewe crave but the benefit of our innocence, that we gree at Oxford. He was a young man of conmay have peace to serve our God and our prince, siderable scholarship, of sincere and fervent piety, in the place of the sepulchres of our fathers.” and in the warmth of his religious zeal he ven

Among the persons apprehended in 1592, were tured to publish a treatise, in which he comHenry Barrow and John Greenwood. In the plained, with some vehemence, of the pride, and records of the proceedings against these recusants, secularity, and popishness of the state of things in the former is described as gentleman,” the latter respect to religion, with which the English nation as “clerk." Barrow was the author of a peti- appeared to be so well content. A warrant was tion to parliament on behalf of himself and his issued for his apprehension, which he eluded, by suffering brethren, from which the above extracts seeking an asylum in Scotland. But returning to are taken. The indictment against Barrow and London soon after the execution of Barrow and Greenwood charged them with holding and pro- Greenwood, he was speedily apprehended ; and mulgating opinions which impugned the queen's he appears to have foreseen from that moment all supremacy; with forming churches, and con- that would follow. Lord Chief Justice Popham ducting religious worship contrary to law; and passed sentence of death upon him, on the with having indulged in libellous expressions con- ground of certain papers found in his possession, cerning some eminent persons. On these grounds which were construed as seditious. sentence of death was passed on them; and in pleaded by the accused that no public use had pursuance of that sentence, they were both con- ever been made of those papers, that some of them veyed from Newgate to Tyburn.

were not his own, and had not even been more The rope was fastened to the beam and placed than very slightly examined by him. But deabout their necks, and in that state they were al- fence was vain. He was admonished that his case lowed for a few moments to address the people admitted of no plea that could avail him. From collected around them. Those moments they his prison Penry addressed protestation to the employed in expressing their loyalty to the queen, lord-treasurer, containing the following charactheir submission to the civil government of their teristic passages : country, and their sorrow if they had spoken with “I am a poor young man, bred and born in the irreverence or with improper freedom of any man. mountains of Wales. I am the first, since the They reiterated their faith in the doctrines on ac- last springing of the gospel in this latter age, that count of which they were about to suffer death, but publicly labored to have the blessed seed thereof entreated the people to embrace those opinions only sown in those barren mountains. I have often as they should appear to be the certain teaching of rejoiced before my God, as he knoweth, that I had Holy Scripture. When they had prayed for the the favor to be born and live under her majesty for queen, their country, and all their enemies and the promoting of this work. And being now to persecutors, and were about to close their eyes on end my days before I am come to the one-half of ihe world, the proceedings were suddenly stayed, my years in the likely course of nature, I leave and it was announced that her majesty had sent a the success of my labors unto such of my countryreprieve. The revulsion of feeling which ensued men as the Lord is to raise after me. may be imagined. Consciousness of life suddenly unto any good order or policy, either in church or flowed back to hearts from which it seemed to commonwealth, was I never. All good learning have passed away, and men as good as dead again and knowledge of the arts and tongues I labored began to live. The breathless people shared in to attain unto, and to promote unto the uttermost this reflux of emotion. The condemned men of my power. Whatsoever I wrote in religion, gave expression to their joy as became them—the the same I did simply for no other end than the people did so in loud acclamations; and, as the bringing of God's truth to light. I never did anyvictims were re-conducted from the suburbs of the thing in this cause (Lord, thou art witness !) for metropolis to Newgate, the populace in the lanes contention, vain-glory, or to draw disciples after and streets, and from the windows of the houses, me, or to be accounted singular. Whatsoever I hailed their return as a happy and righteous deliv- wrote or held beside the warrant of the written

On that day, Barrow sent a statement of word, I have always warned all men to leave. these occurrences to a distinguished relative, having And wherein I saw that I had erred myself, I have, access to Elizabeth, pleading that, as his loyalty as all this land doth now know, confessed my could no longer be doubtful, he might be set at ignorance. Far be it that either the saving of an liberty, or at least be removed from the “loath- earthly life, the regard which in nature I ought to some jayle” of Newgate. But early on the fol- have to the desolate outward state of a poor friendlowing morning the two prisoners were again | less widow, and four poor fatherless infants which

An enemy


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