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two, and footstools, that sometimes had cushions, side in the dark ages : when we remain near the and, above all, high-backed forms and screens- fire, the part of our bodies nearest to it is liable to both most admirable inventions for neutralizing be roasted, whilst our back feels freezing, so that draughts of cold air in these dank and chilling we are obliged, when one side has lost its genial apartments. Andirons, fire-forks, fire-pans, and heat, to turn about and give the chilly side to the tongs, were the implements to supply and arrange fire." No invention has as yet enabled us to prethe fuel. Hearth-recesses with Aues were com- serve a uniform and genial artificial climate in every mon in the principal chambers of houses of per- part of our dwellings--an art in which even the sons of condition; and were superseding what Romans excelled us. Yet this is the age of ingeAubrey calls flues, like louver holes, in the habi- nuity and luxury. tations of all classes. The adage, that one good fire heats the whole house,' was found true only in the humbler dwellings; for in palace and

Literature GOING TO THE WALL.-The folmansion, though great fires blazed in the

lowing advertisement seems to open a new field

presence chamber, or hall, or parlor, the domestics were

to men of letters :literally famishing with cold. This discomfort INTELLECTUAL Paper-HANGINGS, in which the did not, however, proceed from selfish or stingy writings of various authors are inserted in ornahousekeeping, but rather from an affectation of mental patterns, &c., &c. hardihood, particularly among the lower classes,

There are many authors who will no doubt be when effeminacy was reckoned a reproach. Be- very happy to treat with the trustees of public sides, few could know what comfort really was ; | buildings, and we shall ourselves have much but those who did, valued it highly. Sanders pleasure in supplying the walls of Westminster relates that Henry VIII. gave the revenues of a Hall, at per yard, according to quality. We have convent, which he had confiscated, to a person fitted up a few panes in our office-window with who placed a chair for him commodiously before specimens, and a sheet of jocular paper-hanging the fire, and out of all draughts."

may be seen in daily operation at 92 Fleet This description of an English fireside is accurate, even applied to a much later period-to in

We should say that various authors should be deed all the intervening space between the time selected to do the mural literature for various of Queen Mary and that of William, Prince of apartments. George Jones, who must by this Orange; for it was not till the latter reign that time be sadly in want of a job, would be invaluacoal became the staple fuel. The prejudice against ble as a writer for slee ng-rooms; and Jenkins, it, which we have before adverted to, was as strong if he is to be found, could undertake to cover the as it was unaccountable. As an instance of it, we walls of the servants' hall with belles-letters of the may mention, in passing, that when first introduced, most appropriate character. The industrious authe Commons petitioned the crown in 1306 to pro- thor of “ Jack Sheppard” might do the whole of hibit burning the “noxious” fuel. A “royal pro- the paper-hanging for Newgate; and some of our clamation having failed to abate the growing nui- drainatists could furnish the walls of the consance, a commission was issued to ascertain who demned cell with productions of a genial nature. burned sea-coal within the city and in its neigh- We are happy to see the paper-hangers coming borhood, and to punish thein by fine for the first forward in aid of the literature of the country, offence, and by demolition of their furnaces if they which has had no such friends since the old original persisted in transgression; and more vigorous trunk-maker, whose services to the cause of letters measures had to be resorted to. A law was passed are recognized by Sir Gilbert Norman in Mr. making it a capital offence to burn sea-coal within Jerrold's new comedy. Of the two, we prefer the the city of London, and only permitting it to be celebrity of the walls to the semi-immortality of used in forges in the neighborhood. Among the the portmanteau ; for though the latter may last records in the Tower, Mr. Astle found a docu- longest, the former is calculated to bestow a larger ment, importing that in the time of Edward I., a popularity. The literature of the trunk seldom man had been tried, convicted, and executed, for meets the eye of any but the owner and the custhe crime of burning sea-coal in London.” It tom-house ; while the author who took, then, three centuries to efface this prejudice ; but when once coal was adopted, the whole aspect

" Paints a panel or adorns a wall,” of the fireside was changed. For the capacious is sure of his productions coming under the obserhearth, was substituted the narrower, less social, vation, at least, of all classes.-Punch. though compact and tidy one now in use. Chimneypieces were introduced, at first elaborately carved in wood, and afterwards of marble. The fire- It is but three or four weeks since that we gave held in a grate or stove-was smaller and more an account of the extraordinary age of Mr. and concentrated to one part of the room. Despite the Mrs. Plaisance, then living in Redmoor Fen, in hosts of inventions which have for more than a the Isle of Ely, the husband of the age of 107, century been in use to improve the grate, it still the wife 105!-a case without parallel perhaps in remains in principle and general utility the same England or in the world. On Wednesday, strange as it did from the first day coal was generally to relate, after a short affliction, both expired on burned. And despite the patents of Polignac, the same day; their united ages 212. The greater Bernhard, Evelyn, Rumford, for open grates, and part of their lives were passed when agues were those of Arnott and others for closed ones, our so prevalent in the Fens that very few escaped the family circles still draw around a fireplace differing disorder, yet their lives were prolonged to this in nó very essential particular from that which extraordinary period; and Providence seems to warmed our grandfathers and grandmothers. So have ordained that as they had lived so long little good have all modern contrivances really ef- together, in death they were not divided. They fected, that we of the present hour suffer the same have left one daughter, who lived with them, of inconveniences as the occupants of the Welsh fire-l the age of 84.-Bury Post.


line of immoral tendency, or calculated to pain an

individual, can be pointed out ; whose poems and AGED THREE YEARS AND FIVE MONTHS.

serious writings rank among the noblest modern Thou happy, happy elf !

contributions to our national literature ; and whose (But stop—first let me kiss away that tear) pen was ever the ready and efficient advocate of Thou tiny image of myself!

the unfortunate and the oppressed (as recently, for (My love, he's poking peas into his ear) instance, in the admirable • Song of the Shirt,' Thou merry, laughing sprite !

which gave so remarkable an impulse to the moveWith spirits feather light,

ment on behalf of the distressed needlewomen)Untouched by sorrow, and unsoiled by sin, has left, by his death, a widow and two children (Good heavens! the child is swallowing a pin!) in straightened and precarious circumstances, with Thou little tricksy Puck!

no other means of subsistence than a small penWith antic toys so funnily bestuck,

sion, terminable on the failure of the widow's life, Light as the singing bird that wings the air,

barely sufficient to supply a family of three with (The door! the door! he'll tumble down the common necessaries, and totally inadequate for the stair!)

education and advancement of the orphan children. Thou darling of thy sire !

Even this scanty resource has been, of necessity, (Why, Jane, he'll set his pinafore afire!)

forestalled to a considerable extent during the last Thou imp of mirth and joy !

five months, in order to meet the heavy sick-room In love's dear chain so strong and bright a link,

and funeral expenses. Under these circumstances Thou idol of thy parents (Drat the boy!

a few noblemen and gentlemen, admirers of There goes my ink!)

Thomas Hood's genius and humanity, have formed

a committee for the purpose of raising a sum by Thou cherub—but of earth;

subscription, to be held in trust for the benefit of Fit playfellow for Fays by moonlight pale,

the family during the widow's life, and at her In harmless sport and mirth,

death to be divided between the children, whom (That dog will bite him if he pulls its tail !)

that event will leave destitute. Publicity is given Thou human humming-bee, extracting honey

to this design, in order that Thomas Hood's adFrom every blossom in the world that blows,

mirers throughout the country may have an opporSinging in youth's Elysium ever sunny,

tunity of publicly testifying their recognition of (Another tumble-that's his precious nose !)

his genius, and their sense of his personal worth.” Thy father's pride and hope ! (He'll break the mirror with that skipping rope !) Northampton and Francis Egerton, and Sir E,

We heartily hope the design may prosper. Lords With pure heart newly stamped from nature's Bulwer Lytton, are on the list of committee ; and mint,

some handsome donations have already been (Where did he learn that squint ?) made.

Thou young domestic dove ! (He 'll have that jug off with another shove !)

Will not some of the "merchant-princes” of Dear nursling of the hymeneal nest !

Boston head an American movement to show (Are those torn clothes his best?). gratitude and respect to an eminent FRIEND OF Little epitome of man!

MAN? (He 'll climb upon the table, that 's his plan!) Touched with the beauteous tints of dawning life, (He's got a knife!)

A new article of import has been introduced by Thou enviable being !

the Trent steamer, from the West Indies, in new No storms, no clouds, in thy blue sky foreseeing, potatoes ; which have been successfully cultivated Play on, play on,

in the Bermudas, for the early supply of the EngMy elfin John !

lish market, grown from the best seeds. The Toss the light ball—bestride the stick,

climate and soil is well suited for their growth,

and about a ton has been brought over as a sample (I knew so many cakes would make him sick !) With fancies buoyant as the thistle-down,

by the above steamer. In boiling, they are said Prompting the face grotesque, and antic brisk

to be even of superior quality to those of home With many a lamblike frisk,

produce, being less watery. The same vessel has (He's got the scissors, snipping at your gown,)

also brought over a quantity of pine-apples, preThou pretty opening rose !

served in their juice in bottles, which are likely to (Go to your mother, child, and wipe your nose !)

be a very valuable addition to the kitchen.Balmy, and breathing music like the south,

Morning Post. (He really brings my heart into my mouth!) A Lusus NaturÆ.—The Court Newsman tells Fresh as the morn and brilliant as its star, us that the queen and Prince Albert postponed (I wish that window had an iron bar!)

their visit to Claremont on account of the royal Bold as the hawk, yet gentle as the dove, children having been "unexpectedly attacked by (I 'll tell you what, my love,

the hooping-cough.” The Court Newsman being I cannot write unless he's sent above !)

a perfect courtier, has, of course, no right to exT. Hood. pect that anything so common as the hooping

cough should approach the royal infants. Our We are saddened at the tidings of Mr. Hood's contemporary appears to be utterly taken aback at death. The following circular was about to be the idea of the vulgar hooping-cough having made issued :

its appearance in the nursery at Buckingham

palace. How it got there is a marvel to the “This distinguished writer-who has for up-Court Newsman, who uses the word "unexwards of twenty years entertained the public with pectedly” to mark his sense of the impertinent a constant succession of comic and humoristic intrusion which the malady has been guilty of.works, in the whole range of which not a single Punch.








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DEAR | You can sit up half the night with a pack of peoMOTHER. CAUDLE,

OCCA- ple who don't care for you, and your poor wife SION,” HAS GIVEN A PARTY, AND ISSUED THE can't get in a word ! CARD OF INVITATION

“And there's that China image that I had

when I was married I would n't have taken any It is hard, I think, Mr. Caudle, that I can't leave sum of money for it, and you know it—and how home for a day or two, but the house must be turn- do I find it? With its precious head knocked off! ed into a tavern: a tavern?—a pothouse ! Yes, ! And what was more mean, more contemptible than thought you were very anxious that I should go; 1 all besides, it was put on again, as if nothing had thought you wanted to get rid of me for something, happened. You knew nothing about it? Now, or you would not have insisted on my staying at how can you lie there, in your Christian bed, Caudear mother's all night. You were afraid I should dle, and say that? You know that that fellow, get cold coming home, were you? Oh yes, you can Pretty man, knocked off the head with the poker! be very tender, you can, Mr. Caudle, when it You know that he did. And you had n't the suits your own purpose,

Yes, and the world feeling-yes, I will say it-you had n't the feelthinks what a good husband you are! I only ing to protect what you knew was precious to me. wish the world knew you as well as I do, that's Oh no, if the truth was known, you were very all; but it shall, some day, I 'm determined. glad to see it broken for that very reason.

" I'm sure the house will not be sweet for a “Every way, I've been insulted. I should like month. All the curtains are poisoned with smoke; to know who it was who corked whiskers on my and, what 's more, with the filthiest smoke I ever dear aunt's picture ? Oh! you 're laughing, are knew. Take 'em down then? Yes, it's all very you? You're not laughing? Don't tell me that. well for you to say, take 'em down; but they I should like to know what shakes the bed, then, were only cleaned and put up a month ago; but a if you 're not laughing? Yes, corked whiskers careful wife's lost upon you, Mr. Caudle. You on her dear face-and she was a good soul to you, ought to have married somebody who'd have let Caudle, and you ought to be ashamed of yourself your house go to wreck and ruin, as I will for the to see her ill-used. Oh, you may laugh! It's future. People who don't care for their families very easy to laugh! I only wish you'd a little are better thought of than those who do; I've feeling, like other people, that's all. long found out that.

“ Then there's my china mug-the mug I had " And what a condition the carpet's in? before I was married—when I was a happy creaThey've taken five pounds out of it, if å farthing, ture. I should like to know who knocked the with their filthy boots, and I don't know what be- spout off that mug? Don't tell me it was cracked sides. And then the smoke in the hearth-rug, before—it's no such thing, Caudle; there was n't and a large cinder-hole burnt in it! I never saw a flaw in it—and now I could have cried when I such a house in my life! If you wanted to have saw it. Don't tell me it was n't worth twopence. a few friends, why could n't you invite 'em when How do you know? You never buy mugs. But your wife's at home, like any other man? not that's like men ; they think nothing in a house have 'em sneaking in, like a set of housebreakers, costs anything, directly a woman turns her back. They must be “ There's four glasses broke, and nine cracked. pretty gentlemen, they must; mean fellows that At least, that's all I've found out at present; are afraid to face a woman! Ha! and you all call but I dare say I shall discover a dozen to-moryourselves the lords of the creation! I should only row. like to see what would become of the creation, if “ And I should like to know where the cotton you were left to yourselves! A pretty pickle cre- umbrella 's gone to—and I should like to know ation would be in very soon!

who broke the bell-pull-and perhaps you don't “ You must all have been in a nice condition ! know there's a leg off a chair-and perhaps—" What do you say? You took nothing ? Took nothing, did n't you? I'm sure there's such a

“Here,” says Caudle, “ Morpheus came to my regiment of empty bottles, I havn't had a heart to aid, and I slept; nay, I think I snored.”—Punch. count 'em. And punch, too! you must have punch! There's a hundred half-lemons in the

From the Examiner. kitchen, if there's one: for Susan, like a good

THE PORTENDICK BLOCKADE. girl, kept 'em to show 'em me. No, sir ; Susan shan't leave the house! What do you say? She This is one of the many questions in foreign has no right to tell tales, and you will be master policy of the true merits of which the public are in your own house? Will you? If you don't not in the least aware, and yet on several occasions alter, Mr. Caudle, you 'll soon have no house to within the last few years, when the subject has be master of. A whole loaf of sugar did I leave been brought before parliament, noble lords and in the cupboard, and now there is n't as much as honorable members have expressed themselves in would fill a tea-cup. Do you suppose I’m to find terms of strong indignation against the supposed sugar for punch for fifty men ? What do you violence and injustice of France, and of sympathy say? There was n't fiflý? That's no matter ; with the unfortunate sufferers in the city, who the more shame for 'em, sir. I'm sure they drank have assumed the character of victims of French enough for fifty. Do you suppose I'm to find audacity and oppression. We entertained long sugar for punch for all the world out of my house- ago a strong suspicion that the claims put forward keeping money? You don't ask me? Don't you in this matter by the merchants to the extent of ask me? You do ; you know you do: for if I 75,0001, were enormously exaggerated, and the only want a shilling extra, the house is in a blaze. result has fully justified that suspicion, for, acAnd yet a whole loaf of sugar can you throw away cording to the award of the king of Prussia, the upon —No, I won't be still; and I won't let you entire indemnity allotted to the claimants has been go to sleep. If you'd got to bed at a proper hour fixed at about 1,7001. last night, you would n't have been so sleepy now. We take for granted, that when the British


government submitted this matter to the arbitra- | were bona fide at war, and found it necessary to tion of the King of Prussia, the whole of the establish a blockade for belligerent purposes. claims were fairly laid before his majesty, and that We rather think, then, that the king of Prusno material feature in the case was withheld from sia's award in this dispute will teach our governhis notice. This being so, the award appears to ment some useful lessons, and among them that of us a cutting reflection upon the absurd pretensions using more caution and circumspection before esof these merchants, which have been so largely pousing these alleged mercantile grievances, and curtailed by the Prussian award. It is, however, attempting to force them for compensation upon a gratifying circumstance, that the case has been foreign powers. So far from our having sustained so disposed of as to prevent the rupture (at one any considerable injury from the French, the truth time seriously threatened) of our pacific relations is that France has no small reason to complain of with France, and also to preclude the possibility us, for having presented her with a demand to the of any just demand being made upon parliament amount of 75,0001., when, in fairness, we were by parties whose claims have already been only entitled to 1,7001. Our executive, of course, thoroughly sifted and adjusted at Berlin.

owes deference to the opinion of parliament; but There has, however been a dispute between the we trust parliament will never be deficient in the Times and Chronicle upon the question whether respect due to the rules of international law, nor the agreement between England and France, re- will ever be so far misled by the clamor of interferring the matter to Prussia, was defective by ested parties as to sacrifice to it one jot of strict excluding from the consideration of the arbitrator justice, or one opportunity for the conservation of the question of the legality of the blockade. The peace. Chronicle maintains that the claims were referred to Prussia with the reservation that those claims,

ARBITERS IN DISPUTES BETWEEN NATIONS. which turned upon the legality of the blockade, being the greater part of the whole, should not be PROJECTS for the establishment of a great Euroadjudicated upon; -ergo, they have not been de- pean Council to exercise jurisdiction in national termined-M. Guizot has juggled Lord Aberdeen controversies, and thus prevent wars, are as old -the victims must be indemnified by the nation as the age of Henri Quatre. The increased freand John Bull must pay the piper. We agree quency in modern times of the practice of referwith the Times in pronouncing the existence of ring disputes between two governments to the desuch a juggle to be wholly incredible. The fact cision of a third independent government has been appears to have been simply this—all the claims, hailed by philanthropists as preparing the minds and all circumstances and questions connected of men for the establishment of such a council. therewith, were referred to the royal arbitrator, When arbitration, it has been said, becomes the and among those circumstances the validity of the rule and war the exception-when a number of blockade was one which was forced upon him to arbitral decisions sufficiently large to form a body consider and determine. But the agreement of of precedents has accumulated—a fixed code of reference contained a clause stipulating that the international law may be said to have been formed, general belligerent right to blockade the Bay of and governments will hesitate less to recognize a Portendick in time of war-claimed by France and court authorized to apply its rules to special cases disputed by England should not be affected by the than they do at present when all is vague and unaward ;-that is, that the award should not be a settled. precedent, whichever way it might decide. Noth- The experience of England, however, has not ing, then, can be clearer than that the Prussian hitherto been of a kind to inspire us with confiaward has disposed of the question of the blockade, dence in the judgments of arbiters. Take for in so far as it affected the claims of these mer- example the recent decision of the King of Pruschants, but that the general international question sia in the Portendick_controversy between this between England and France, of the right of the country and France. The only question between latter to blockade Portendick in time of war, re- the two countries was, whether in inflicting injury mains exactly where it did before the arbitration. upon British traders France was acting on its

So far as we can make out the merits of this right. Respecting the amount of injury received latter question, (which has been fully stated by there has been ultimately no dispute. France the Times' correspondent Mercator,) we are clearly maintained that the injury complained of was unof opinion that France possesses, and always did avoidably inflicted in the process of enforcing a possess, the right to blockade any part of the legal blockade. The French minister admits that coast of Africa in the occupation, either permanent the intended blockade was never intimated to the or temporary, of her enemies with whom she is at British government. There was no legal block

The King of the French was at war with ade. Yet the King of Prussia, for what reason is the king of the Trarzas (for the Trarzas are a not stated, pares down the restitution to be made nation having a monarchical government,) and into a miserable fraction of the property actually aborder to cut off the supplies of the Trarzas through stracted or destroyed. Portendick, the French blockaded the coast with- Again : when the controversy between Great in certain limits. Upon what grounds a British Britain and the United States respecting the southminister disputed so legitimate a proceeding we eastern boundary of Canada was referred to the are at a loss to discover. Certainly there are arbitration of the King of Holland, an award was many cases in which a British squadron has estab- made, which, though it did not give us all we lished and maintained blockades, both in Africa claimed, could not exactly be called an adverse and other parts of the world, under circumstances decision. But from this award we derived no not more justifiable. There was, indeed, a clause benefit. A pettifogging technical plea, as to the in an old treaty, which concedes to the English competency to pronounce such a judgment under the right of carrying on the gum trade between the terms of the reference, was raised by the Portendick and the River St. John, but that right United States government, and negotiations began became, of course, suspended when the French anew.



This country, at least, seems to have no chance One visage claimed her memory; of justice under the arbitration system. Either it In spite of time and change, is denied us by the arbiters themselves in conse- And all that fortune's hand had done, quence of some inexplicable refinement of reason- The mother knew her first-born son. ing, or it is evaded by our co-referees on some Sternly he sat in judgment there; technical quibble. A nation ought to sacrifice But who were they that stood much to avoid war, but there are limits to the ap- Before him at that fatal bar? plication of this principle. A nation is not bound Was he—the unsubdued is not entitled-to submit to a series of unjust In heart and eye, though more than age decisions or evasions. Acquiescence may invite Had written on his brow's broad page arbiters to decide against the party which has The fiery thoughts of restless years, always shown itself most yielding; and many Whose griefs had never fallen in tears; small robberies may make up a large sum, besides Unblanched by guilt, untouched by scorn, encouraging to more wholesale plunder. England Her beautiful, her youngest born, has sacrificed enough already to give the arbitra- And he upon whose hair and heart tion experiment a fair trial. It is proposed that

Alike had fallen the snows the Oregon controversy should also be referred to Of winters that no more depart; arbiters: with the recent experience of the Cana- The worn of many woes dian boundary and Portendick controversies, Eng- And hopeless years—was he in truth land had better keep the maintenance of her rights The loved, the chosen of her youth? in Oregon in her own hands for the pres

She knew not what of woe and crime ent.--Spectator.

Had seared each form and soul,
Nor how the tides of fate and time

Had borne them to that goal;

So much unlike that peaceful scene

Of stream, and corn, and sunset sheen:
And they, oh how unlike to those

Whose fearless joy around her rose !
On forests bright with fading leaves,

And yet through sorrow, guilt, and shame, On hills of misty blue,

She knew they were the very same. And on the gathered gold of sheaves

Their judge, perchance, he knew them not; That by the Danube grew,

For o'er his brow there passed The setting sun of autumn shed

No troubled shade of haunting thought A mellow radiance rich and red,

From childhood's roof-tree cast; As ever dyed the storied flood,

Save that his glance, so coldly bright, Since Roman blent with Dacian blood.

Fell with a strange unquiet light But Rome and Dacia both were gone,

Upon a face that still was fair, Yet the old river still rolled on;

Though early worn and wan. And now upon its sands, apart,

Yet lines of loftier thought were there; A peasant mother stood,

The spirit's wealth, that ran
With beaming eye and bounding heart,

To waste, for sin bore darkly down
Marking the fearless mood

What might have worn an angel's crown. Of her young children's mirth that rang

And o'er that mother's eye, which yet Where late the joyous reaper sang.

Beheld, and wept not till it met
She blessed each yet unsaddened voice,

The gaze of her lost girl, there came
Each head of golden hair,

A sudden gush of sorrow's stream,
Her rosy girl, her blooming boys,

As though the drop that overflowed
And their young sire : for there

Its urn had fallen there.
Was gathered all that meek heart's store : But when it passed that darkening cloud,
The earth for her contained no more.

And she looked forth again Yet with the love of that long gaze,

On the old river, vanished all Were blent far dreams of future days ;

Were city, crowd, and judgment-hall. And oh to learn what time's swift wing

The autumn night, with sudden gloom, To her life's blossoms yet might bring.

Came down on sea and shore,
Then came a sound like passing wind

And silently her cottage home
O’er the old river's breast,

She sought; but never more
And that young mother turned to find,

Gazed on the Danube's slumbering wave, Upon the wave impressed,

Nor wept above an early grave; The mirrored semblance of a scene

Or cast one look of pride and joy That never on its banks had been.

On rosy girl or blooming boy;
It seemed a pillared fane that rose

And even from their haunts of play
For justice far away,

Her glance was sadly turned away;
In some old city at the close

But deep in dreamless slumber sealed Of a long trial day;

Her eyes from all the tears When hope and doubt alike were past,

Whose coming that bright eve revealed. And bright the midnight torches cast

And all the after years Their splendor on a breathless crowd,

Kept the dark promise of that hour. Dense as the summer's thunder cloud ;

And had the earth's old rivers power Ere the first lightning breaks its gloom,

To mirror the far clouds that lie Waiting the words of death and doom.

So darkly in life's distant sky, But far amid that living sea

How many a loving heart would turn, Of faces dark and strange,

Like hers, for comfort to the urn.

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