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the smoke-shrouded city, the flowing river alive Every day, at five minutes to one, the captains with vessels, and the fertile plains of Essex. It of vessels in the river, within sight of the observwas built by order of Charles II., who, with all atory, may be seen directing their telescopes his levity, seems to have been aware of the impor- towards a black ball slowly rising on a pole fixed tance of science : the first stone was laid by Flam- on the roof of its north-western angle; they then steed, who had been appointed astronomer royal prepare their chronometers, and keeping their atin August, 1675, and no delay took place in its tention fixed on the ball, which has become stacompletion and furnishing it with accurate in- tionary at the top of the pole, they note the instruments. By the words of Flamsteed's com- stant when it begins to descend ; at that instant it mission, he was directed “to apply himself with is one o'clock ; and it will be obvious that the the utmost care and diligence to the rectifying the mariner has then the opportunity of knowing tables of the motions of the heavens, and the whether his chronometer is fast or slow; he may places of the fixed stars, in order to find the so- set it to the true time, and, by daily observation of much desired longitude at sea, for perfecting the the descent of the ball, ascertain its rate of going, art of navigation.' With what success this has There is an apartment in the building appropribeen done, may be inferred from the remarkable ated to chronometers. It is the custom with words of Delambre, who, writing on the four vol- makers of those instruments to send them to the umes of observations by Maskelyne, astronomer observatory for correction and trial. Their daily royal at the commencement of the present century, rate is then observed, and noted down for the use observes, “ that if by a great revolution, the sci- of the owners; the same course is followed with ences should be lost, and that this collection only the chronometers of ships lying in port. Visitors were saved, there would be found in it materials to Greenwich Park may frequently see a captain sufficient to rear almost an entire new edifice of descending the hill with his time-keeper in a handmodern astronomy.”
kerchief under his arm. The present number of The whole establishment comprehends two prin- chronometers on trial exceeds one hundred, many cipal buildings, one the observatory, the other the of them being from government ships paid off, and dwelling-house; the former is a low oblong erec- thirty in preparation for the determination of the tion, placed east and west, with four principal longitude of Valentia in Ireland. apartments on the ground floor, in which the most Another very important object in the institution important observations are carried on; in one of and maintenance of the observatory, is the obserthese, which has a double sloping roof fitted with vations of the moon, and the determination of the sliding shutters, for convenience in observing tran- places of fixed stars necessary for ascertaining sits, is the transit instrument, eight feet in length, instrumental errors arising in those observations. resting on two stone pillars, and interesting from In the early history of the building, these were having been used by the astronomers royal from regarded merely as secondary, but they appear to the days of Halley. In an adjacent apartment have been followed up with the greatest reguis the magnificent mural circle by. Troughton, larity, even when all others were neglected. The which was placed on its stone pier in 1812, and effect of this regularity is most honorable to the although it has a diameter of nearly eight feet, institution ; for the existing theories and tables of such is the accuracy with which it has been con- the moon are everywhere founded on the observastructed, that its position may be ascertained to the tions at Greenwich, which is looked to as that tenth of a second. In the other rooms are other from which alone adequate observations can be circles, and a variety of astronomical instruments, expected ; and it is fair to predict that, while the as well as a library containing many scarce scien- duties are as efficiently performed as at present, tific books.
lunar tables will always be founded on the same It is, however, beyond our province to attempt authority. To seafaring men lunar tables are of a description of the splendid and complicated in- little less importance than true time; relying on struments contained within the observatory, which their correctness, they sail away into the broad we should scarcely succeed in making intelligible ocean, over which the calculations made thousands to the general reader; suffice it to say, that the of miles distant serve as finger-posts. In order to establishment is supported at the expense of gov. render this branch of the observations still more ernment, and is under the direction of the lords of efficient, an additional building is being erected, in the admiralty.
which the moon may be observed through her Astronomical time is not divided, like civil time, entire passage. Owing to the construction of the into two periods of twelve hours, but is counted portion of the building at present devoted to this regularly from one to twenty-four. Now, it is purpose, one half of her course is very imperfectly one of the most important objects in the duties of observed, and one fourth is quite lost. When the observatory to find the true time; this is as the new part is completed, it is anticipated that certained at Greenwich by accurate determination the observations on our satellite may be made of the places of various stars, and their transit over almost every night; at present, from the cause the meridian. From these observations the mean above alluded to, they do not exceed one hundred solar time is computed ; and this once known, the in the year. Some idea of the patience necessary finding of the longitude of any place is compara- on the part of the observer, may be inferred from Lively easy. A knowledge of the true time being the fact of his being required to watch from moonof the highest importance in keeping the reckoning rise to an hour or more after sunrise, or from an of a ship on a voyage, the lords of the admiralty hour before sunset to moonsetting. determined, about ten years since, on a means for Of late years, in addition to the astronomical, a making known daily the hour of one o'clock. series of magnetic and meteorological observations Such is the skill displayed in the observations, have been conducted at the observatory. For the that this hour is now ascertained with the utmost observation of the magnetic dip, and some other nicety, and from the summit of the building has points which could not be carried on near the been made known with the greatest regularity great magnets, or other disturbing influences, a from the time the plan was first adopted. small outbuilding has been raised of wood, ihe
greatest care being taken that no particle of iron comets, and others observed in trigonometrical should be used in the construction. Such is the survey. The sun, moon, and planets are observed extreme delicacy and susceptibility of some of the at every practicable opportunity, the latter through instruinents in ihis apartinent, that they are sus- all hours of the night, (except on Sundays,) when pended by skeins of fibrous silk, enclosed, in some the moon only, with accompanying stars, is obinstances, within tubes of glass. These skeins served. Occultations, diameters, and the eclipses are prepared at Manchester expressly for the pur- and movements of Jupiter's satellites, complete a pose; the fibres consist of seven or eight threads, catalogue which, for scope and detail, reflects the as when reeled off in readiness for spinning; the highest credit on those concerned in its execution. slightest twist would render them unfit for use ; The electrical apparatus is attached to a pole and it is essential that they should be of uniform 80 feet high, fixed in the garden; a wire conthickness.
nected with this is led into one of the rooms of the There are three magnetometers, the magnets building, where pith balls, suspended near a bell, for which were made at Göttingen; they are of are attached to it. When the apparatus is excited polished steel, each two feet in length, one inch by the electric state of the atmosphere, the balls and a half in width, and one quarter of an inch in become violently agitated, and striking against the thickness. In reading off the results, allowance is bell, cause a ringing, which immediately attracts made for the presence of iron in the apparatus the attention of the attendant. which supports them, or in other parts of the In Flamsteed's time, a well was sunk in this
These instruments, with the barometer, garden 100 feet in depth, with steps leading to the and the wet and dry thermometers, are observed bottom, for the purpose of observing the stars in every two hours, day and night (except on Sun- the daytime ; but this has long since been arched days;) the dew point four times every day; the over, as the improvements in the construction of magnetic dip is observed on the forenoon and telescopes render it unnecessary. afternoon of each of two days in every week; on The whole mass of observations, both meteoroone particular day in every month, previously logical and astronomical, is regularly printed, a determined for the observatories in various parts quarto volume of some thousand pages appearing of the world, and known as a term day, magnetic once in the year. Most of these are distributed observations are made at every five minutes; on amongst the observatories all over the world, with one day in each month, hourly observations of the a view to assist the cause of science, and to facilibarometer are made ; observations with the acti- tate the great series of observations, undertaken nometer, an instrument for ascertaining the radia- at the expense of government, which have now tion of solar rays, are made when circumstances been carried on for four or five years, and are exare favorable ; electrical and extraordinary obser- pected to be brought to a conclusion in the present vations of any kind, when circumstances require year. In order to have some security that the asthem. The indications of the self-registering in-sistants, of whom there are nine regularly on the struments are regularly preserved or read off, the establishment, are in attendance to take their obrain gauges, &c., which are cumulative, but not servations at the time appointed, a clock, comself-registering, are read, some once in a day, monly termed “the watchman's clock,” is fixed in some once in a week.
the ante-room; it has no hands, but a series of In addition to these instruments, there are an knobs, to which cords are attached on the dialatmospheric electrometer, a galvanometer, and an plate, which turns round; this is secured by a anemometer. The last registers of itself the door with a lock and key, so that the only exterforce, direction, and duration of winds. There nal communication is by the cords, one of which are also self-registering thermometers, which are being pulled by the assistant when he leaves, a suspended from the side of the Dreadnought hos- knob is displaced, the dial-plate turns round, and pital ship, for ascertaining the temperature of the thus a complete check is kept upon the attendance water of the Thames, with the object of assisting of the subordinate officers. the registrar-general in the meteorological report Among the extraordinary scientific operations affixed to his weekly sanitary report.
to which the observatory has contributed its aid, In astronoinical science, everything depends on was that of instructing the officers of the corps of the precision with which the longitnde of a place Royal Engineers, who were appointed to trace is determined as regards any other fixed place; by the Canadian boundary ; one portion of which, a the transinission of chronometers from one point straight line of a distance of 70 miles, was to conto the other, this may be ascertained. An opera- nect two defined points. The country through tion of this nature is now in progress to determine which this line was to pass is described as surpassthe difference of longitude between Greenwich ing in its difficulties the conception of any Euroaud Pulkowa, in Russia. As it is necessary that pean. It consists of impervious forests, steep the observers as well as the instruments should be ravines, and dismal swamps. A survey of the interchanged, M. Struve, astronomer at the latter line was impossible ; a plan was therefore arranged place, has come over to make his observations by the astronomer royal, founded on a determinafrom this point, for which purpose a transit instru- tion of the absolute latitude and difference of lonment has been placed at his disposal.
gitude of the two extremities. The difference of The Nautical Almanac is generally printed longitude was determined by the transfer of chrothree years in advance, for the benefit of those noineters, by a very circuitous route, from one end who go long voyages ; the volume for the year to the other; after which the necessary computa1847 is now published. The list of stars for this lions were made, and marks laid off for starting work has a first claim in the astronomical observa- with the line from both extremities. One party, tions; and it is a rule that each star shall be ob- after cutting more than 42 miles through the served at least twenty times in every three years. woods, were agreeably surprised on the brow of a Besides these, there are observations of stars for hill at seeing before them a gap in the woods on refraction ; of those selected for the moon-culmin- the next line of hill, which opened gradually, and ating list of the almanac: of those compared with proved to be the line of the opposite party. On continuing the lines till they were abreast of each | beneath the sod. “It will be all the same a hupother, their distance was found to be 341 feet, a dred years hence,” some rustic philosopher might difference which arose in an error of only a quar- have said at the time, as he heard the shouls of ter of a second of time in the difference of longi- strife and the wailings of woe; and behold those tude. The performance of this operation reflects hundred years have passed, and it is the same in the highest honor on the officers engaged. Tran- the sense he meant it. We are only a few hissits were observed, and observations made, on torical chapters the richer. whose delicacy everything depended, when the But the recurrence of a “forty-five" is not to therinometer was lower than 19 degrees below awaken these romantic associations alone. We zero, and when the native assistants, though paid are also called upon as a nation to reflect with highly, deserted on account of the severity of the grateful feelings upon the progress which has weather.
been made by our country since the last of our Such is a brief outline of an establishment civil wars, showing, as the retrospect powerfully which, whether we consider the nat'ıre and utility does, the benefits which flow from intestine peace. of its operations, or the comparatively small ex- The England, and still more particularly the Scotpense at which they are conducted, has great land, of 1745, how different from those of 1845! claims on our respect. We trust that our neces- Hardly in any one particular is there not an imsarily brief sketch will tend to diminish the stupid provement; while, taking the whole together, and wonder with which the unpretending structure is considering it either by itself absolutely or relaregarded by thousands who climb the hill on tively towards other states, an advance of a most which it stands. Let them think over its histori- remarkable nature is apparent. In that time Great cal associations, and its importance not merely na- Britain has acquired India, and planted far more tionally, but in connexion with the whole world. colonies than are required to make up for the few
New England states of 1745, which she has since
lost. She has bound Ireland to her in incorporFrom Chambers' Journal.
ating union, making a United Kingdom, which SEVENTEEN FORTY-FIVE AND EIGHTEEN probably contains not less than three times the FORTY-FIVE.
population which existed on the same space in
1745. The national debt of 1745, has indeed inThe arrival of the year forty-five in this century creased from fifty, to be now not less than eight has produced a slight sensation-in Scotland par- hundred millions; a somewhat alarming fact at ticularly-over and above what the commence- first sight; and yet it cannot be doubted, considment of a new year generally occasions. We are ering the relative population and wealth, that the all set a-thinking of that former forty-five in which debt of a hundred years ago was a heavier burden such a remarkable series of domestic occurrences than that of the present day. David Hume prophtook place, deciding the fate of a dynasty with esied that when the national obligations came to a which an obsolete system of government and of hundred millions, England must be ruined; but faith was connected, and determining the current that sum has been multiplied by eight without of public affairs and of social progress into a chan- insolvency, and no one would now expect that an nel which it has never since left. We also recol- advance to a thousand millions would be fatal to lect the extraordinary character of the transactions our national fortunes. The annual expenditure is of the last forty-five, so highly calculated to take now somewhat above the whole amount of the hold of the imagination and feelings ; a piece of debt in 1745—a fact which may be parıly to be mediæval romance, as it were, which had by deplored; but does it not indicate also a vast chance wandered into the age of whiggery and increase in the national resources ? Since 1745, hoop-petticoats ; sounding, amidst hosts of the the productive powers of the soil, especially in the commonplaces by which we are still surrounded, northern section of the island, have been more the expiring trumpet notes of chivalry. That than doubled, in consequence of improved methods great round in the markings of time, a century of agriculture and husbandry; but the improveimpressive because it is just the first grand period ment in this respect is small compared with that which living man must all but despair of seeing which has taken place in other branches of indusaccomplished in his own life-has now been com- try. The cotton manufacture has been created pleted since a disinherited prince, tartanned, tar- since 1745, and all the other great manufactures getted, pedestrian, but an Apollo of youthful have been prodigiously increased. The shipping grace and natural dignity, trailed his cloud of self- of the country has gone on in equal paces. See devoted Highlanders through Lowland Scotland the best exponents of these facts in the rise of and Central England, to regain the crown of a Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Birmingham, Glashundred ancestors, (the faith made it a reality,) or gow, from the small towns which they were in die in the attempt. How much was there con- 1745 to what they now are. Liverpool was not centrated in that strange pageant!-divine right so important a town in 1745, as to have a newsbreaking its head in madness against the impreg- paper. Manchester had only one.
There were nable walls of popular privileges—the Celt, in his but twenty-eight in all provincial England, two in dress and arms older than Romulus or Pericles, Scotland, and four in Ireland (in the two last perishing in a last attack upon the overwhelming cases, confined to the respective capitals.) Lon. force of the higher-endowed Goth-generous feel- don was then a town of under half a million of ings, eagerness to redress what were thought per- population—about one and a half of the present sonal wrongs, unselfish worship of an ancient idea Manchester. Edinburgh had forty, and Glasgow almost identified with religion, meeting a murder-twenty thousand : now the latter is computed to ous rebuke from the cannon-mouth and ihe scaffold, have 311,000. Lancashire has since then added and, in the inexorable sternness of human con- just about one million to her population! The tendings, ridiculed as folly and condemned as whole annual revenue of the country from cuscrime! Since all this happened, a hundred years toms in 1745, (about a million and a half) was not have passed, and laid everything but a memory a third of what is now drawn on that account in
Liverpool port alone. The entire annual revenue years ago with a hale elderly gentleman, who of the empire during the reign of George II. said he had once farmed the shore dues of that (about eight millions on the average of thirty- port at £300 : they had reached, in 1839, the three years,) is now considerably exceeded by the large sum of sixteen thousand pounds! This amount of customs received in the port of London. town has risen from a population of 5302 in 1746, Since 1745, England and Scotland have been to 62,794 in 1841. A story is told that the mail overspread with canals and railways, immensely bag from London arrived one day in Edinburgh, a facilitating the transit of merchandise. Enormous short time after the year 1745, with one letter. sums have also been spent on the construction of being a missive addressed to the British Linen roads; and the principal public buildings of the Company. It is hardly necessary to remark how three kingdoms have been reared in that time. huge the mail bags now are each day. The
The advance has been much greater in North revenue of Scotland was at the Union £110,694 ; than in South Britain ; and, indeed, we might in 1788, it was £1,099,148: that collected last affirm, with little chance of contradiction, that no year was above five millions; being about what the country out of America has made a greater pro- revenue of the whole state was in the reign of gress within the last century, or ever in one cen- George I. It may also be mentioned that the iury made a greater progress, than Scotland has Scottish coin, when called in at the Union, was done in that time. In 1745, this ancient kingdom, found to amount to litile more than eight hundred at the distance of forty years, had not forgotten thousand pounds. An old lady worth exactly an unpopular union. There was a large party, double that sum of money died in Edinburgh about including a considerable proportion of the gentry, three years ago! There is perhaps nothing which decidedly disaffected to the reigning family. Some more emphatically marks the national progress old sores, such as the Glenco massacre and Darien than the history of its banks. Of these establishexpedition, still rankled in the Scottish bosom. ments, there were two on the joint-stock principle Thus the spirit of the nation was distracted. It | in Edinburgh in 1745, and one private establishwas impossible, in such circumstances, that there ment in Glasgow; none at Aberdeen, Dundee, could be any hearty application to courses of in- Perth, or any other town. The Bank of Scotland dustry, or to enterprises promising general advan- had, it seems, tried a branch at Aberdeen, but it tage. But when the claims of the Stuarts were failed to obtain sufficient business to make it worth finally quelled on Culloden moor, a new era while, and the money was quickly withdrawn, seemed to commence, and from that time the being brought, it is said, to Edinburgh on the pursuits of peace acquired a decided ascendant. backs of horses, the only mode of carriage which Scottish historians usually conclude their narra- was then practised. At the present time, there tives in 1707, saying that after that time their are twenty-three joint-stock banks in Scotland, country has no history: a most surprising blunder having three hundred and thirty branch establishindeed; the fact being, that our history before ments. The aggregate capital employed by the that period is merely curious and romantic-hardly two Edinburgh banks in 1745 was £200,000 : in any degree instructive-while the subsequent that now employed in joint-stock banks somewhat period would possess for the political philosopher exceeds eleven millions. And here it may safely the highest value. A history of the country from be remarked, that no banking concerns in the that time to the present would be the history of world have ever been managed with better success human energies applied to their best purposes, than those of Scotland—a fact mainly attributable and achieving the most admirable results. Most to the caution which forms so conspicuous a feainteresting is it, truly, to see this little nation, ture of the national character. There has not with their sterile mountains and moors, and only been, within the memory of the living generation, patches of good land between, setting themselves a declaration of insolvency from more than four to overcome all difficulties, and, by dint of pure banks, and three of these were comparatively mental force-a perseverance which knows no small provincial concerns; and the public, as distire, a sagacity hardly ever at a loss, ingenuity tinguished from the shareholders, did not lose one not to be baffled, prudence never to be lulled farthing by them. asleep-working out what we now see, a land The progress of the capital forms a good critemade blithe with plough and harrow, firths whi- rion of that of the country, and no city assuredly tened with merchant Aeets, streams persuaded, could well show a greater change in a century since they are making falls at any rate, to fall for than Edinburgh has done during ihat time. This the benefit of huge mills planted upon their banks, city was, in 1745, one of 40,000 inhabitants— and splendid cities rising where once there were antique and inconvenient in structure, and pent up only litle towns. The agriculture of Scotland within walls capable of being defended against an was, in 1745, but the agriculture of cotters, em- enemy unprovided with artillery. The accommobracing not one mode calculated to favor the dations possessed by families of good figure were powers of simple nature. Now its farming is an generally limited to three or four rooms, not moro economical and scientific application of principles ; than one of which would be unprovided with a not yet what it may be, but in the mean time a bed. Of the middle ranks, most lived in bednotable example to all other portions of the em
Arrangements now deemed indispensable pire. Manufactures worthy of the name did not for cleanliness and delicacy were unknown. There exist in 1745. Look now to the busy banks of was much homely comfort, but little elegance. It the Clyde and Tay, not to speak of many other is entirely since 1767, that Edinburgh has burst minor scenes of industry. In 1839, there were from the limits of the Old Town, and spread her676 “ factories" in Scotland. Of the commerce self in matchless beauty over the adjacent fields. of the country in 1745, we have an idea from the Now we see the streets, which are devoted to the fact that Leith, the principal port, then had ship- domestic accommodation of the middle and upper ping under two thousand aggregate tonnage. The ranks, almost uniformly elegant, and houses occuamount in 1840 was 19,954 tons. At Dundee, pied by shopkeepers which a judge or a landed the writer of these pages played at whist two gentleman could not have obtained eighty years ago. And the whole habits of life of these par- fathers did in 1745; but this is not to prove that ties are equally improved. It is common to hear miseries were then unknown in that class. Groan old people praising the easy good-humored life of as the poor might formerly, their voice was never their young days; but it was in reality full of heard ; no inquiry was ever made into their coninconveniences, which either must have been con- dition. In the very fact of the groans being now stantly giving vexation, or were overlooked solely heard, and their causes zealously sought for with because of the low state of mind of those exposed a view to redress, it might be argued that we see to them. We learn from Sir Walter Scott's something in favor of the present time. The memoirs, that his parents lost all their children in spirit of the Scottish representatives of the former infancy while they lived in the Old Town, and period was most abject. Their gross servility to that he only escaped by being sent to the country. the minister of the day was perhaps what mainly Another literary man born in Edinburgh, Mr. depreciated the national character in the eyes of Kerr, editor of a well-known collection of voyages the English, and produced the satires of Foote and travels, was the eighth or tenth child of his and Churchill. In reality, they were not a repreparents. All his predecessors had perished in sentation of the people of Scotland ; but this our consequence of the narrowness of the domestic southern neighbors had no reason to suppose. accommodations, and his preservation was owing Now, the Scottish members are fully as indeto the same cause as Scott's. Can we wonder at pendent as any equal number taken at random out such results when we learn that Mr. Bruce of of the parliaineniary lists; and, if we are not Kennet, a gentleman of estate, who, being in the much misinformed, their election is conducted law, became a judge of the supreme court, occu- with an exemption from corrupting influences pied with his family, about the beginning of the which is not paralleled in any other part of the reign of George III., a house of one floor, rented United Kingdom. That the Scottish people, at fifteen pounds, and containing three rooms, one amidst all their changes, have not in any degree of which was employed partly as his study, and lost the peculiar religious spirit which distinpartly as a bedroom for his children? When we guished them of old, recent events have fully know such things, we can hardly be surprised at shown. On a subject of some delicacy, it is Mr. Creech telling us, about 1790, that a French not necessary to say more; but what is said is teacher left, for want of accommodation, the much. house which thirty years before sufficed for Lord Upon the whole, it appears to us that the BritDrummore. There cannot be a doubt that, built ish empire has made an advance in all the prime as Edinburgh now is, many a man of income elements of greatness during the last hundred exempt from property-tax is lodged better than years, such as cannot be found paralleled on the men of rank and fortune were in 1745.
same scale in any history. If we look into the Since that period, the changes in the moral and past, we nowhere see such a bound forward made intellectual character of the people, in their man- by any country ; so that we may fairly say that ners, customs, and language, have been equally here is a new exemplification of the power of a great. Farmers then sat at the same table with naturally well-endowed race to advance in natheir servants. It looks an amiable custom ; but tional greatness when circumstances of a greatly the sole cause was, that the farmers had no edu- unfavorable kind, such as a war, are not allowed tion or taste superior to their servants, and were a strong operation. It is very clear that no perin reality laboring people themselves. Gentle son living in 1745, and looking abroad upon his men and ladies spoke broad Scotch ; the former past and present, could have seen grounds for swore a good deal; the latter snuffed. Their supposing that a century later was to commence meetings were rare, and without refinement. Fe- such a period as we now see closing. Does not male accomplishments, by which such a charm is that period argue a degree of national improrabilnow given to home, were then unknown. Few ity to which it might be difficult to sei limits? women could even write a letter; fewer still spell Does it not show that, if no worse catastrophe one correctly. The savagery still surviving in than has marked the past century shall mark the the national mind, even in cities, is shown strik- future career of this empire, the condition at ingly in the execution of Lynch law upon Cap- which it shall have arrived in 1945, in physical tain Porteous in 1736. The bigotry is shown and moral greatness, must be something of which in the Catholic riots of thirty years later. We we would vainly at present endeavor to imagine have to go back but twenty-three years from the particulars ? Why, this great and still in1745, to come to the last burning of a witch increasing London may in 1945 be a town of eight Scotland. Then the state of public sentiment millions of inhabitants—a phenomenon which the respecting the natural liberty and dignity of man, world has not heretofore witnessed.
A vast what an idea do we get of it from such facts as amount of the waste and barbarous parts of the this—that, in 1755, while a press was going on earth-perhaps all Asia, excepting that belonging for the Seven Years' War, a man who had been to Russia-shall have then yielded to a British committed to the guard-house in Edinburgh “for sway, and begun to adopt the manners, language, swearing,” was sent on board the tender, and, and moral ideas of this people. To how many though earnest petitions were presented to the of the distresses of the sons of earth will remedies Court of Session to procure his liberation, the have then been applied ! How many great queslords refused to interfere—or this, that, on the tions in physical science and ethics will then have 30th of August, 1766, the Edinburgh Courant been solved! How sweetly will the wheels of advertised a female negro slave for sale. At the the social machine, as well as the current of indilatter fact we need hardly be surprised, when we vidual life, then move! Alas, why have we been recollect that, for thirty years after 1745, the condemned to live in the early part of this darkwhole class of colliers and salters in Scotland ling century, streaked but with the dawnings of were bondmen. We hear more now of the mis- so much glory! How enviable those who shall eries among the humbler classes than our fore- be born unto our children's children !