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for the eagle glance of Otho. He rushed on the more than the recognition of his imperial title, and wavering imperialists, and, ere that bright sun had his coronation by the hands of Gregory. The reached the meridian, thousands had fallen by the conscience, perhaps the pride, of Gregory reSaxon sword, or had perished in the blood-stained volted against the proposal. His invincible will river. The victory was complete, the exultation opposed and silenced the outeries of the famished rapturous. Shouts of glory to the God of baules, multitudes ; nor could their entreaties, or their thanksgivings for the deliverance of Saxony, threats, extort from him more than a promise that, pæans of immortal honor to Otho, the noblest of in the approaching winter, he would propose the her sons, soothed or exasperated the agonies of question to a pontifical synod. It met, by the the dying, when the triumph was turned into sudden permission of Henry, on the 30th November, 1083. and irremediable mourning. On the field which | It was the latest council of Gregory's pontificate. had, apparently, secured his crown, Rudolf him- A few bishops, faithful to their chief and to his self had fallen. He fell by an illustrious arm. cause, now occupied the seats so often thronged Godfrey of Bouillon, the hero of the Jerusalem by mitred churchmen. Every pallid cheek and Delivered, struck the fatal blow. Another sword anxious eye was turned to him who occupied the severed the right hand from the arm of Rudolf. loftier throne in the centre of that agitated assem“It is the hand,” he cried, as his glazing eye bly. He rose, and the half-uttered suggestions rested on it, “ with which I confirmed my fealty of fear and human policy were hushed into deep to Henry my lord.” At once elevated by so stillness as he spoke. He spoke of the glorious signal a victory, and depressed by these penitent example, of the sacred duty, of the light afiliction, misgivings, his spirit passed away, leaving his and of the eternal reward, of martyrs for the faith. adherents to the mercy of his rival.
He spoke, as dying fathers speak to their children, The same sun which witnessed the ruin of Hen- of peace, and hope, and of consolation. But he ry's army on the Elster, looked down on a con- spoke also, as inspired prophets spake of yore to flict, in which, on that eventful morning, the the Kings of Israel, denouncing the swift venforces of Matilda in the Mantuan territory fled be- geance of Heaven against his oppressors. The fore his own. He now, once more, descended enraptured audience exclaimed that they had into Italy. He came, not, as formerly, a pilgrim heard the voice of an angel, not of a man. Gregand an exile ; but at the head of an army devoted ory dismissed the assembly, and calmly prepared to his person, and defying all carnal enemies and for whatever extremity of distress might await all spiritual censures. He came to encounter Hil-him. debrand, destitute of all Transalpine alliances, and It did not linger. In the spring of 1084 the supported, even in Italy, by no power but that of garrison was overpowered, the gates were thrown Matilda : for the Norman Ďuke of Apulia was far open to the besiegers, and Gregory sought a preaway attempting the conquest of the Eastern capi- carious refuge in the Castle of St. Angelo. He tal and empire. But Henry left, in his rear, the left the great Church of the Lateran as a theatre invincible Saxons and the hero who commanded for the triumph of his antagonist and his rival. them. To prevent a diversion in that quarter, the Seated on the apostolic throne, Guibert, the antiemperor proposed to abdicate his dominion in Sax- pope of Brixen, was consecrated there by the title ony in favor of Conrad, his son. But Otho (a of Clement the Third ; and then, as the successor merry talker, as his annalist informs us) rejected of Peter, he placed the crown of Germany and the project with the remark, that "the calf of a of Italy on the brows of Henry and of Bertha as vicious bull usually proved vicious.” Leaving, they knelt before him. therefore, this implacable enemy to his machina- And now Henry had in his grasp the author of tions, the emperor pressed forward ; and before the shame of Canossa, of the anathemas of the the summer of 1080, the citizens of Rome saw, Lateran, and of the civil wars and rebellions of from their walls, the Gerinan standards in hostile the empire. The base populace of Rome were array in the Campagna.
already anticipating, with sanguinary joy, the huIn the presence of such danger, the gallant miliation, perhaps the death, of the noblest spirit spirit of the aged pope once more rose and ex- who had reigned there since the slaughter of Juulted. He convened a synod to attest his last de- lius. The approaching catastrophe, whatever fiance of his formidable enemy. He exhorted the might be its form, Gregory was prepared to meet German princes to elect a successor to Rudolf. with a serene confidence in God, and a haughty In letters of impassioned eloquence, he again defiance of man. A few hours more, and the case maintained his supremacy over all the kings and tle of St. Angelo must have yielded to famine or rulers of mankind. He welcomed persecution as to assault, when the aged pope, in the very agony the badge of his holy calling; and, while the be- of his fate, gathered the reward of the policy with siegers were at the gates, he disposed (at least in which he had cemented the alliance between the words) of royal crowns and distant provinces. papacy and the Norman conquerors of the south Matilda supplied him with money, which, for a of Italy. Robert Guiscard, returning from Conwhile, tranquillized the Roman populace. He stantinople, flew to the rescue of his Suzerain." himself wrought miracles to extinguish conflagra- Scouts announced to Henry the approach of a tions kindled by their treachery. In language mighty host, in which the Norman battle-axe and such as martyrs use, he consoled the partners of the cross were strangely united with the Sarahis sufferings. In language such as heroes breathe, cenic cimeter and the cresent. A precipitate rehe animated the defenders of the city. The siege, treat scarcely rescued his enfeebled troops from or blockade, continued for three years uninter- the impending danger. He abandoned his prey in ruptedly, except when Henry's troops were driven, a fever of disappointment. Unable to slake his by the deadly heats of autuin, to the neighboring thirst for vengeance, he might allay it by surprise hills. Distress, and, it is alleged, bribery, at ing the Great Countess, and overwhelming her len ned the courage of the garrison." On forces, still in arms in the Modenese. But he was
amors were heard for peace; for himself surprised in the attempt by her superior ed, as the terms of peace, nothing skill and vigilance. Shouts for St. Peter and
Matilda ronsed the retreating imperialists by night, the Normans, the security he could no longer find near the Castle of Sorbaria. They retired across among his own exasperated subjects. Age and the Alps with such a loss of men, of officers, and anxiety weighed heavily upon him. An unof treasure, as disabled them from any further en- wonted lassitude depressed a frame till now incaterprises.
pable of fatigue. He recognized the summons of The emperor returned into Germany to reign death, and his soul rose with unconquerable power undisturbed by civil war; for the great Otho was to entertain that awful visitant. He summoned dead, and Herman of Luxemburg, who had as- round his bed the bishops and cardinals who had sumed the imperial title, was permitted to abdi- attended his flight from Rome. He passed before cate it with contemptuous impunity. Henry re-them, in firm and rapid retrospect, the incidents turned, however, to prepare for new conflicts with of his eventful life. He maintained the truth of the papacy—to drain the cup of toil, of danger, the great principles by which it had been govand of distress—and to die, at length, with a erned from the commencement to the close. He heart broken by the parricidal cruelty of his son. named his three immediate successors in the paNo prayers were said, and no requiem sung, over pacy. He assured his weeping friends of his inthe unhallowed grave which received the bones of tercession for them in heaven. He forgave, and the excommunicated monarch. Yet they were blessed, and absolved his enemies, though with committed to the earth with the best and the kind- the resolute exceptions of the emperor and the est obsequies. The pity of his enemies, the lamen- anti-pope. He then composed himself to die. lation of his subjects, and the unbidden tears of His faltering lips had closed on the transubstanthe poor, the widows, and the orphans, who tiated elements. The final unction had given ascrowded round the bier of their benefactor, ren- surance that the body, so soon to be committed to dered his toinb not less sacred than if blessed by the dust, would rise again in honor and in incorthe united prayers of the whole Christian Episco- ruption. Anxious to catch the last accents of that pacy. Those anbribed mourners wept over a once oracular voice, the mourners were bending prince to whom God had given a large heart and over him, when, struggling in the very grasp of à capacious mind; but who had derived from death, he collected for one last effort, his failing canonized bishops a corrupting education, and powers, and breathed out his spirit with the indigfrom too early and too uncheckered prosperity the nant exclamation_“I have loved righteousness development of every base and cruel appetite; and hated iniquity, and therefore I die in exile.” but to whom calamity had imparted a self-dominion It was not permitted, even to the genius of Hildefrom which none could withhold his reverence, brand, to condense, into a single sentence, an epiand an active sympathy with sorrow to which tome of such a life as his. It was a life scarcely none could refuse his love.
intelligible to his own generation, or to himself, With happier fortunes, as, indeed, with loftier nor indeed to our age, except by the light of that virtues, Matilda continued, for twenty five years, ecclesiastical history in which it forms so importo wage war in defence of the apostolic see. tant an era. After a life which might seem to belong to the It had ill beseemed the inspired wisdom of the province of romance rather than of history, she tent-maker of Tarsus, and of the Galilean fisherdied at the age of seventy-five, bequeathing to the men, to have founded on any other than a popular world a name second, in the annals of her age, to basis a society destined to encounter the enmity of none but that of Hildebrand himself.
the dominant few by the zeal of the devoted many. To him the Norman rescue of the papal city From the extant monuments of their lives and brought only a momentary relief. He returned in writings, it accordingly appears that they contriumph to the Lateran. But, within a few hours, ceded to the lay multitude an ample share in the he looked from the walls of that ancient palace on finance, the discipline, and the legislation of the a scene of woe such as, till then, had never passed collective body. The deacons were the tribunes of before him. A sanguinary contest was raging the Christian people. This was the age of Prosbetween the forces of Robert and the citizens at- elytism. tached to Henry. Every street was barricaded, In the sad and solemn times which followed, every house had become a fortress. The pealing ecclesiastical authority became austere and arbiof bells, the clash of arms, cries of joy, and shrieks trary, and submission to it enthusiastic. Martyrs, of despair, assailed his ears in dismal concert. in the contemplation of mortal agonies and of an When the sun set behind the Tuscan hills on this opening paradise, had no thoughts for the adjustscene of desolation, another light, and a still more ment and balancing of sacerdotal powers. They fearful struggle, succeeded. Flames ascended at who braved the wild beasts of the amphitheaonce from every quarter. They leaped from tre, or the ascetic rigors of the wilderness, house to house, enveloping and destroying what were the heroes of the church. The rest sunk ever was most splendid or most sacred in the edi- into a degraded caste. But all laid bare their souls fices of mediæval Rome. Amidst the roar of the at the confessional. All acknowledged a dominion conflagration they had kindled, and by its porten- which, discountenanced by the state, sustained tous light, the fierce Saracens and the ruthless itself by extreme and recondite maxims of governNorthmen revelled in plunder, lust, and carnage, ment. In virtue of such maxims, the episcopal like demons by the glare of their native pande- order encroached on every other. The vicarious monium. Gregory gazed with agony on the attributes of Deity were ascribed to those who minreal and present aspect of civil war. Perhaps he istered at the altar. There, and at the font, gifts thought with penitence on the wars he had kin- of inestimable price were laid, in popular belief, dled beyond the Alps. Two thirds of the city at the disposal of the priest, whose miracles, though perished. Every convent was violated, every unattested by sense or consciousness, threw into altar profaved, and multitudes driven away into the shade the mightiest works of Moses and of perpetual and hopeless slavery,
Christ. This was the age of Persecution. Himself a voluntary exile, Gregory sought, in Heretics arose. To refute them from the sacred the castle of Salerno, and under the protection of text was sometimes difficult, always hazardous. It was easier to silence them by a living authority: garchies. The vassal of Western, and the serf The bishops came forth as the elect depositories of of Eastern Europe, might otherwise, at this day, an unwritten code. Tradition became the rule of have been in the same social state, and military the Christian world. It might crush the errors of autocracies might now be occupying the place of Arius-it might sustain the usurpations of Am- our constitutional or paternal governments. Hilbrose. This was the age of Controversy. debrand's despotism, with whatever inconsistency,
Constantine saw the miraculous cross, and wor- sought to guide mankind, by nioral impulses, to a shipped. He confirmed to the Christian hierarchy more than human sanctity. The feudal despotism all their original and all their acquired powers. with which he waged war, sought, with a stern This was the age of the Church and State Alliance. consistency, to degrade them into beasis of prey
The seat of empire was transferred from the or beasts of burden. It was the conflict of mental Tiber to the Bosphorus. The Roman bishop and with physical power, of literature with ignorance, clergy seized on the vacant inheritance of abdicated of religion with injustice and debauchery. To authority. The pope became the virtual sovereign the popes of the middle ages was assigned a provof the Roman city. The Greeks and Latins be- ince, their abandonment of which would have came ecclesiastical rivals. Then was first heard plunged the church and the world into the same the Roman watch-word and rallying cry of the hopeless slavery. To Pope Gregory the Seventh visible unity of the church. This was the age of were first given the genius and the courage to Papal Independence.
raise himself and his successors to the level of Goths, Vandals, Huns, Bulgarians, Franks, and that high vocation. Lombards, conquered the dominions of Cæsar. Yet Hildebrand was the founder of a tyranny But they became the converts and tributaries of only less odious than that which he arrested, and Peter. The repulse of the Saracens by Charles was apparently actuated by an ambition neither Martel gave to Europe a new empire, to the church less proud, selfish, nor reckless, than that of his a second Constantine. This was the age of Barbaric secular antagonists. In the great economy of Invasion.
Providence human agency is ever alloyed by some Europe became one vast assemblage of military base motives ; and the noblest successes recorded states. The lands were everywhere partitioned by history, must still be purchased at the price of by the conquerors among their liegemen, who, some great ultimate disaster. having bound themselves to use their swords in To the title of the Czar Peter of the Church their lords' defence, imposed a similar obligation conferred on him by M. Guizot, Hildebrand's only on their own tenants, who, in turn, exacted it from claim is, that by the energy of his will he moulded their subordinate vassals. This was the age of her institutions and her habits of thought to his Feudalism and of Hildebrand.
own purposes. But the Czar wrought in the He ascended the apostolic throne, therefore, spirit of an architect who invents, arranges, and armed with prescriptions in favor of the loftiest executes his own plan : Hildebrand in the spirit claims of the hierarchy, thus reaching back almost of a builder, erecting by the divine command a to the apostolic times. But he found in the papal temple of which the divine hand had drawn the armory other weapons scarcely less keen, though design and provided the materials. His faith in of a more recent fabric. Of these the most effect- what he judged to be the purposes and the will of ive were the intimate alliance of the Roman See Heaven, were not merely sublime but astounding. with the monastic orders, and the reäppearance, He is everywhere depicted in his own letters the in theological debate, of that mystic word which, habitual denizen of that bright region which the seven centuries before, had wrought such prodigies damps of fear never penetrate, and the shadows at Nicæa. He who first taught men to speak of of doubt never overcast. an hypostatic change beneath unchanging forms, To extol him as one of those Christian stoics may have taught them to talk nonsense. But whom the wreck of worlds could not divert from though he added litile or nothing to the received the straight paths of integrity and truth, is a doctrine of the church, he made an incalculable mere extravagance. His policy was imperial ; addition to the sacerdotal power.
his resources and his arts sacerdotal. Anathemas To grasp, to multiply, and to employ these re- and flatteries, stern defiances and subtle insinuasources in such a manner as to render the Roman tions, invective such as inight have been thundered pontiff the suzerain of the civilized world, was the by Genseric, and apologies such as might have end for which Hildebrand lived—an unworthy end, been whispered by Augustulus, succeed each other if contrasted with the high and holy purposes of in his story, with no visible trace of hesitation or the gospel-an end even hateful, if contrasted with of shame. Even his professed orthodoxy is renthe free and generous spirit in which the primitive dered questionable by his conduct and language founders of the church had established and incul- towards Berengarius, the great opponent of trancated her liberties-yet an end which might well substantiation. With William of England, Philip allure a noble spirit in the eleventh century, and of France, and Robert of Apulia, and even with the attainment of which (so far as it was attained) Henry of Germany, he temporized at the expense may be now acknowledged to have been condu- of his own principles as often as the sacrifice cive, perhaps essential, to the progress of Chris- seemed advantageous. “ Nature gave horns to tianity and civilization.
bulls :" to aspiring and belligerent churchmen To the spiritual despotism of Rome in the mid- she gave dissimulation and artifice. dle ages may, indeed, be traced a long series of Our exhausted space forbids the attempt to anerrors and crimes, of wars and persecutions. Yet alyze or delineate the character of the great the papal dynasty was the triumphant antagonist founder of the spiritual despotism of Rome. His of another despotism the most galling, the most acts must stand in place of such a portraiture. debasing, and otherwise the most irremediable, He found the papacy dependent on the empire : under which Europe had ever groaned. The he sustained her by alliances almost commensurate centralization of ecclesiastical power more than with the Italian Peninsula. He found the papacy balanced the isolating spirit of the feudal oli- electoral by the Roman people and clergy: he left
From the Britannia.
it electoral by a college of papal nomination. He of greater magnitude, and that magnitude acquired found the emperor the virtual patron of the Holy within a single century, than the whole Roman See : he wrested that power from his hands. He empire, the consolidation of a thousand years. found the secular clergy the allies and dependents One deep and melancholy interruption of her proof the secular power: he converted them into the gress is recorded in the reign of the unfortunate inalienable auxiliaries of his own. He found the Charles I. But that interruption gives only a new higher ecclesiastics in servitude to the temporal force to the fact, that the whole being of English sovereigns: he delivered them from that yoke to freedom and prosperity depends upon religion. subjugate them to the Roman Tiara. He found From the days of Elizabeth to our own all the the patronage of the church the mere desecrated great questions of the state have been especially spoil and merchandise of princes : he reduced it religious. In the reign of William III. Popery within the dominion of the supreme pontiff. He was wholly excluded from the legislature. From is celebrated as the reformer of the impure and that moment the country felt itself relieved of a profane abuses of his age: he is more justly enti- weight which, even under the vigorous reign of iled to the praise of having left the impress of his Elizabeth, and the politic reign of James, had own gigantic character on the history of all the heavily encumbered its movements. From that ages which have succeeded him.
act it seemed to have begun a new existence. From the hour when papists were suffered no more to corrupt the councils, deform the legisla
tiv countenance, and enfeeble the national vigor, THE STRENGTH OF ENGLAND.
purity, and independence of Protestantism, EngIt is a memorable characteristic of English his- land sprang up like a “giant refreshed.” Even lory that, from the period of the Reformation, the separation of the American colonies became a that period in which England first assumed the source of additional prosperity; and, instead of rank of a great kingdom-all the leading questions the drain of millions of British treasure, in supof her public life have been connected with reli- plying the financial exhaustion and guarding the gion. There is no such feature in the history of frontiers of a new continent, America has been the continental kingdoms. After the first strug- made the source of a perpetual supply of wealth gles of the Reformation, religion was superseded and production to England. by politics, and politics themselves quickly sank But the most instructive feature of this history from the public view under the shade of despotism. of perpetual religious impulse is, that it has been But in England religion was the perpetual object a perpetual controversy with Romanism. The of popular inquiry, popular interest, and popular various sectaries have troubled the peace of the privileges. It mingled with every feature of pub-church; but from the days of the second Charles lic freedom; it influenced every advance of the they have never menaced either its power or its national mind; it urged, sustained, and guided existence. Popery has done both. It is against every step of that general progress which raised Popery that the Church of England was raised as a feeble country into imperial power, which in the national bulwark. Popery is the true peril; vested an island with dominion in every quarter of and the day which shall see the Church of Engthe globe, and which gave an authority to English land relax the most determined and principled opinion, exercising an unlimited control over the resistance to Popery will see that church undone, opinion of universal mankind.
the constitution mortally wounded, and the counThese statements are undeniable ; they are his-try preserving only strength enough to entomb toric facts; they are the solid testimonials of time; them both, with useless tears and ignominious reand the conclusion is equally legitimate—that it grets, till it follows them to the grave. has pleased the Great Disposer of all things to But the ministerial cry is, “ Maynooth must be raise up England at once as a proof of providential endowed—we are pledged to it by the terms of protection, as the depository of divine truth, and as the union." This is untrue. There was no such the champion of pure religion in all the assaults pledge at the union, nor at any other time. The and corruptions of its enemies.
grant has been repeatedly the subject of discussion The principle of this religious existence is so since, and this pledge was never allowed. The effective, that its presence or absence shapes the grant has even been occasionally diminished. whole history of England since it became a Other grants, made before the union, have been kingdom.
From the accession of the first Wil- diminished, modified, and even extinguished. The liain to the reign of Henry VIII., the era of the grants to the Kildare-street schools, the grant to Reformation, England was utterly popish. Its the Dublin Society, with a variety of local grants, history was thus a succession of tyrannies. The have undergone constant changes; but no one arcountry was convulsed with civil wars, or ex- gued their continuance on the pledge of the union. hausted by foreign expeditions, equally wasteful, Even if the pledge had been given, did it authorize bloody, and useless. But, from the period of the the increase of the grant? Or why is Parliament Reformation, England rose into sudden strength. to support Popery at an expense which it never The throne still had difficulties to encounter, but bestowed on Protestantism? Where is the vote they were gradually broken down; the progress for Oxford or Cambridge? Where is the £28,000 was never retarded; the horizon was continually for enabling the sons of Protestants to be eduwidening. It is not less remarkable, that this cated in a university? Where is the bounty to perpetual progress was less probable in the exist- allure young men into Protestant orders ? Not ence of England than of any other country. We a shilling. can easily conjecture the progress of a continental The next step will be to pay the Popish priestpower, with Europe open before it, and the hood. This is to be justified io the Protestant by boundaries of kingdoms ready to vanish before the a piece of subtlety, at which Popery laughs almarch of its armies: but the boundaries of an ready. “Pay the priests, and we shall separate island are prescribed by the hand of nature. Yet, them from the peasantry; they will lose the inat this hour, the territories ruled by this island are fluence which superstition gives them; the priests
will be forgotten, and the peasantry will turn which proclaims freedom to the unfortunate slave, Protestant.” And this is the argument addressed in Martinique and Guadaloupe, in Bourbon and to a rational people! Who can doubt that the Cayenne, in Senegal and Algiers, be the epoch popish priest would be only the more excited to fixed for the abandonment of the right of search.” clamor by finding what clamor has already pro- Lord Aberdeen replies through his under secduced? That he will still keep up his closeness retary, Viscount Canning. He expresses concurof connection with the populace is evident, from rence in much that the society say, and promises the incessant ceremonies forming the ritual of " respectful consideration" of the suggestion Rome; and that more money will give him, as it made ; but he denies that the past course has gives every one else, more power; that he will been without good fruit. Portugal has of late have more chapels, more pompous ceremonies, executed in good faith the treaty of 1842; Spain more of all the means which corrupt, or dazzle, or has "redeemed the engagement of the treaty mislead the multitude.
taken in 1835, for the enactment of a penal law If Popery shall be once endowed, it will be the of great severity against the slave-trade;"" "and, established religion of Ireland. The advance is al- though the unhappy beings yearly landed on the ready made; another step and the evil is com-coast of Brazil may still be reckoned by thousands, pleted. Infatuation can go no further. Ireland the increasing demand for labor in that country will be popish and will be lost. In what shape places it beyond all doubt, that but for the operadivine vengeance will come is beyond our foresight tion of British cruisers, the numbers would have to know; but it has been hitherto unfailing, and it been many times multiplied.' " But the influwill not spare us, when it is called down by an ence of one country upon the domestic institutions act of Protestant guilt, more gratuitous, more of another, those institutions being recognized and headlong, and more contemptuous, than all in the upheld by the laws, and closely interwoven with history of the empire.
the habits and interests of the people, can rarely be otherwise than slow and uncertain ; and it
becomes a matter of grave consideration, whether, SLAVERY AND THE SLAVE TRADE.
in the hope of being able to contribute to the A curious correspondence between the British eventual abolition of slavery in Cuba and Brazil, and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and the Foreign the government of England would do wisely to Office, on the "right of search,” has just appear abandon those means of direct action against the ed. It is remarkable for the naked manner in slave-trade, which, though far from complete in which the society denounce the present means of their operation, have not been without their good attempting to put down the slave-trade.
effect, and are likely, as Lord Aberdeen conTheir letter is signed, “On behalf of the com-fidently trusts, to gain in efficiency." mittee, Thomas Clarkson, President,” and is
[It is remarkable, that, if the society are so condated on the 1st of March, 1845. It points out fident of the impolicy of the armed suppression, that the society has always looked to the abolition they do not at once propose to give up what is of slavery as the only means of annihilating the positively bad, without waiting to exact ulterior slave-trade, and has therefore " counte
conditions. Such course would much facilitate nanced the suppression of the slave-trade by an the solution of all such questions of international armed force." The history of the traffic for many morals.]-Spectator, 5 April. years past abundantly proves " the inefficiency, not to say impolicy, of that mode of suppression.” The treaties for the purpose are defective; are
The Æneïd of Virgil. With English Notes, by rendered a dead letter by the positive bad faith of
CHARLES ANTHON, LL. D., Professor of Greek
and Latin in Columbia College, and Rector of foreign powers ; are impracticable, on account of the extent of the coast to be watched ; and while
the Grammar School, New York. Edited by the armed force is maintained at an immense cost,
J. R. Major, D. D., Head Master of King's its use has aggravated the horrors of the traffic.
College School, London. “Governments may enter into negotiations, en
The merit of Anthon's school editions of the gage in treaties, enact laws, and promulgate ordi- Classics is well known both in this country and nances for the abolition of the slave-trade; but America, for the clearness and fulness of their the experience of thirty years has proved that all explanations, whether relating to the constructing will be in vain if they are not in unison with the of the text or an explanation of its allusions. feelings and not supported by the opinions of the The present edition of The Æneid of Virgil is not people themselves. What then is to be done? only a neat and handy reprint of Professor AnThe committee would respectfully reply, direct thon's last school-book, the notes being placed at all your energies and influence against the system the foot of the page instead of relegated to the of slavery.” “An opportunity is now afforded." end : Dr. Major has improved the original in the “ France asks to be relieved from the right of only way perhaps it requires improvement, by search : in her case the equivalent should be the omitting the translation of easy passages, and complete and immediate abolition of slavery in notes conveying information which in this country her colonial possessions. This would be a guar- is at hand in Classical Dictionaries and other books antee--the best guarantee which could be given- used by the student.--Spectator. that her flag should not be surreptitiously employed in feeding them at least with slaves. FATHER MAThew's EMBARRASSMENTS.--The And in asking this great act of justice and mercy subscriptions to compensate this gentleman for his from France, no indignity would be offered; for heavy expenses while prosecuting the cause of her government, her legislative chambers, and teetotalism have already exceeded 70001.-—a sum her people, have resolved that the abolition of nearly sufficient to cover the reverend gentleman's slavery shall take place. It is then simply a ques- liabilities, but of course not enough to support the tion of time. Let that be fixed; and the day expense of another campaign.