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agitation is not in the voluntary principle, but in ment is the no-popery fanaticism; and nothing the no-popery and ascendency passion. Volunta- that liberal dissenters can say or do, will make ryism is perfectly powerless in the matter, except it anything else. With whatever generality of as a subordinate ally of no-popery and ascendency. phrase they may word their opposition, so as to As it is powerless, we think it should be neutral. direct it against state endowments of religion in One thing at least is clear; if the advocates of the the abstract, it has the practical effect of a special voluntary principle feel themselves bound actively attack on the Catholics and their creed. It has to oppose this bill, they are most especially bound this effect, and it has no other. Those dissenters to oppose the opposition—the most illiberal, bigoted, who have joined the movement on the Voluntary and fanatical opposition, with which it is assailed principle, have not thereby advanced the Volunby men whose principles are as contrary to theirs tary principle one iota. They have only allowed as darkness to light.

themselves to be used as tools by their old oppresWe have nowhere seen the “Voluntary” view sors; and when they are done with, they will be of the Maynooth endowment scheme better stated, thrown aside. With the most perfect respect for than in the resolutions of the Independent Con- the sincerity of such of our friends as have sufgregation of Argyle Square Chapel, in this city, fered themselves to be thus entrapped, we must adopted at a meeting held on the 31st of March, take leave to more than doubt the wisdom of their for considering the propriety of petitioning parlia- course. The John Thorogoods and the Charles ment against the bill. Our Independent friends, Jameses—the men who go to prison sooner than while disapproving of the bill, decided not to ex- pay church taxes, and the men who send and keep press their disapprobation in the form of a parlia- them there--have really too liule in common to mentary petition, for reasons, the chief of which render political coöperation on a church question are stated as follows:

natural or seemly. “ Because the most zealous opponents of the We gladly turn from the disagreeable side of grant are the parties who have appropriated to this matter, to notice those topics of congratulathemselves the largest share of the public proper- tion which the ministerial proposal affords to all ty, which has been devoted to upholding ecclesi- friends of religious liberty, and of justice to Ireastical establishments, and whose object evidently land. This Maynooth scheme, with all its faults, is to rouse the zeal of dissenters to cooperate with is a most telling and decisive blow at the principle them in maintaining their present ascendency.

of ecclesiastical exclusiveness and ascendency in “Because, if we were to petition against this general, and at the Church of England, in Ireland, grant, on the ground that it was for the support in particular. It is now ruled, once for all, that of theological dogmas which we consider un- the great ecclesiastical monopoly is a nuisance scriptural and dangerous, we should thereby imply which must be abated—a wrong which must be that the state has a right to judge what creeds are righted. That the attempt is made to right it by to be countenanced as true and scriptural, and thus the infliction of a little counter-wrong-a admit a principle subversive of religious liberty. ing grievance on the other side,” as Mr. O'Con

“ Because large grants have been made to col- nell calls it—is, comparatively, a very subordinate leges exclusively Protestant, and extensive reve- consideration. By the consent of both the great nues have been forcibly taken from Catholics and parties in the state, it is declared and settled, bestowed on Protestant institutions; and consider that, not sectarian sympathies and antipathies, but ing the system which is at present acted on by gov-" public feelings, and considerations of public ernment, it does appear partial and unjust, that policy,'' are henceforth to be supreme in Anglomunificent funds should be expended on one class, Irish politics ; that we are to look at things, not while a comparative pittance is refused to another. as theologians, but “as legislators and states

Because, while we testify against all grants men;" and that “concession” is so far from from the public funds for the promotion of any having "reached its limits,” that it can scarcely theological creed, we do not consider that we be said to have yet commenced. Nothing can should be justified in joining in the clamor now now undo inis. Though the Maynooth bill hapraised against a particular sect, and that the sect pened to be lost, for this session, no power on which has suffered from the domination of a high earth could put things back to where they were church party, who, while they take every opportu- before. What has been said cannot be unsaid. nity of lording it over dissenters, are now desirous The principles which have been so fully and forto use them as tools for the accomplishment of their mally recognized can never be ignored. All our own purposes."

leading public men, of all parties, now stand Nothing can be truer in fact, sounder in princi- pledged, more or less, in one way or in another, ple, or wiser in policy, than this. Liberal dis- to beat down ecclesiastical ascendency, to open senters have nothing to do with agitating against ecclesiastical monopoly, to rectify or abate the Maynooth. Whatever the agitation may be in wrong of governing one third of the empire on name and form, it is, in fact, substance, and prac- sectarian principles. tical tendency, an agitation against every principle We regard this Maynooth bill—taken in conmost dear to them. It is an agitation, not for nexion with the avowals of purpose, or admissions voluntaryism and equality, but for ascendency and of tendency, that have been made in the debates tyranny. It is an agitation, not against state on itas virtually sealing the fate of the Irish establishments of religion, but in favor of one of church establishment. Nothing can be plainer the corruptest and most extortionate establish-than that, if we are to bave one established church ments under heaven. Its success would be a vic- in Ireland, we must make up our minds very tory gained, not by, but over, religious equality shortly to have two, one for the few, and one for and political justice. The defeat of the Maynooth the many; a Protestant church, subsisting on grant wouid be the triumph of the Church of tithes and lands, and a Catholic church, charged England in Ireland. The Independents of Argyle on the consolidated fund. Two church establishSquare truly call this agitation a “clamor against ments, or none, is the alternative to which we are a particular sect.” The life and soul of the move-visibly and rapidly coming. As this is a question

" react

in which the people of Great Britain will have to settle the matter in a rational way. The case is be consulted, and as we have no sort of doubt as clearly one for negotiation, “founded,” as Lord to what their answer will be, we can only say, the Aberdeen says, " on the principle of an amicable sooner it is asked the better. Whether a state adjustment, by mutual concession of extreme provision for the Irish Catholic hierarchy be a claims. The extreme claims of the Americans necessary logical consequence of giving Maynooth are, we think, sufficiently shown by the Earl of students separate beds, salarying Maynooth pro- Clarendon and Lord John Russell to be preposterfessors at a higher rate than gentlemen's butlers, ously extravagant; while our extreme claims have mending broken windows, and turning the “de- been over and over again compromised beyond reserted barrack” into a decent and comfortable covery by concessions made in the course of negoabode for Christian people, is an inquiry on which tiation, and are in themselves so barren of practiwe need not enter too curiously. But it sufficiently cal value, that it is only a pily we cannot, under appears, from indications given in debate, on both present circumstances, handsomely and honorably sides of the House, that the attempt to deduce this make the Americans a present of them without consequence practically will by-and-by be made. more words. It is satisfactory to learn from the This is good news for the cause of religious liberty, explanations given in parliament as to the jointequality, and voluntaryism. The attempt cannot occupation convention at present in force—and be made (if made at all) too soon. It will quite dissoluble only by a year's notice, which notice certainly break down, and the Irish Protestant has not yet been given—that the question is not state church will break down with it. When of that instant urgency in point of time which the restitution” comes that length, it will begin to tone of the president's speech had at first led the be understood, that taxing the British people to public to suppose. The declarations of ministers restore to Ireland what the British people never justify the hope, that the interval yet open for netook from Ireland, is a practical bull of too gross a gotiation and amicable arrangement will be indussort to be tolerated even in Hibernian politics. triously improved, and that the existing truce will The restitution must be made by the party in pos- end in a permanent and assured peace. session of the plunder. The wrong must be un Although we do not see any serious reason for done, not neutralized by a “reacting wrong apprehending that this trumpery Oregon dispute inflicted on an unoffending third party. Protestant will issue in that most hideous of calamities—that ascendency has got the plunder, and Protestant wildest_and wickedest of follies--a war between ascendency must make the restitution. The na- Great Britain and America, it is impossible not to tional property of the Irish people must be unsec- feel that the relations between the two countries tarianized-restored from unnational and anti-are, generally, in a most unsafe and unsatisfactory national, to national uses. Meanwhile, we are state. We have become of late far too familiar disposed, for our own part, to acquiesce, as pa- with the idea of war with our transatlantic brethtiently as may be, in our share of the little ren. Question after question has arisen within “ reacting grievance,” which will facilitate the the last eight or ten years that has brought us to perception, and accelerate the redress, of the great the very verge of rupture, and has required all original grievance. A state tax for the endow- the resources of a skilful and laborious diplomacy ment of Catholic ecclesiastical education, is a quite for its adjustment. It is impossible that things bearable nuisance, considered as an interim ar- can go on so forever. This habitual and growing rangement-a transition measure towards the familiarity with the idea of war-this perpetual abatement of an immeasurably greater nuisance—a talk of war—this “ armed peace,” which is ever preparative of the public mind for that grand act on the brink of war, must, in the nature of things, of public policy and justice, the appropriation of come to war at last. Peace between two such Irish ecclesiastical property to the promotion of the countries as Great Britain and the United States, moral and social welfare of the Irish people. so closely related by all the ties that should bind

On the Oregon question, which has suddenly nation to nation—a common ancestry, a common started into new life and importance, in conse- history, a common language, a common religion, quence of the American president's cool assump- similar laws, analogous institutions, and identical tion of a “clear and unquestionable" right to ter- interests—is a thing that ought to be utterly incaritory that has been for more than a quarter of a pable of ever being called in question. It should century, and is still, under negotiation, accompa- be, like representative government, freedom of nied by the not vaguely hinted menace of a prompt worship and of the press, security of property, settlement by voie de fait, we do not wish to enter and the like, a fundamental political postulale-a now at any length; but we must express our satis- tacitly-assumed first principle, needing no logical faction that ministers have taken the prudent defence, and admitting of no possibility of a concourse of giving America to understand, that, troversy. Why is this not so? The answer is while all the policy, interests, and feelings of this to be found in our barbarous and suicidal commercountry are profoundly averse to war, Great Brit- cial legislation, which has hindered the growth of ain does not mean to surrender clear and unques- interests and habits conservative of peace, and fostionable rights of her own to mere bluster. We tered the passions and antipathies stimulant of believe that the firm and pacific tone taken by war. Were the natural relations of the two counLord Aberdeen and Sir Robert Peel has very tries their actual relations—Ohio prairies feeding greatly diminished the risk of war in connexion the workers of Lancashire looms, and Lancashire with this frivolous and paltry affair. Now that the looms clothing the tillers of Ohio prairies—the indangerous delusion has been dispelled-dangerous exhaustible powers of production, and fitnesses alike to the Americans and to ourselves—that for exchange, represented by the words “ Ameri. “Ireland,” or “the debt,” or anything else, ren-can Corn," and "British Manufactures,''* freely ders it absolutely impossible for Great Britain, in developing themselves for mutual good-questions any case or contingency, to resist aggression by

* See the valuable pamphlet lately published under the force, the governments of the two countries will title “ American Corn and British Manufactures," by meet on equal terms, and be able, we doubt not, to Clarke, London.


like this of Oregon, might, indeed, arise from time " The Host of God!”—How did they greet to time, but they would be comparatively innocu Our faint and wandering sire?

Two nations, the business of whose exist- Passed they his train with flying feet, ence should be to feed and clothe each other, And chariot wheels like fire ? would find their diplomacy a wonderfully simple Or did they cheer his spirit there affair. Any way of settling such matters as those Amid that desert lonewhich now we find so full of embarrassment and Tell him that granted was his prayer, irritation, would be cheerfully acquiesced in by His secret sorrows known? each, as a preferable alternative to the wicked madness of a war, ruinous to both. Most unhap ". The Host of God!"_How wild the thought, pily, we have, so far as possible, deprived our That lowly man should meet, selves of those securities of peace, to be found in 'Mid the drear realms of wolf and goat, extended and various commerce. We have mini The step of holy feet ; mised, to each nation, both the terrors of war, and Whence come they—whither go—is dark ; the benefits of peace. We have kept up a sort of Their purpose, all unknown; war in the midst of peace—the “ war” (to use the Yet shine they as a meteor spark words of Mr. Macgregor, of the board of trade) Through midnight darkness thrown. " of material interests, or, more properly speaking, of material injuries-that is, a war of custom- Still may they wheel their bright career houses or fiscal forts, with their garrisons of rev By lonely rock or tree, enue-officers and servants." We have followed a Had we the Patriarch's ear to hear, policy of commercial isolation, jealousy, and con. His holy eye to see! tention, which has fatally impaired the natural | The desert wild, the crowded way, guarantees of peace, and exasperated the passions By heavenly step is trod ; whose natural language is war.

Through earth and air-by night, by dayThe present state of cominercial opinion, on Walks still" The Host of God!" both sides of the Atlantic—of which, as regards America, the recent presidential election is a decisive sign-affords ground for hope that we are

From the Home Missionary Magazine. nearly come to the end of our “war of material interests, or injuries,” and that the hour is not THERE WAS SILENCE IN HEAVEN." remote, when the two great nations of the AngloSaxon race will conclude that best and most en

Can angel spirits need repose, during of all possible treaties of peace, whose

the full sunlight of the sky? terms are registered not in protocols, but in bills And can the veil of slumber close of exchange and merchants' ledgers—whose ulij

A cherub's bright and blazing eye? mate guarantees are not powder magazines and cannon-balls, but flour barrels and cotton bales.

Have seraphims a weary brow, There is still, thank Heaven! with all our mo

A fainting heart, and aching breast? nopolies, intercourse enough left between Great

No, far too high their pulses flow, Britain and the United States, to render war hor

To languish with inglorious rest. ribly calamitous to the material interests of each

How could they sleep amid the bliss, country; and with this, and firmness and good

The banquet of delight above? temper, on the part of our statesmen, we shall no

Or bear for one short hour to miss doubt be able to weather the difficulties of the

The vision of the Lord they love? Oregon question. For the future, we must trust to the efforts of the Free-Traders of the two coun

Oh! not the deathlike calm of sleep tries, to produce a state of things that will render

Could hush the everlasting song : war a commercial, political, and moral impossibil No fairy dream or slumber deep, ity.

Entránced the rapt and holy throng. From the Christian Remembrancer.

Yet not the lightest tone was heard

From angel voice or angel hand,

And not one pluméd pinion stirred " And Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him.

Among the bowed and blissful band. And when Jacob saw them, he said, This is God's host; and he called the name of that place Mahanaiin."--Gen. xxxii. 1, 2.

For there was silence in the sky, “ The Host of God!” from whence çame they,

A joy no angel tongues could tell, And whither are they bound?

As from its mystic point on high Are they of those that watch by day,

The peace of God in stillness fell. And keep their nightly round?

Oh! what is silence here below?
Come they from realms celestial, sent
On God's high message here?

The quiet of concealed despair,

of pain, the dream of wo, Guide they the nightly firmament? Guide they the rolling sphere ?

It is the rest of rapture there.

And, to the way-worn pilgrim here, - The Host of God!”—How seemed that show,

More kindred seems that perfect peace In heavenly pomp arrayed ?

Than the full chants of joy to hear
Marched they in bright angelic row,

Roll on, and never, never cease.
With glittering wings displayed ?
Or were they clad in flesh and bone,

From earthly agonies set free,
Like children of the earth,

Tired with the path too slowly trod, While but their stately step and tone

May such a silence welcome me Betrayed their glorious birth?

Into the palace of my God!

The pause

From Chambers' Journal.

tion of the pedestal was intrusted to an officer of STATUE OF PETER THE GREAT, ST. PETERS- the corps of cadets, who had already given proofs

of his mechanical skill. A native of Cephalonia, BURG.

he had been compelled, for an offence against the The rapid change which Russia underwent laws, to seek refuge in Russia, where he lived during the reign of Peter the Great, her extraor- under the assumed name of Lascary. He had dinary advances under this sage legislator, are strenuously recommended the adoption of the among the most important events of which history original design; and a few days after his appointpreserves the record. Proud of his glory, the na- ment, he received information from a peasant of tion wished to erect a monument in commemora- a large rock lying in a marsh near a bay in the tion of his great actions, which in his own city Gulf of Finland, about twenty miles from the city should be a distinctive object to all posterity. In by water. An examination was immediately inthe then young state of their art, some deliberation stituted: the stone was found covered with moss ; took place before the design of the structure was and on sounding around it, the base was fortudecided on ; during this the hero died, and the nately ascertained to be fat. Its form was that erection of the monument was consequently re- of a parallelopipedon, 42 feet in length, 27 feet in served for the reign of the empress Catherine II. width, and 21 feet in height-dimensions suffiThe first step to be taken was the appointment of ciently extensive to realize the conceptions of M. an artist capable of undertaking such a work. Falconet, the sculptor. But when the authoriThe choice fell upon M. Falconet, who, in his ties, under whose direction the work was placed, conception of an equestrian statue, determined saw the prodigious size of the rock, they again that the subordinate parts should bear an equal hesitated, and recommended its division into impress of genius. He found that the pedestals smaller portions. The fear of accidents, however, in general use have no distinctive feature, and and the hardness of the stone, caused them to adapt themselves equally well to any subject; yield to the representations of the engineer, who and being of so universal application, they produce was now favored by the support and encouragement no new or elevated feeling in the mind of the of the minister Betzky; and the intelligence of spectator. He wished to make the czar appear the empress being superior to the senseless clamor in his principal character--the father and legisla. raised by the envious and the ignorant, she gave tor of his people ; great and extraordinary in all; orders for the commencement of the work, undertaking and completing that which others A working model of the machinery with which were unable to imagine. To carry out this con- it was proposed to remove the rock from its situaception, a precipitous rock was fixed on for the tion was first made. M. Lascary resolved on pedestal, on which the statue should appear with effecting this removal without the use of rollers, as characteristics distinguishing it from those erected these not only present a long surface, which into other sovereigns.

creases the friction, but are not easily made of the The first idea was to form this pedestal of six great diameter that would have been required, masses of rock, bound together with bars of cop- owing to the soft and yielding nature of the per or iron; but the objection was urged that the ground on which the work was to be performed. natural decay of the bands would cause a disrup- Spherical bodies, revolving in a metallic groove, tion of the various parts, and present a ruinous were then chosen as the means of transport. aspect, while it would be difficult to insure perfect These offered many advantages. Their motion is uniformity in the quality and appearance of the more prompt than that of rollers, with a less different blocks. The next proposal was to form degree of friction, as they present but small it of one whole rock; but this appeared impossi- points of contact. Stout beams of wood, 33 ble; and in a report to the senate, it was stated feet in length, and 1 foot square, were then prethe expense would be so enormous, as almost to pared. One side was hollowed in the form of a justify the abandonment of the undertaking; and gutter, and lined, the sides being convex, to the even if made of six pieces, as first proposed, the thickness of two inches, with a compound metal outlay would be excessive. At length it was de- of copper and tin. Balls of the same metal, five termined to transport to the city the largest rock inches in diameter, were then made, to bear only that could be found, and add other portions to it on the bottom of the groove. These beams were as might be judged necessary. Still, great mis- intended to be placed on the ground in a line, in givings prevailed as to the possibility of removing front of the stone, while upon them were reversed the contemplated mass. The search was then two other beams, prepared in a similar manner, begun, but with less success than had been anti- each 42 feet long, and 14 feet square, connected as cipated, as the country around St. Petersburg is frame by stretchers and bars of iron 14 feet in flat and marshy, affording no traces of stone, length, carefully secured by nuls, screws, and while the nearest mountains are in the province bolts. A load of 3000 lbs., when placed on the of Finland. A whole summer was passed in ex- working model, was found to move with the ploration ; and the idea of forming the pedestal greatest facility; and the inventor hoped to satisfy of several smaller portions was again entertained, the minister as well as the mechanicians by its. when a large stone was discovered near Cron- public exhibition. The former was well pleased. stadt, which it was determined to apply as the with the experiment, and expressed his belief ini principal mass; and the task of its removal was the possibility of removing the stone ; while the: confided to the adiniralty, who, however, as well latter raised absurd objections, with the cry of as many other mechanicians applied to in turn," the mountain upon eggs.” refused to undertake it. The search for the small The first thing to be done, as the rock lay in a er blocks was nevertheless continued, although wild and deserted part of the country, was to. no one appeared to have any definite notion of build barracks capable of accommodating 400the use to be made them in the event of their laborers, artisans, and other persons required, discovery.

who, with M. Lascary, were all lodged on the Under these unexpected difficulties, the forma-spot, as the readiest means of forwarding the

work. A line of road was then cleared from the described, six pairs were prepared, so that when rock to the river Niva, a distance of six versts, * the rock had advanced over one pair, they might to a width of 120 feet, in order to gain space for be drawn forward and placed in a line in advance the various operations, and to give a free circula- of the foremost, without interrupting the movetion of air, so essential to the health of the work- ments. The balls were laid in the grooves 2 feet men in a marshy district, as well as to the drying apart ; the upper frame, intended as the bed for the and freezing of the ground -a point of much im- rock, placed above: the mass, weighing in its portance, when the enormous weight to be re-original form, 4,000,000 lbs., was then raised by moved is considered. In the month of December, means of powerful screws, and deposited on the when the influence of the frosts began to be felt, frame, when it was drawn up the inclined plane the operation of disinterring the rock from the by the united force of six capstans. The road did earth, in which it was imbedded to the depth of not proceed in a direct line to the river, owing to 15 feet, was commenced : the excavation required the soft state of portions of the marsh : in many to be of great width—84 feet all round—to admit places it was impossible to reach a firm foundation of turning the stone, which did not lie in the most with piles fifty feet in length. This naturally favorable position for remova). An inclined plane, added to the difficulties of the transport, as the 600 feet in length, was afterwards made, by direction of the draught was frequently to be means of which, when the stone was turned, it changed. Piles were driven along the whole line, might be drawn up to the level surface.

on both sides, at distances of 300 feet apart ; to Among the objections urged against the possi- these the cables were made fast, while the capbility of removing the rock, was the anticipated stans revolved ; two of which were found sufficient insurmountable difficulty of placing it upon the to draw the stone on a level surface, while on unmachine destined for its transportation. But the equal ground four were required. The rate of engineer was confident, and wisely preferring sim-motion was from 500 to 1200 feet daily, which, plicity to complication, resolved on employing or when regard is had to the short winter days of dinary levers, known technically as levers of the five hours in that high latitude, may be considered first order; these were made of three masts, each as rapid. So interesting was the spectacle of the 65 feet in length, and 14 feet in diameter at the enormous mass when moving, with the two drumlarger end, firmly bound together. To diminish mers at their posts, the forge erected on it continthe difficulty of moving these heavy instruments, ually at work, and forty workmen constantly emtriangles 30 feet high were erected, with wind- ployed in reducing it to a regular form, that the lasses attached near the base, from which a cord, empress and the court visited the spot to see the passing through a pulley at the top, was fastened novel sight; and, notwithstanding the rigor of to the smaller end of the lever, which, being the season, crowds of persons of all ranks went drawn up to the top of the triangle, was ready for out every day as spectators. Small flat sledges the operation of turning : each of these levers were attached to each side of the stone by ropes, was calculated to raise a weight of 200,000 lbs. on which were seated men provided with iron A row of piles had been driven into the ground at levers, whose duty it was to prevent the balls, of the proper distance from the stone on one side, to which fifteen on a side were used, from striking serve as a fulcrum; and on the other a series of against each other, and thus impeding the motion. piles were disposed as a platform, to prevent the The tool-house was also attached, and moved with sinking of the mass on its descent. Twelve levers, the stone, in order that everything might be ready with three men to each, were stationed at the side to hand when required. Experiments were tried to be lifted, and the lower extremities being placed with balls and grooves of cast-iron; but this maunder the mass,

the upper ends were drawn down- terial crumbled into fragments as readily as if made wards by the united action of the twelve wind- of clay. No metal was found to bear the weight lasses. When the stone rose to the height of a so well as the mixture of copper and tin; and even foot, beams and wedges were then driven under- with this the balls were sometimes flattened, and neath, to maintain it in that position, while the the grooves curled up, when the pressure by any levers were arranged for a second lift. To assist accident became unequal. The utility of rollers the action of the levers, large iron rings were sol- was also tried; but with double the number of dered into the upper corner of the rock, from capstans and power, the cables broke, while the which small cables were passed to four capstans, stone did not advance an inch. each turned by 36 men, thus maintaining a steady The work went on favorably, when it was sudstrain ; while the stone was prevented from re- denly checked by the sinking of the stone to a turning to its original position when the levers depth of 18 inches in the road, to the great chagrin were shifted.

These operations were repeated of the engineer, who was suffering under a severe until the rock was raised nearly to an equipoise, attack of marsh fever. He was not, however, when cables from six other capstans were attached disheartened, and speedily remedied the accident, to the opposite side, to guard against a too sud- spite of the idle clamors of the multitude ; and in den descent; and as a further precaution against six weeks from the time of first drawing the stone fracture, a bed, six feet in thickness, of hay and from its bed, he had the satisfaction of seeing it moss intermingled, was placed to receive the rock, safely deposited on the temporary wharf built for on which it was happily laid at the end of March, the purpose of embarkation on the banks of the 1769. As it was of great importance that all the river, when the charge fell into the hands of the workmen should act at one and the same time, admiralty, who had undertaken the transport by two drummers were stationed on the top of the water to the city. stone, who, at a sign from the engineer, gave the A vessel or barge 180 feet in length, 66 feet in necessary signals on their drums, and secured the width, and 17 feet from deck to keel, had been certainty of order and precision in the various built with every appliance that skill could suggest, operations.

to render it capable of supporting the enormous Meantime the machinery for the removal had burden. Great precautions were now necessary to been made. Of the lower grooved beams already prevent the possibility of the falling of the rock * A verst is 3500 English feet.

into the stream: water was let into the vessel until

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