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was not there, and never yet has been, so com-formed. In his dress he was peculiarly neat, and plete and universal as to banish entirely the lurk- everything about him showed the man intent and ing malady of small-pox from our shores.

serious, and well prepared to meet the duties of Considering, however, what devotion Jenner his calling. When I first saw him, it was on had bestowed on the subject, both theoretically Frampton Green. I was somewhat his junior in and practically; considering the generous and years, and had heard so much of Jenner of Berkedisinterested manner in which, the moment that ley, that I had no small curiosity to see him. He he became acquainted with its perfect efficacy, he was dressed in a blue coat and yellow buttons, hastened to lay his discovery before the world, his buckskins, well polished jockey boots, with handclaim to a national compensation and reward could some silver spurs, and he carried a smart whip no longer be denied. In 1802 a committee of par- with a silver handle. His hair, after the fashion liament was appointed to investigate his discovery, of the times, was done up in a club, and he wore and decide on a remuneration. Of the many a broad-brimmed hat. We were introduced on claimants on national bounty, few ever came for- that occasion, and I was delighted and astonished. ward with better pretensions than Jenner. Yet I was prepared to find an accomplished man, and much caution was employed; and, in the first all the country spoke of him as a skilful surgeon instance, a grant of only £10,000 was voted, and a great naturalist ; but I did not expect to subject to the delays and deductions of fees find him so much at home in other matters. I, with which such grants are too often encum- who had been spending my time in cultivating my bered. This, as Jenner and his friends affi ed, judgment by abstract study, and smit from my was barely equal to the expenses he incurred, childhood with the love of song, had sought my considering his multifarious correspondence, as amusement in the rosy fields of imagination, was well as his relinquishment of private practice, not less surprised than gratified to find that the and the actual toil of responding to the que- ancient affinity between Apollo and Æsculapius rists from every region of the globe. Yet it is was so well maintained in his person.” At a later not to be wondered at if parliament had a wary period, his biographer, Dr. Barron, then a young suspicion of the reports of cures of any kind; for man, thus gives an account of a first interview who does not hear of wonderful cures accom- with him. “ He was living at Fladong's hotel, plished every day, and well-authenticated also, Oxford street, in the summer of 1808, making and yet experience, or further inquiry, proves arrangements for the national vaccine establishthem all ultimately fallacious; nor could it be for- ment. The greatness of his fame, his exalted gotten that ha

a century had not elapsed since talents, the honors heaped upon him by all the the same parliament voted its thousands for a nos- most distinguished public bodies of the civilized trom which was utterly worthless. Happily for world, while they made me desirous of offering the fame of the legislature, however, and for the my tribute of respect to him, forbade the expectahonor of the country in all future times, in the tion of more than such an acknowledgment as a present instance it judged aright : even its caution youth circumstanced as I was might have exwas commendable: and allowing an interval of pected. I soon, however, perceived that I had to five more years, a further grant of £20,000 re- do with an individual who did not square his mandeemed their sense of the progressive importance ners by the cold formality of the world. He conand continued efficacy of the vaccine discovery. descended as to an equal. The restraint and emIn the mean time, Jenner had taken up his resi- barrassment that might naturally have been felt in dence in London, with a view to the better further the presence of one so eminent, vanished in an inance of the interests of vaccination, and with an stant. The simple dignity of his aspect, the kind idea of establishing himself in practice in the and familiar tone of his language, and the perfect metropolis. But his was not a character fitted for sincerity and good faith manifested in all he said the artificial bustle of the vast city, or the jarring and did, could not fail to win the heart of any one conflicts of professional interests; his mind sick- not insensible to such qualities. He was dressed ened amid the smoke, as one of his own meadow in a blue coat, white waistcoat, and nankeens. cowslips would have done, and he hastened back All the tables in his apartment were covered with to his fields and his pure country air, and never letters and papers on the subject of vaccination. left his beloved village again.

He spoke with great good humor of the conduct But he did not return to apathy or indolence. of the anti-vaccinists, and gave me some pamphlets In London some finessing on the part of his pro- illustrative of the controversy then carrying on. fessional brethren prevented him from acting as The day before I saw him, he had had an interdirector of the national vaccine board, to which he view with the Princess of Wales, and he showed had been in the first instance appointed; but now, me a watch which her royal highness had prein his own words, he retired to be “ director-gen- sented to him on that occasion.” The same friend, eral to the world.” In addition to this, the coun- at a much later period of their acquaintance, again try people from all the districts around flocked to remarks—“Dr. Jenner's personal appearance to him for the benefits of vaccination, and his time a stranger at first sight was not very striking : and skill were ever at the service of the poor. but it was impossible to observe him, even for a He now, too, enjoyed his favorite pursuits of the few moments, without discovering those peculiaristudy of nature, and shared his leisure hours ties which distinguished him from all others. among his fossils, his birds, his flowers, and the The first things ihat a stranger would remark society of his family and his friends. Of every man were the gentleness, the simplicity, the artlesswho has achieved great things, we have a desire ness of his manner. There was a total absence to know something not only of his thoughts and of all ostentation or display, so much so, that in habits, but of his personal appearance. An early the ordinary intercourse of society he appeared as sketch of Jenner is thus given by his friend Gard- a person who had no claims to notice. He was

perfectly unreserved, and free from all guile. He “His height was rather under the middle carried his heart and his mind so openly, so undissize; his person was robust but active, and well) guisedly, that all might read them. His professional avocations, and the nature of his pursuits, died suddenly of apoplexy, in the 74th year of obliged him to conduct bis inquiries in a desultory his age. He lies buried in the chancel of the way. At no period of his life could he give him- church at Berkeley, where a monument has been self up to continued or protracted attention to one erected to his memory by his professional brethobject : there was, nevertheless, a steadiness in ren. working out his researches amid all the breaks and It is now almost half a century since the first interruptions which he met with, that can only introduction of vaccination, and at least forty years belong to minds constituted as his was.”

ner.

since its general adoption—a sufficient time, one With all the simple and genial qualities of an would think, to test its efficacy, and yet there are unsophisticated heart, Jenner had, when the oc- several circuinstances relating to it which have casion required, all the firmness and dignity be- not yet been definitely determined. In the first coming a man conscious of the possession of talent. place, it cannot be denied that on the whole it has On one occasion, in the drawing-room of St. been a successful remedy, and that it has produced James', he chanced to overhear a noble lord men- a remarkable effect on the general population. tion his name, and repeat the idle calumny which Small-pox, if it has not been entirely eradicated, had got abroad, that he himself had not really con- has been disarmed of most of its terrors ; and notfidence in vaccination. He with much prompti- withstanding the cases of failure of protection from tude refuted the charge, and stepping up to the its ravages which occasionally occur, yet the genenoble lord, to whom he was unknown, calmly ral confidence never has been withdrawn from the observed, “I am Dr. Jenner." Any unpleasant practice of vaccination. recollection of this circumstance was most likely, Both before and since the death of Dr. Jenner, on the part of Jenner, soon dissipated ; but not so it became known that cases sometimes occurred with the noble statesman ; his remarks some time where persons who had been vaccinated were afterwards, in his place in parliament, when Jen seized with small-pox. At first, it was supposed ner's claims came to be discussed, showed that that those cases were instances where vaccination he had not forgotten it.

had not taken proper effect, either from an imperWhen the continental sovereigns visited Lon- fect quality of the virus used in vaccination, or don in 1814, Jenner was presented to the Emperor from a peculiar habit of the person vaccinated. Alexander of Russia by, his sister, the grand But it was afterwards ascertained that persons in duchess of Oldenburg. In describing this inter- whom the process had been practised with the view, he says, “I was very graciously received, utmost care, and in whom the disease appeared to and was probably the first man who had ever go throngh its course in the most favorable mandared to contradict the autocrat. He said, ' Dr. ner, were yet not protected from small-pox. It Jenner, your feelings must be delightful. The is true, in all these cases of seizure the affection consciousness of having so much benefitted your was of a much milder kind than even the inocurace must be a never failing source of pleasure, lated small-pox, and in a very small proportion inand I am happy to think that you have received deed did death occur, perhaps not one case in sevthe thanks, the applause, and the gratitude of the eral thousands ; yet there could be no doubt but world.' I replied to his majesty that my feelings that the disease was in reality true small-pox, unwere such as he described, and that I had re- der a mild and modified form. ceived the thanks and the applause, but not the It became evident, then, that there were excepgratitude of the world. His face flushed; he said tions to the universal protection against small-pox, no more ; but my daring seemed to give displeas- and that this disease might occur after vaccination,

In a short time, however, he forgot it, and just as an individual might be seized with a second gave me a trait of character which showed both attack of small-pox. This was a fact known to great goodness of heart and knowledge of human Dr. Jenner even before he gave his discovery to

My inquiries respecting disease of the the world. In his early pursuit of the inquiry he lungs had reached the ears of the grand duchess, was much staggered by it, but further experience the most interesting being that I had ever met with enabled him to perceive that it was only an excepin a station so elevated. She was present, and re- tion to a general rule; and all experience since, quested me to tell to her brother, the emperor, both in public vaccine institutions and in private what I had formerly said to her imperial highness. practice, has only tended to confirm it. In the course of 'my remarks I became embar- Seeing, then, that such exceptions from time to rassed. She observed this, and so did the em- time continued to occur, and as they multiplied in peror : Dr. Jenner,' said she, 'you do not tell number by time and the general diffusion of racmy brother what you have to say so accurately ascination, another question began to be agitated you told me.' I excused myself by saying that whether the vaccine matter, by passing through I was not accustomed to speak in such a presence. innumerable human beings, had not lost its characHis majesty grasped me by the hand, and held on ter and consequent efficacy; and whether it would for some time, not quitting me till my confidence not be necessary again to have recourse to the was restored by this warm-hearted and kind ex-cow ? pression of his consideration."

The most experienced vaccinators seem to give As his life was an active and benevolent, so, on no countenance to this opinion. They affirm ihat the whole, may it be termed a prosperous and a the character of the vaccine vesicle is exactly the comparatively happy one. Latterly, he had do- same, and its development, in all its stages, as mestic afflictions, which to a sensitive heart are regular and complete as it was when first discovthe heaviest of sorrows. He lost his favorite son, ered; and that, when compared with vesicles prohis newly-married daughter, and at last his amia- duced by matter directly from the cow, there is ble wife, whose delicate constitution he had tended no difference; that even in the early stages of the with all the assiduity which deep affection and re-employment of vaccination, failures, as already spect could dictate. He reached a good old age, stated, began to appear; and that these failures with his general health and mental powers unim- are probably not more in proportion now than they paired to the last. On the 26th January, 1823, he were then.

ure.

nature.

A suggestion of another kind has been advanced slowly regained health and strength, while her —that probably the protection of the vaccine mat- fictitious obsequies were magnificently performed ter is only of a temporary nature, and that it be- and honored throughout Muscovy, and nearly all comes exhausted in the course of time, and thus the European courts assumed mourning for the leaves the constitution open to an attack of small- departed princess. This wise and noble Countess pox. If this had been the case, then in the course of Konigsmark, renowned as the mother of the of the last forty-five years all those persons vacci- brave marshal of Saxony, perceived that, by not nated should have by this time successively had seconding the fortunate deceit of the Prince attacks of small-pox when exposed to infection. Alexis, and the nation in general, and by proThis, however, has by no means happened ; so claiming her recovery, the unhappy Princess that the fact cannot be true as a general rule, Carolina, already the sport of such cruel fate, though, as we shall afterwards state, it may hold would expose herself to perish sooner or later by in some respects as regards individuals at differ- a more certain blow. She therefore persuaded ent periods of life; and thus the propriety of a her wretched mistress, who had scarcely strength second vaccination about the age when the indi- to undertake the journey, to seek refuge in Paris, vidual is entering on the period of manhood has under the escort of an old man, a German domesbeen frequently suggested.

tic. Having collected as much money and jewelTaking all these exceptions into account, there ry as she was able, the princess set out, with can be no doubt but that the practice of vaccina- her faithful servant, who remained with her in tion, with its partial drawbacks, has been an ines- the character of father, which he sustained during timable boon to mankind. It has been ascer- his life; and truly he possessed the feelings and tained that every fourteenth child born was cut off tenderness, as well as the semblance, of a parent. by small-pox; and that in most cases where adults The tumult and noise of Paris, however, renwere infected, a death occurred out of every seven. dered it a place of sojourn ill adapted to the mind If to this we add the other fatal diseases called of Carolina, and to her desire of concealment. into action by this malady, the influence on the in- Her small establishment having been increased by crease of population by the check it has received a single maid-servant, she accordingly embarked from vaccination must be held to be very consider for Louisiana, where the French, who were then able. We accordingly find that, previous to 1780, in possession of this lovely portion of South the annual mortality in England and Wales was America, had formed extensive colonies. Scarcerated at one in forty; whereas at the present time ly was the young and beautiful stranger arrived it is one in forty-six. No doubt other causes have at New Orleans, ihan she attracted the attention combined to improve the general health, but that of every one. There was in that place a young the preventive power of vaccination has been man, named Moldask, who held an office in the mainly instrumental, appears, even from the di- colony; he had travelled much in Russia, and minished deaths from small-pox, sufficiently evi- believed that he recognized the fair stranger; but dent. Indeed, we have only to call to mind the he knew not how to persuade himself that the scarred and pitted faces, marred features, and daughter-in-law of the Czar Peter could in reality opaque and sightless eyeballs of former days, to be be reduced to so lowly a condition, and he dared convinced of the essential service which has been not betray to any one his suspicions of her identity. rendered to the community.

He offered his friendship and assistance to her supposed father; and soon his attentive and pleas

ing manners rendered him so acceptable to both, From Chambers' Journal.

that a mutual intimacy induced them to join their SOPHIA OF WOLFENBUTTEL. *

fortunes, and establish themselves in the same CAROLINA CHRISTINA Sophia of Wolfenbuttel,

habitation. sister of the wife of the emperor Charles VI., was

It was not long before the news of the death of united in niarriage to the Prince Alexis, son and Alexis reached them through the public journals. presumptive heir of Peter the Great, czar of Mus- Then Moldask could no longer conceal his doubts covy. In her were mingled the fairest gifts of of the true condition of Carolina, and finding that nature and education : lovely, graceful, with a he was not deceived, he offered with respectful penetrating and cultivated mind, and a soul tem- generosity to abandon his pursuits, and to sacripered and governed by virtue ; yet with all these fice his private fortune, that he might reconduct rare gifts, which softened and won every other her to Moscow. But the princess, whose bitterheart, she was nevertheless an object of aversion est moments had been there passed, preferred, to Alexis, the most brutal of mankind. More after her adventurous flight, to live far from the than once the unfortunate wife was indebted for dazzling splendor of the court, in tranquillity and her life to the use of antidotes to counteract the honorable obscurity. She thanked ihe nobleinsidious poisons administered to her by her hus-hearted Moldask ; but implored him, instead of band. At length the barbarity of the prince such splendid offers, to preserve her secret invioarrived at its climax : by an inhuman blow, he lable, so that nothing might trouble her present reduced her to so wretched a state, that she was

felicity. He promised, and he kept his promise : left for dead. He himself fully believed that his heart ardently desired her happiness, in which which he so ardently desired, and tranquilly de-| his own felicity was involved. Living under the parted for one of his villas, calmly ordering the same roof, in daily communion, their equal age funeral rites to be duly celebrated.

and ardent feelings kindled in the young man's. But the days of the unfortunate princess were soul a livelier flame than mere friendship; but. not yet terminated. Under the devoted care of respect controlled it, and he concealed his love in the Countess of Konigsmark, her lady of honor, his own bosom. who had been present at the horrible event, she

At length the old domestic, who, in the charac

ter of father, had shielded the princess, died, and * This extraordinary, but, we believe, true story, is was followed to the tomb by the sincere grief of translated from the Novelle Morali of Francesco Soave. This grateful mistress—a just recompense for such

own.

fidelity. Propriety forbade that Moldask and Car- | Bourbon. He quickly informed the king of all,. olina should inhabit together the same dwelling who gave orders, through the governor of the after this event. He loved her truly, but loved island, that Moldask and his wife should be treated her good fame more, and explained to her, not with the g eatest consideration. Afterward he without grief, that it was necessary he should treated with the Empress Maria Theresa in what seek another abode, unless she, who had already way her august aunt should be restored to the renounced all thought of pride and rank, were splendor due to her rank. The haughty wise, and content to assume a name dearer and more sacred mother of the czar, knew how to please the most still than that of friend. He gave her no reason Christian king, and not less generously sent letters to doubt that vanity, instead of love, was the to Carolina, in which she invited her to Vienna, origin of this proposal, since the princess herself promising to overwhelm her with distinctions. was firm in her desire to remain happy in private But Carolina, foreseeing that a return to her prislife. With all delicacy he sought to assure her tine rank at this regal court would debar her from that he could not but remember, in case of a refu- fulfilling the sweet duties of wife and mother, in sal, that it was scarcely undeserved. Nor could which all her felicity consisted, refused this offer he ever forget how much was exacted from him, courageously, but without haughtiness. “I am by the almost regal birth of her to whose hand he so used,” she said to the officer who proposed to thus dared aspire.

reconduct her to the court," I am so used to this Love, and her desolate and defenceless con- domestic and private life, that I will never change dition, induced the princess willingly to consent; it. Neither to be near a throne, nor to receive the and, in constituting his felicity, she increased her greatest homage, nor to enjoy riches, nor even to

Heaven blessed so happy a union; and in possess the universe, would give me the shadow due time an infant bound still closer the marriage of the pleasure and delight I feel at this moment." tie. Thus the Princess Carolina, born of noble So saying, she tenderly embraced the one and the blood, destined to enjoy grandeur, homage, even a other of her dear family. throne, having abandoned the magnificence of her She lived long with her husband and daughter, former state, in private life fulfilled all the duties serene and contented, dividing her cares and occuof nature and of society.

pations between assisting and amusing the one, Years passed happily on, until Moldask was and educating the mind and heart of the other. attacked with disease, which required the aid of a Death snatched from her, within a short interval, skilful surgeon. Carolina was unwilling to con- these two beloved ones, who had filled her heart fide a life so precious and beloved to the care of with such sweet emotions; and for a long time surgeons of doubtful skill, and therefore resolved that heart was a prey to one only sentiment

of the to visit Paris. She persuaded her husband to deepest grief. Yet not even this sorrow affected sell all their possessions, and to embark. The her so much, but that she believed the unhappiness winds were propitious to this pilgrimage; and the of grandeur 10 be still greater. She constantly medical skill of Paris restored Moldask to health. refused the repeated invitations to Vienna ; and acBeing now perfectly cured, the husband sought cepting only a small pension from the liberality of to obtain employment on the island of Bourbon ; the empress, she retired to Vitry, near Paris, where and was successful.

she wished still to pass under the name of Madame Meanwhile, the wife was one day walking with Moldask ; but it was impossible longer to conceal her graceful little girl in a public garden, as was her high birth and illustrious ancestry. Notwithher wont. She sat down on a green bank, and standing this, she never abandoned her accustomed conversed with her child in German, when the simplicity and retirement of life, in which alone Marshal of Saxony passing by, was struck with she had begun to find, and fouud to the last, true the German accent, and stayed to observe them. felicity. She recognized him immediately, and, fearing the same from him, bent her eyes to the ground. PEEL'S PATHETIC APPEAL TO DANIEL O'conHer blushes and confusion convinced the marshal

NELL. that he was not mistaken ; and he cried out, I give thee, Daniel, all I can, “How, madame? What do I see? Is it possible ?"

Though poor the offering be, Carolina suffered him not to proceed, but drawing The Maynooth Grant is all, my Dan, him aside, she declared herself, praying him to

That I can yield to thee : keep sacred the needful secret, and to return with

I might give up the Irish Church, her to her dwelling, where she might with greater

But if I did, what then? care and security explain her situation. The mar- My friends would leave me in the lurch, shal was faithful to his promise ; visited the prin

I mean, my party men. cess many times, though with all due precaution, and heard and admired her history. He wished

Perhaps 't is just, perhaps 't is fit to inform the king of France, that this august lady

That I should more concede ;

But then the House won't suffer it might be restored to her rightful honors and rank, and that he himself might thus complete the good

They won't, they won't indeed. work begun by his mother the Countess of Konigs

Believe me, I my conscience pinch mark. But Carolina wished neither to consent, nor

Much more than words can tell, openly to oppose his generous design. She asked

To grant thee thus a single inch ; him to defer this project, until certain plans now

And thou wouldst take an ell ! 'pending were accomplished, the termination of Oh! do be quiet, Daniel, pray, which could not be long delayed. Thus she, too

Be moderate, I implore; happy in being united to a wise and virtuous con- Take what I cede; another day 'sort, and contented to live in happy obscurity, kept

I may allow thee more : the marquis at bay.

Keep Ireland out of water hot, Near the end of the specified time he again vis

I beg thee, on my knees, ited her, and learned that, two days previous, she And I won't say that she shall not had departed with her husband for the isle of

Have justice-by degrees. Punch.

From Chambers' Journal. thus the discovery of fire gave rise to the first

social meeting of mankind, to the formation of HISTORY OF THE FIREPLACE.

language, to their ultimate union, and to all the DURING the last few years, public attention has wonders of subsequent civilization."'* The Chibeen laudably directed to the defective means nese historians attribute the earliest power of prowhich still exist for warming and ventilating ducing fire at will, by the friction of two pieces of houses. Although we have arrived at a high state dried wood, to Souigine, one of their first kings. of civilization in some respects, yet the method This power once known, the nomadic races in all still in use for producing an artificial climate in countries ever availed themselves of it; though a modern habitations, is perhaps more primitive and fire made of dried wood or grass in the open air, defective than any of our domestic contrivances. or in a rude tent, was their sole provision against We burn coal in a vessel or stove which is no whit cold for many ages. better in principle than the ancient fire-basket. Increased intelligence induced mankind to seek Whilst the chimney-wall in each room is often for greater warmth under substantial cover, and heated like an oven, those opposite and at the the first houses they took to were ready bụilt, sides are but a few degrees above the temperature being chiefly caves. In the middle of these they of the atmosphere. In this respect the ancients made fires, in spite of the smoke, for which there evinced much greater ingenuity than we do; and was no other outlet than the hole by which the many of the so-called inventions of modern date inhabitants came in and out. The same rude were, it appears, in general use hundreds and method was continued even when men learnt to thousands of years ago. By the research of a build houses, and to congregate in cities ; only recent author, many curious and interesting facts they made a hole in the roof to let the smoke out, concerning warming and ventilation have been exactly like the Laplanders and some of the Irish brought to light ;* and as in this country all ideas at the present day. of comfort and sociality are centred around the The parents of western civilization, the Egyphearth, we doubt not that a historical sketch of the tians, although they built themselves excellent “ fireplace," chiefly drawn from the above source, houses, and were scrupulously nice in their dowill prove interesting.

mestic arrangements, either made their fires (for The history of the fireside may be said to com- it is cold enough even in that warm climate to mence in the dark ages ; for it reaches back to a need them occasionally) on a central hearth, or time when man was unacquainted with the ex- used pans of live charcoal to carry about from one istence of fire. The early records of nearly all room to another. To them is ascribed the invennations refer to a time when that element was un- tion of bellows to concentrate the energy of fire. known. Indeed, instances of such ignorance have The reader will see in the second volume of Wilbeen met with in comparatively modern times. kinson's Manners and Customs of the Ancient When Magellan visited the Marian Islands in Egyptians, copies of that instrument taken from 1521, the natives believed themselves to be the paintings on tombs, at least three thousand years only people in the world. They were without old. During the exode and wanderings of the everything which we regard as necessaries, and in Jews, their fireplaces were precisely like those total'ignorance of fire. Several of their huts being both of the primitive races and of the modern consumed, they at first considered the flame to be Arabs—small bonfires in conical tents, with a hole a kind of animal that attached itself to the wood, in the apex of the cone to let out the smoke ; but and fed upon it. Some who approached too near, after their establishment in Canaan, their houses, being scorched, communicated their terror to the it has been inferred, resembled those of the Egyprest, who durst only look upon it at a distance. tjans, “wide, thorough aired with windows, and They were afraid, they said, that the terrible ani- large chambers ceiled with cedar, and painted with mal would bite them, or wound them with its vio- vermilion ;''† and, judging from the terms they lent breathing. They speedily learned to use fire had to mark the position, size, and manner of with as much address as Europeans. Few his closing the apertures, they must have paid great torical facts, therefore, are less doubtful than that attention to domestic accominodation. The winter man was once without means of artificial heat. A in Palestine being cold and long, and wood abunPhænician tradition attributed its discovery to a dant, particular apartments were appropriated to hunter observing a conflagration that had been ex- the season when fires were wanted, to avoid the cited in a forest by the attrition of some trees nuisance of smoke pervading the house, and soilduring a storm. Another tradition varies the ing its furniture and ornaments. About the latter account; in the winter season, Vulcan the king, end of November, King Jehoiakim was sitting in coming to a tree on the mountains that had been his “ winter house,” when he threw the roll of fired by a thunderbolt, was cheered by its heat ; Baruch " into the fire that was burning on the and adding more wood to preserve it, he invited hearth before him.” The prophet Amos alluded his companions to share in his pleasure, and there to the same custom, when he declared that the upon claimed to be the inventor of flame. Fire winter house, with the summer house," would once discovered, the primeval savages, though at be destroyed. From the hearths and braziers in first alarmed, gradually felt its blessed influence; these brumal apartments, the smoke was emitted and it is thus that tradition gives us an account of at a hole in the roof, or by the arubbah; for, notthe earliest fireside ; for around the embers of the withstanding what some rabbis have written about burning trees men first learned to herd; "and as the Jews being so scrupulous to preserve the the intercourse continued under the bond of the purity of the Holy City, that they would not percommon enjoyment, the incoherent sounds by mit the erection of a chimney in Jerusalem, they which they expressed their emotions were by were, perhaps, as ignorant as the Egyptians of degrees roughly cast into the elements of speech; that contrivance. The great improvement that

* On the History and Art of Warming and Ventilating Rooms and Buildings, &c. By Walter Bernan, Civil

* Vitruvius, b. ii., c. 1. Engineer. 2 vols. Bell: London.

+ Jerem. xxii. 14.

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