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A suggestion of another kind has been advanced slowly regained health and strength, while her --that probably the protection of the vaccine mat- fictitious obsequies were magnificently performed ter is only of a temporary nature, and that it be- and honored throughout Muscovy, and nearly all comes exhausted in the course of time, and thus the European courts assumed mourning for the leaves the constitution open to an attack of small- departed princess. This wise and noble Countess pox. If this had been the case, then in the course of Konigsmark, renowned as the mother of the of the last forty-five years all those persons vacci- brave marshal of Saxony, perceived that, by not nated should have by this time successively had seconding the fortunate deceit of the Prince attacks of small-pox when exposed to infection. Alexis, and the nation in general, and by proThis, however, has by no means happened ; so claiming her recovery, the unhappy Princess that the fact cannot be true as a general rule, Carolina, already the sport of such cruel fate, though, as we shall afterwards state, it may hold would expose herself to perish sooner or later by in some respects as regards individuals at differ- a more certain blow. She therefore persuaded ent periods of life; and thus the propriety of a her wretched mistress, who had scarcely strength second vaccination about the age when the indi- to undertake the journey, to seek refuge in Paris, vidual is entering on the period of manhood has under the escort of an old man, a German domesbeen frequently suggested.
tic. Having collected as much money and jewelTaking all these exceptions into account, there ry as she was able, the princess set out, with can be no doubt but that the practice of vaccina- her faithful servant, who remained with her in tion, with its partial drawbacks, has been an ines- the character of father, which he sustained during timable boon to mankind. It has been ascer- his life; and truly he possessed the feelings and tained that every fourteenth child born was cut off tenderness, as well as the semblance, of a parent. by small-pox; and that in most cases where adults The tumult and noise of Paris, however, renwere infected, a death occurred out of every seven. dered it a place of sojourn ill adapted to the mind If to this we add the other fatal diseases called of Carolina, and to her desire of concealment. into action by this malady, the influence on the in- Her small establishment having been increased by crease of population by ihe check it has received a single maid-servant, she accordingly embarked from vaccination must be held to be very consider- for Louisiana, where the French, who were then able. We accordingly find that, previous to 1780, in possession of this lovely portion of South the annual mortality in England and Wales was America, had formed extensive colonies. Scarcerated at one in forty ; whereas at the present timely was the young and beautiful stranger arrived it is one in forty-six. No doubt other causes have at New Orleans, than she attracted the attention combined to improve the general health, but that of every one. There was in that place a young the preventive power of vaccination has been man, named Moldask, who held an office in the mainly instrumental, appears, even from the di- colony; he had travelled much in Russia, and minished deaths from small-pox, sufficiently evi- believed that he recognized the fair stranger ; but dent. Indeed, we have only to call to mind the he knew not how to persuade himself that the scarred and pitted faces, marred features, and daughter-in-law of the Czar Peter could in reality opaque and sightless eyeballs of former days, to be be reduced to so lowly a condition, and he dared convinced of the essential service which has been not betray to any one his suspicions of her identity. rendered to the community.
He offered his friendship and assistance to her
supposed father; and soon his attentive and pleasFrom Chambers' Journal.
ing manners rendered him so acceptable to both,
that a mutual intimacy induced them to join their SOPHIA OF WOLFENBUTTEL.*
fortunes, and establish themselves in the same CAROLINA CHRISTINA Sophia of Wolfenbuttel,
habitation. sister of the wife of the emperor Charles VI., was
It was not long before the news of the death of united in marriage to the Prince Alexis, son and Alexis reached them through the public journals. presumptive heir of Peter the Great, czar of Mus- Then Moldask could no longer conceal his doubts covy. In her were mingled the fairest gifts of of the true condition of Carolina, and finding that nature and education : lovely, graceful, with a he was not deceived, he offered with respectful penetrating and cultivated mind, and a soul tem- generosity to abandon his pursuits, and to sacripered and governed by virtue ; yet with all these fice his private fortune, that he might reconduct rare gifts, which sofiened and won every other her to Moscow. But the princess, whose bitterheart, she was nevertheless an object of aversion est moments had been there passed, preferred, to Alexis, the most brutal of mankind. More after her adventurous flight, to live far from the than once the unfortunate wife was indebted for dazzling splendor of the court, in tranquillity and her life to the use of antidotes to counteract the honorable obscurity. She thanked the nobleinsidious poisons administered to her by her hus-hearted Moldask ; but implored him, instead of band. Ai length the barbarity of the prince such splendid offers, to preserve her secret invioarrived at its climax : by an inhuman blow, he lable, so that nothing might trouble her present reduced her to so wretched a state, that she was felicity. He promised, and he kept his promise : left for dead. He himself fully believed that his heart ardently desired her happiness, in which which he so ardently desired, and tranquilly de- his own felicity was involved. Living under the parted for one of his villas, calmly ordering the same roof, in daily communion, their equal age funeral rites to be duly celebrated.
and ardent feelings kindled in the young man's But the days of the unfortunate princess were soul a livelier fame than mere friendship; but not yet terminated. Under the devoted care of respect controlled it, and he concealed his love in the Countess of Konigsmark, her lady of honor, his own bosom. who had been present at the horrible event, she
At length the old domestic, who, in the charac
ter of father, had shielded the princess, died, and * This extraordinary, but, we believe, true story, is was followed to the tomb by the sincere grief of translated from the Novelle Morali of Francesco Soave. This grateful mistress—a just recompense for such
fidelity. Propriety forbade that Moldask and Car- | Bourbon. He quickly informed the king of all, olina should inhabit together the same dwelling who gave orders, through the governor of the after this event. He loved her truly, but loved island, that Moldask and his wife should be treated her good fame more, and explained to her, not with the g eatest consideration. Afterward he without grief, that it was necessary he should treated with the Empress Maria Theresa in what seek another abode, unless she, who had already way her august aunt should be restored to the renounced all thought of pride and rank, were splendor due to her rank. The haughty wife, and content to assume a name dearer and more sacred mother of the czar, knew how to please the most still than that of friend. He gave her no reason Christian king, and not less generously sent letters to doubt that vanity, instead of love, was the to Carolina, in which she invited her to Vienna, origin of this proposal, since the princess herself promising to overwhelm her with distinctions. was firm in her desire to remain happy in private But Carolina, foreseeing that a return to her prislife. With all delicacy he sought to assure her tine rank at this regal court would debar her from that he could not but remember, in case of a refu- fulfilling the sweet duties of wife and mother, in sal, that it was scarcely undeserved. Nor could which all her felicity consisted, refused this offer he ever forget how much was exacted from him, courageously, but without haughtiness. “I am by the almost regal birth of her to whose hand he so used,” she said to the officer who proposed to thus dared aspire.
reconduct her to the court-" I am so used to this Love, and her desolate and defenceless con- domestic and private life, that I will never change dition, induced the princess willingly to consent; it. Neither to be near a throne, nor to receive the and, in constituting his felicity, she increased her greatest homage, nor to enjoy riches, nor even to
Heaven blessed so happy a union; and in possess the universe, would give me the shadow due time an infant bound still closer the marriage of the pleasure and delight I feel at this moment." tie. Thus the Princess Carolina, born of noble So saying, she tenderly embraced the one and the blood, destined to enjoy grandeur, homage, even a other of her dear family. throne, having abandoned the magnificence of her She lived long with her husband and daughter, former state, in private life fulfilled all the duties serene and contented, dividing her cares and occuof nature and of society.
pations between assisting and amusing the one, Years passed happily on, until Moldask was and educating the mind and heart of the other. attacked with disease, which required the aid of a Death snatched from her, within a short interval, skilful surgeon. Carolina was unwilling to con- these two beloved ones, who had filled her heart fide a life so precious and beloved to the care of with such sweet emotions; and for a long time surgeons of doubtful skill, and therefore resolved that heart was a prey to one only sentiment of the to visit Paris. She persuaded her husband to deepest grief. Yet not even this sorrow affected sell all their possessions, and to embark. The her so much, but that she believed the unhappiness winds were propitious to this pilgrimage; and the of grandeur to be still greater. She constantly medical skill of Paris restored Moldask to health. refused the repeated invitations to Vienna ; and acBeing now perfectly cured, the husband sought cepting only a small pension from the liberality of to obtain employment on the island of Bourbon ; the empress, she retired to Vitry, near Paris, where and was successful.
she wished still to pass under the name of Madame Meanwhile, the wife was one day walking with Moldask ; but it was impossible longer to conceal her graceful little girl in a public garden, as was her high birth and illustrious ancestry. Notwithher wont. She sat down on a green bank, and standing this, she never abandoned her accustomed conversed with her child in German, when the simplicity and retirement of life, in which alone Marshal of Saxony passing by, was struck with she had begun to find, and found to the last, true the German accent, and stayed to observe them. felicity. She recognized him immediately, and, fearing the same from him, bent her eyes to the ground. PEEL'S PATHETIC APPEAL TO DANIEL O'conHer blushes and confusion convinced the marshal
NELL. that he was not mistaken ; and he cried out,
I give thee, Daniel, all I can, “How, madame? What do I see? Is it possible ?"
Though poor the offering be, Carolina suffered him not to proceed, but drawing The Maynooth Grant is all, my Dan, him aside, she declared herself, praying him to That I can yield to thee : keep sacred the needful secret, and to return with
I might give up the Irish Church, her to her dwelling, where she might with greater
But if I did, what then? care and security ain her situation. The mar- My friends would leave me in the lurch, shal was faithful to his promise ; visited the prin
mean, my party men. cess many times, though with all due precaution, and heard and admired her history. He wished
Perhaps 't is just, perhaps 't is fit to inform the king of France, that this august lady
That I should more concede; might be restored to her rightful honors and rank,
But then the House won't suffer it and that he himself might thus complete the good
They won't, they won't indeed.
Believe 'work begun by his mother the Countess of Konigs
I my conscience pinch mark. But Carolina wished neither to consent, nor
Much more than words can tell, openly to oppose his generous design. She asked
To grant thee thus a single inch;
And thou wouldst take an ell! him to defer this project, until certain plans now 'pending were accomplished, the termination of Oh! do be quiet, Daniel, pray, -which could not be long delayed. Thus she, too
Be moderate, I implore; happy in being united to a wise and virtuous con- Take what I cede; another day sort, and contented to live in happy obscurity, kept
I may allow thee more : the marquis at bay.
Keep Ireland out of water hot, Near the end of the specified time he again vis
I beg thee, on my knees, ited her, and learned that, two days previous, she And I won't say that she shall not had departed with her husband for the isle of
Have justice-by degrees. Punch.
From Chambers' Journal. thus the discovery of fire gave rise to the first
social meeting of mankind, to the formation of HISTORY OF THE FIREPLACE.
language, to their ultimate union, and to all the During the last few years, public attention has wonders of subsequent civilization."* The Chibeen laudably directed to the defective means nese historians attribute the earliest power of prowhich still exist for warming and ventilating ducing fire at will, by the friction of two pieces of houses. Although we have arrived at a high state dried wood, to Souigine, one of their first kings. of civilization in some respects, yet the method This power once known, the nomadic races in all still in use for producing an artificial climate in countries ever availed themselves of it ; though a modern habitations, is perhaps more primitive and fire made of dried wood or grass in the open air, defective than any of our domestic contrivances. or in a rude tent, was their sole provision against We burn coal in a vessel or stove which is no whit cold for many ages. better in principle than the ancient fire-basket. Increased intelligence induced mankind to seek Whilst the chimney-wall in each room is often for greater warmth under substantial cover, and heated like an oven, those opposite and at the the first houses they took to were ready built, sides are but a few degrees above the temperature being chiefly caves. In the middle of these they of the atmosphere. In this respect the ancients made fires, in spite of the smoke, for which there evinced much greater ingenuity than we do; and was no other outlet than the hole by which the many of the so-called inventions of modern date inhabitants came in and out. The same rude were, it app rs, in general use hundreds and method was continued even when men learnt to thousands of years ago. By the research of a build houses, and to congregate in cities ; only recent author, many curious and interesting facts they made a hole in the roof to let the smoke out, concerning warming and ventilation have been exactly like the Laplanders and some of the Irish brought to light ;* and as in this country all ideas at the present day. of comfort and sociality are centred around the The parents of western civilization, the Egyphearth, we doubt not that a historical sketch of the tians, although they built themselves excellent “ fireplace," chiefly drawn from the above source, houses, and were scrupulously nice in their dowill prove interesting.
mestic arrangements, either made their fires (for The history of the fireside may be said to com- it is cold enough even in that warm climate to mence in the dark ages ; for it reaches back to a need them occasionally), on a central hearth, or time when man was unacquainted with the ex- used pans of live charcoal to carry about from one istence of fire. The early records of nearly all room to another. To them is ascribed the invennations refer to a time when that element was un- tion of bellows to concentrate the energy of fire. known. Indeed, instances of such ignorance have The reader will see in the second volume of Wilbeen met with in comparatively modern times. kinson's Manners and Customs of the Ancient When Magellan visited the Marian Islands in Egyptians, copies of that instrument taken from 1521, the natives believed themselves to be the paintings on tombs, at least three thousand years only people in the world. They were without old. During the exode and wanderings of the everything which we regard as necessaries, and in Jews, their fireplaces were precisely like those total ignorance of fire. Several of their huts being both of the primitive races and of the modern consumed, they at first considered the flame to be Arabs—small bonfires in conical tents, with a hole a kind of animal that attached itself to the wood, in the apex of the cone to let out the smoke ; but and fed upon it. Some who approached too near, after their establishment in Canaan, their houses, being scorched, communicated their terror to the it has been inferred, resembled those of the Egyprest, who durst only look upon it at a distance. tians, “wide, thorough aired with windows, and They were afraid, they said, that the terrible ani- large chambers ceiled with cedar, and painted with mal would bite them, or wound them with its vio- vermilion ;''f and, judging from the terms they lent breathing. They speedily learned to use fire had to mark the position, size, and manner of with as much address as Europeans. Few his- closing the apertures, they must have paid great torical facts, therefore, are less doubtful than that attention to domestic accominodation. The winter man was once without means of artificial heat. A in Palestine being cold and long, and wood abunPhænician tradition attributed its discovery to a dant, particular apartments were appropriated to hunter observing a conflagration that had been ex- the season when fires were wanted, to avoid the cited in a forest by the attrition of some trees nuisance of smoke pervading the house, and soilduring a storm. Another tradition varies the ing its furniture and ornaments. About the latter account; in the winter season, Vulcan the king, end of November, King Jehoiakim was sitting in coming to a tree on the mountains that had been his “ winter house,” when he threw the roll of fired by a thunderbolt, was cheered by its heat ; Baruch “ into the fire that was burning on the and adding more wood to preserve it, he invited hearth before him.” The prophet Amos alluded his companions to share in his pleasure, and there-to the same custom, when he declared that the upon claimed to be the inventor of flame. Fire “ winter house, with the summer house,” would once discovered, the primeval savages, though at be destroyed. From the hearths and braziers in first alarmed, gradually felt its blessed influence; these brumal apartments, the smoke was emitted and it is thus that tradition gives us an account of at a hole in the roof, or by the arubbah ; for, notthe earliest fireside ; for around the embers of the withstanding what some rabbis have written about burning trees men first learned to herd; “ and as the Jews being so scrupulous to preserve the the intercourse continued under the bond of the purity of the Holy City, that they would not percommon enjoyment, the incoherent sounds by mit the erection of a chimney in Jerusalem, they which they expressed their emotions were by were, perhaps, as ignorant as the Egyptians of degrees roughly cast into the elements of speech; that contrivance. The great improvement that
* On the History and Art of Warming and Ventilating Rooms and Buildings, &c. By Walter Bernan, Civil
* Vitruvius, b. ii., c. 1. Engineer. 2 vols. Bell: London.
t Jerem. xxii. 14.
chimneys would have made on Mount Sion itself, the smoke of the house, but also by that from the is graphically described by Baruch, when he neighboring buildings.”! The principal fireplace notices“ the faces that were blacked by the smoke in a Roman house of the best kind was built in that cometh out of the temple.”
the bath, chiefly to heat the caldarium or sweating. The method of using fuel among the Greeks room of a bath. It was a sort of furnace, and was the same as among the Hebrews, but perhaps called a hypocaust, and served also to heat the without their care for ventilation. Homer de- walls of the whole habitation; quite upon the scribes his princes undressing themselves in the principle of the hot-air system which has recently palace, to kill with their own hands the sheep, been introduced as a modern invention. “The oxen, and swine they were to eat at dinner ; roast- hypocaust being constructed in the under story of ing the entrails, and during the entertainment a building in the manner described by Vitruvius, handing them to each other as delicacies. The several pipes of baked clay were then built into repast being finished, he shows them sitting for the walls, having their lower ends left open to the their pleasure on the piled skins of the animals hypocaust. These pipes were carried to the they had slain and devoured, and playing at games height of the first or second story, and had their of chance, and one of them taking a pastern bone upper orifices made to open into the chamber that out of a basket in which it was lying, and throw- was to be heated. They were closed by movable ing it at the head of a beggar, but on missing its covers. While green wood was burning in the aim, making a grease spot where it fell on the furnace, and the hypocaust filled with its acrid opposite wall. From this picture of the grossness smoke, the covers were not removed from the of ancient manners, it may be concluded that caliducts; but as soon as the wood was charred, when the poet says, Penelope's maids threw the the upper orifices of the pipes were opened, and glowing embers out of the braziers upon the floor, the hot vapor from the hypocaust then flowed into and heaped fresh wood upon them, he did not the chamber.” It is singular, that although these mean to depict his immortal barbarians burning hot-air ducts would have answered to carry off odoriferous fuel on purpose to sweeten what must smoke, the Romans never hit upon the expedient have been a vitiated almosphere. The fire that of applying them to that purpose. was quickly to blaze on the hearth, had to diffuse The excavations of Pompeii have revealed to the comforts of light as well as warmth; and the us the family hearths of the Romans, such as fragrant logs were known to abound with the were used in rooms not sufficiently heated by the resinous material of illumination. In the heroic hypocaust. The general method of procuring a age, they had oil and tallow in abundance, but warm in-door climate, was by burning charcoal in were ignorant of the method of burning them in a brazier on the pavement in the middle of the lamps; and the only use they appear to have room, and allowing the vapor to exude at the door made of wax, was to put it in the ear to shut out and window. These braziers and tripods, formed sound. Burning fuel was carried into the apart- of all sizes, in iron and bronze, occasionally disment where light was required, and sometimes played great elegance of design and neatness of placed on altars for the same purpose ; and long workmanship, and sometimes were contrived to ihin pieces of lighted wood were carried in the heat water. One of this description, in the muhand when they moved from one place to another seum at Naples, is twenty-eight inches square, in the night.
and has four towers, one at each angle, fitted with Coal, it has been thought, was known to the a lid that can be raised by a ring. The fireGreek naturalists. Theophrastus speaks of fossil hearth is placed in the square part in the middle, substances found in Liguria, and in Elis, in the which is lined with iron, as in the common braway to Olympia, and used by smiths, that when ziers. The fluid to be heated was contained in broken for use are earthy, and that kindled and the towers. Another use of these cup-like towers burned like wood-coal. The general fuel was reminds us once more that there is nothing new green wood; and where that was unattainable, under the sun. When Dr. Arnott's stove was other vegetable and even excrementitious sub- introduced, it was found to have an injuriously stances were used on the hearth for combustibles. drying effect upon the air, consequently a vase of On days of ceremony, it was also customary to water was added, to supply the necessary huburn fragrant substances. When Alexander the midity by evaporation. Now, what says Mr. Great was at an entertainment, given in the winter Bernan on the use of these foculari? “The cold by one of his friends, “a brazier was brought into dry air of an Italian winter and spring was desicthe apartment to warm it. The day being cold, cated to a high degree after being expanded by and the king observing the small quantity of fuel the heat of a hypocaust, or a fire of charcoal ; that had been provided, jeeringly desired his host,
," and these braziers appear a very elegant method says Plutarch, "to bring more wood or incense. ” of diffusing that quantity of moisture in the air of The supply of the precious firing appeared to the an apartment that was necessary to make it agreeking too scanty for producing the required warmth ; able and salubrious. Perhaps the evaporation was and if it arose from his bost being niggardly of partially regulated by shutting or opening the lids the costly fuel, he hinted that some even of the of the water vessels.” common sort would be acceptable.
When the Romans landed in Britain, they found The Romans made vast strides of improvement our savage forefathers living either in detached in fireplaces, although they were quite unable to wigwams of wicker-work, in huts of loose stones. rid themselves of the smoke nuisance. Vitruvius, without chimney or window, or in excavated caves, in his work on architecture, directs that the walls like the Germans, surrounded by their winter proof rooms “in which fires or many lights are visions, and stifled with smoke. The following burned, should be finished above the podium with fireside picture is drawn from the Welsh historian polished panels of a black color, having red or yel- Gyraldus :—"Families inhabit a large hut or low margins round them; and he advises that house, which, having a fire in the midst, serves to delicate ornaments should not be introduced into warm them by day and to sleep round by night; the cornices, because they are spoiled, not only by and he describes the bands of young men who fol.
lowed no profession but arms, visiting families to Cottages had neither louver nor loupe, and their whom they were always welcome, and passing inmates lay round the fire. Longlande describes the day with the most animated cheerfulness. At one of a vagrant group :length, sunk into repose ou a thin covering of dried reeds, spread round the great fire placed in
“Suten at even by the hote coles,
Unlouk his legges abrod other lygge at hus ese, the middle, they lay down promiscuously, covered only by a coarse-made cloth called brychan, and
Rest hym and roste hym and his ryg turn, kept one another warm by lying close together ;
Drynke drue and deepe, and draw hym than to
bedde." and when one side lost its genial heat, they turned about, and gave the chilly side to the fire. The In lodging-houses, the same packing system was great men endeavored to improve on this custom followed, and when a person had a bed to himself, during the day. A Welsh prince had an officer it was a mark of distinction, and recorded accordin his court called a foot-bearer, whose duty it ingly. In the magnificent strongholds, built near was, at meal-times, when his master was seated the time of the conquest, a central hearth is selat table, to sit with his back to the fire, and keep dom found. Having several stories in height, and the princely feet warm and comfortable by cher their roofs being used as a terrace for defence, an ishing them in his bosom.” In the later feudal exit in the common form for the smoke, even from times, the spacious lofty hall, left open to the the uppermost chambers, would have been impraeroof, had its windows placed high from the floor, ticable. A huge recess, therefore, was built at and filled with oiled linen or louver boards, or oc- one side of the hall, and on its hearth fuel was casionally with painted glass. The floor of stone burnt, the smoke finding egress by a contrivance or earth had a part at one end raised a little above which may be regarded as a chimney in its infancy. the general level, and laid with planks. On this Over the hearth was a sort of huge funnel, or hole platform or dais stood a massive table, and ponder- in the wall, which sloped up through its thickous benches or forms, and a high-backed seat for ness, till it reached daylight in the outer side of the master under a canopy. On the hearth, in the the wall. middle of the hall, were placed the andirons for Wood, turf, and furze were almost the only supporting the ends of the brands, that were ar- fuel. The first legal mention of coal was made in ranged by means of a heavy two-pronged fork, 1239, when Henry III. granted a charter to the the type and predecessor of the modern poker. inhabitants of Newcastle to dig for it; but so great On the roof over the hearth was a turret or louver, was the prejudice against it, from an erroneous filled with boards arranged so as to exclude rain notion that it was injurious to the health, that it and wind, and permit the escape of smoke ; and was not in general use till the seventeenth century. this was sometimes an object of considerable Meanwhile, the funnel-like smoke-duct of the architectural beauty in the external aspect of the feudal castle became gradually improved into a building. In this gaunt and aguish apartment, chimney. Leland says in his Itinerary, speaking heated by a single fire, the company were in of Bolton Castle, “One thynge I muche notyd in a position not much different from what they the hawle of Bolton, how chimeneys were conwould be in the open air : not a particle of heated veyed by tunnells made on the syds of the walls air could add to their comfort, for as fast as pro- beiwyxi the lights in the hawle, and by this duced, it escaped through the louver : light was means, and by no covers, is the smoke of the the only solace the greater number could derive harthe in the hawle wonder strangely conveyed." from the blazing fuel ; and the few who were in a Chimneys were afterwards generally adopted. situation to feel the radiant heat, were incom- To old buildings they were added, whilst new moded by the current of cold air sweeping like a ones were never constructed without what a hurricane along the floor towards the fire. From wordy author calls “the elegant and commodious the height of the louver, and low temperature of tube now known by the name of a chimney." the smoke, few of the buoyant flakes of charcoal By its help the fireside was greatly improved. found their way into the atmosphere; and the The following description applies to the firesides larger the bonfire the thicker was the layer of soot of the end of Henry VIII.'s reign, by which time deposited on each individual. Boisterous weather chimneys or flues had become universal :-" The also brought its annoyance. Had the fire been windows had curtains, and were glazed in the made in an open field, they might have moved to manner described by Erasmus; but in inferior the windward of the smoke, but in the hall, where dwellings, such as those of copyholders and the could they flee to from its miseries? The country like, the light-holes were filled with linen, or with houses of inferior landholders and farmers were a shutter. The hearth-recess was generally wide, generally one story high. If they were built with high, and deep, and had a large flue. The two stories, the roof was so deep as to reach to hearth, usually raised a few inches above the the ceiling of the lower room. The hall and floor, had sometimes a halpas or dais made before kitchen forming one apartment, and roughly plas- it, as in the king's and queen's chambers in the tered, was open to the timbers of the roof, and Tower. Before the hearth-recess, or on the halsometimes had a louver, and a window that could pas, when there was one, a piece of green cloth be closed with a shutter:
or tapestry was spread, as a substitute for the “ Barre we the gates,
rushes that covered the lower part of the floor. Cheke we and cheyne we and eche chinc stoppe, On this were placed a very high-backed chair or That no light leopen yn at lover ne at loupe."*
* Though many authors antecedent to Leland use the When these houses had a room to sleep in, old term "chimney, yet they mean by that word simply and young reposed in the same apartment, and fireplace," or "hearth-recess ;" and the verbal equivalent
to the word in the Reformer's Testament is “ furnace." several in one bed; servants made their beds on Leland himself, in using the word, almost defines it by the floor in the kitchen.
saying, " that the chimneys were conveyed by tunnells ;)
or, in other words, the fireplace was continued by a tun* Ritson. Metrical Romances.
nel to the top of the building.