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" that all human discoveries seem to be made only themselves in opposition to a date which assigns for the purpose of confirming more strongly the so youthful an age to our haughty race? Assurtruths come from on high, and contained in the edly not; geological investigations, the researches sacred writings.” This illustrious astronomer has of history, and the study of monuments, all conseen in this agreement the most valuable triumph cur in demonstrating not only the recent date of and most noble conquest of intelligence. man's appearance, but particularly that of his ren

This scientific fact may be regarded even in a ovation. still more important light. It indicates that the Here, therefore, Scripture is exact and within author of Genesis has had just reason to look the limits of truth. The term it assigns to the upon man as the last that appeared of living be- cradle of humanity, although not very remote from ings, and to regard him as the limit and comple- that in which civilization has arrived at a degree tion of the creation. If plants have preceded her- of remarkable splendor, is still sufficient to explain bivorous animals, because the latter must derive and comprehend the various phases of it. We from these all that serves them for nourishment, may include in these 7500 years all that authentic herbivorous animals must, in like manner, have historical traditions have told us respecting the appeared before the carnivorous species. In truth, progress of man in the path of civilization. without the herbivorous races, the carnivora must The Bible has, in like manner, acknowledged have died of hunger. For similar reasons the om- the unity of the human species. This truth, for a nivorous, or such races as live both on vegetables long time disputed, has been regarded in our own and animals, must have made their appearance at times both by the most illustrious physiologists a later period. Accordingly man, who is omniv- and most able anatomists as fully established. orous par excellence, must have appeared last The intimate acquaintance of both these classes of among living beings, since he requires the pres- observers with the proofs which demonstrate it, ence of all kinds of nourishment.

gives the greatest authority to their opinion. On the other hand, when Scripture speaks of At some future period, not very remote, this the creation of plants, it makes them vegetate question will probably cease to be open to any disand develop themselves before the appearance of pute. In fact, the black men who, by losing the sun, and under conditions of light, heat, and ground and going backwards in the path of civilihumidity, different from those under which vege- zation, have lost, in a great measure, the beauty tables now flourish. It has thus disclosed to us, of their primitive type, are now returning to the thousands of years ago, an order of things which blessings of intelligence, and have established the fossil botanist has found to exist with great themselves as nations. They show a tendency to exactness, and which he has endeavored to explain remount to the point from which they receded : by causes different from those whose action is now as the consequence of their progress in knowlfelt.* Scripture, therefore, has admitted, with edge, and the improvement of their mental faculreason, that the germination of vegetables com- ties, they will soon recover the type which they menced before the sun had received the power of had lost. The development of their brain, the shedding his light on the earth ; it is thus by mo- necessary consequence of the exercise of their tives not less legitimate, and not less real, that it minds, will make them acquire new forms; and makes plants appear before animals, which they soon they will cease to be distinguishable from the were destined to supply with nourishment. But white race from which they sprung. With the let us consider whether Scripture has had equal advance of their intelligence, their language will reason for proclaiming the recent appearance of become purer; their manners will undergo a corthe human species as compared with other living responding improvement; and these men, not long species.

since so debased, both in moral and physical qualWhat we have already observed, is in some ities, will become the most manifest proof of the measure a proof that the arrival of man on the unity of the human species, as proclaimed by the earth must have been posterior to that of the first and most ancient historian. greater part of animals, whether vertebrate or

This primitive unity must necessarily imply a invertebrate. Not many serious difficulties can uniformity in the language of mankind, or in the be formed on this point. The examination of fos- manner of making themselves understood, and siliferous strata proves that the remains of our communicating their thoughts to each other. The species do not begin to show themselves till we Bible intimates this; and we can go back with it come amongst diluvial deposits, which are the to the precise period when the confusion of lanmost recent of those belonging to geological eras. guages took place among the nations. A superMan has, therefore, formed part of the new gen- ficial study of the idioms of the primeval races has erations which have appeared on the surface of appeared, at first view, not very favorable to the the earth ; also the greater part of those with idea of their having a common origin; but a more which he has been cotemporary have still their profound examination has shown in what manner representatives among the living races.

all the languages spoken came gradually to differ But man may be recent, even the newest of be- from each other. (See note at the end of this arings, and yet the date of his appearance may go ticle.) so far back as the 7500 years which Scripture as It is not less deserving of attention that the Bible: signs to him. Is it necessary to suppose with is the first book in which we find notions of classiScripture, that the last arrangement on the surface fication, analogous to those which naturalists em-of the globe is more recent than the last and terri- ploy in the study of the different natural bodies.. ble catastrophe which laid it waste, a catastrophe In the 11th chapter of Leviticus, in particular, we: followed by the renewal of the human race? find a sketch of a method of distinguishing pureWould it be reasonable for all ages, all people, animals from impure, the latter of which the Heand, in particular, our modern schools, to set brews were forbidden to eat. God allowed the

* See Genesis i. 11 and 12 ; and our memoir on the children of Israel to eat animals which ruminated Fossil Plants of the Coal Formation of the Polar regions, and had the feet cloven ; but they were interdicted Bibl. Unid., July, 1834.

from using others. Swine, and even camels,


were included in the interdict; the former because The delineations of the manners of these anithey did not ruminate, the latter because they had mals are extremely true, and are expressed with not their feet divided like oxen and sheep. remarkable conciseness. Such is the case with

Birds of prey were also, according to Scripture, those the Bible gives us respecting the habits of impure animals, which the Hebrews were not per- the ostrich, a bird which it represents as void of mitted to use for food. They were allowed to affection for its young, which are in its eyes as if make use only of long legged species (Grallæ, they were not its own. Forgetting her offspring, Linn.) and those whose feet were adapted for the ostrich leaves her eggs in the earth, and warmswimming. They might employ for food all the eth them in the dust. A foolish and thoughtless marine and fresh-water fishes provided with scales 'mother, she cares not what may become of them ; and fins ;

but they were not to eat such as were | forgetting that the foot may crush them, or that destitute of these appendages. In this ordination they may be destroyed by the cruel jaws of the there can be no doubt that a great degree of wis- tigers of the desert. But when it is the proper dom is shown ; for the animals we now use for time, she raises her wings into the air ; trusting food belong to pure species; while, with the ex- to the strength of her legs, she scorneth the horse ception of the hog, those which Moses regards as and his rider.* impure, are, in general, ill-fitted for human con The description of the horse is not less faithful: sumption. But what is most important to be re- the Bible represents it to us as full of strength and marked is, that in this arrangement there can vigor, and bounding like a grasshopper. His neck be traced the basis of a natural classification, is adorned with a flowing mane, and he paweth which is still adopted in the most common sys- the earth with his foot. He leaps forward with

pride, and goeth forth to meet the armed men. Scripture is not less precise when it turns its His breathing scatters terror; he mocketh at fear, attention to the objects of detail relating to living neither turneth he back from the sword. When beings. It is, in particular, in delineating the the quiver rattleth against him, the glittering spear manners of animals, that these writings exhibit an and the shield, he swalloweth the ground with accuracy and conciseness which the greatest natur- fierceness and rage. If he hears the sound of the alists have not surpassed. Its descriptions are so trumpet, he exclaims, Let us advance ; be smellfaithful and so precise, that they cannot be mis- eth the battle afar off, the thunder of the captains taken. Thus it represents to us the lioness and the shouting.t couched in her cave, watching with a restless eye At the command of the Eternal, Scripture the prey about to pass, and waiting with the ut- states, the hawk darts into the air, and exiends most anxiety on her young whelps. When she her wings towards the south. At His voice, the perceives the prey, we are told how she darts eagle rises to the clouds, and places her nest on forth with the rapidity of the eagle, carrying her the top of the mountains. This bird inhabits the victim in her mouth to appease the hunger of her hollows of the rock, and dwells in the most inacyoung ones. Very different from the young lions, cessible cliffs of the crag. From these elevated the young ravens wander about from one place to heights the eagle watches her prey; her piercing another, oppressed by hunger ; they call with loud eyes discover it afar off. When she has seized it, noise on their mother, who finds her greatest de- she carries it to her young, who drink its blood. light in supplying them with food.

Under the guidance of their mother, the young It indicates to us, in like manner, the time of eaglets soon descend to the places where the gestation and delivery of the hinds and wild goats. carcass lies. Images of death, these birds bear, These animals are represented as bowing them- in some degree, its livery on their plumage. I selves when they bring forth, and uttering sorrow Scripture often makes mention of the migrations ful cries. The wild ass is spoken of as being undertaken by so many animals, particularly birds singularly fierce, incapable of being subdued, and and fishes. It often compares the rapidity of birds answering not to the voice of him who calls himself its master ; free, and ranging the mountains leucoryx antelopes : all of these animals frequently beas his pasture; his abode is in solitude, and his However this may be, the details which Scripture gives retreat the desert.

us respecting the animal which it calls Reem, agree perMan, it tells us, cannot subdue the oryx; he fectly with the Oryx antilope. See our Obserrations on cannot force it to remain even for a single night in the Unicorn of the ancients (Mem. de la Société Linn de

Bordeaux.) a stable ; still less can he make it submit to the

* See Job xxxix. 13 to 18. The description of the osyoke, to open the furrows and harrow the fertile trich in the book of Job is remarkable for its extreme valleys. Notwithstanding his power, the strength truthfulness, as may be seen by perusing the passage of man is incapable of making ihis untamable ani- referred to. It is singular to see in so ancient a book mal assist him in his labors. He cannot make use the air when they wish to run before the wind. They

this habit of ostriches noticed, of raising their wings into of it to carry his harvests, or to gather them into know, by instinct, that their wings, under such circumhis barns.*

stances, will act as sails or oars.

+ See Job xxxix. 19 to 25. This description of the * See Job xxxix. 1 to 11. We shall make only a single horse is superior to all others that have since been writobservation on these verses : it relates to the animal ten. which the Hebrews called Reem, perhaps the oryx of the I See Job xxxix. 26 to 30. The Hebrew word nescher Greeks, spoken of by Martial and Oppian. This species (eagle) is derived from the verb schour, which properly appears to be the same as the Oryx antilope of natural signifies to contemplate. The authors of the Bible were ists ; it is about the size of a stag, and its horns are slen- not ignorant that the eagle could fix its eyes on the sun. der, from two to three feet long. This antelope, or oryx The prophets had also correctly observed that when the of Elian, lives in large herds in the interior of Africa, and eagle moults he loses almost all his feathers (Micah i. throughout the whole of Arabia.

16.) Scripture is not less correct, when it speaks of the M. Rosenmüller, as well as Bochart, has translated the manners of animals. See, for example, Proverbs xxx. Hebrew term Reem by oryx, with so much the more 25 to 28 ; Isaiah xxxiv. 14 and 15. The Proverbs conreason, because the notion of the unicorn has been formed lain details not less curious on inanimate bodies. Ezefrom some individuals which had lost one of their horns. kiel (iii. 9, and x. 1) had remarked, that the diamond was This circumstance is the more probable, since the oryx the liardest of stones, as the sapphire was one of the most presents this peculiarity, as well as the algazel and brilliant. Zechariah, likewise, when wishing to describe

of passage, as they cross the seas, to the speed of Explaining them, accordingly, with an admirable vessels using their large sails as if they were huge conciseness, the greater part of these facts have wings. It shows to us the extensive journeys escaped the notice of the first interpreters of Scripperformed by these light inhabitants of the air, ture, who, from inability to comprehend them, ibeir immense numbers, their fatigues, the conse have not given to the sacred books all the imquence of their lengthened flight, and the prompti- portance they now possess in our eyes. Their iude with which they alight when they reach the errors, altogether involuntary, are so much the end of their journey. Everything, in the deline- less to be wondered at, since the Bible contains ation of the manners of these birds of passage, is particulars for which we cannot yet assign a reason rapid and animated as the movements them in the present state of our knowledge. The conselves of the beings which people the aërial stant progress of human science will soon render ocean.

them intelligible. This is not the least of the adWe have enumerated some of the principal vantages of the sciences, nor the least valuable inphysical facts contained in the Bible; we have heritance we can leave to our descendants. They endeavored to show the relations they bear to will not forget, more than we, that Scripture is a ihose with which science has recently made us treasure open to all; and that it is the only book acquainted. It seems that nothing now remains from which those that borrow run no risk of being for us to ascertain. There is, however, one essen- accused of plagiarism. The ideas which they tial point of which we have omitted to speak, and may draw from it have already belonged to milwith this we shall terminate our researches. The lions of intelligences; but if they extend them, if Book of Wisdom, after having said that the they understand them better than their predecesalmighty hand of God made the world out of sors, they will so much the more belong to them, nothing, adds, that he disposed all things by num- since they shall have been the first to perceive ber, weight, and measure. By this we are led to them. understand, that we ought to consider natural bodies under three aspects ; that is to say, under

Note.-We read, in Genesis xi. 1, Erat autem that of their extent, their weight, and the number terra labii unius et sermonum eorumdem, which of atoms or molecules which compose them. Per- may be translated thus :-" There was then upon haps it was thus meant to specify the principal the earth only one language and one speech.” modes of regarding bodies, or the principal The unity of the primeval language is perhaps branches of natural science. Physics would, in more difficult to establish than that of the human this way, be represented by measure, the mathe- species. In fact, we are without the most essenmatical sciences by number, and chemistry by tial data for solving the question. We shall, weight.

therefore, confine ourselves to a few observaScripture describes, in a few words, the prin- tions. cipal properties of bodies, and how we may sum If all the varieties or different races of men are op their different appearance and different charac- derived from one stock, it follows, almost as a ters. Thus God asks Job where he was when he necessary consequence, that this must also have laid the foundations of the earth, and when He been the case with their language, however diverestablished the measures thereof? where he was sified it may be. Now, it is almost demonstrated when He enclosed the sea with barriers, when it that the white race is the most ancient. We broke forth as a child which comes from the womb ought, therefore, to find among the idioms used by of its mother? or when, enveloping the clouds as this race this preëminently primitive languagewith a garment, He surrounded it with darkness the mother of all the rest. like the swaddling-bands of infancy? Has man The proof of the primitive unity of language is ever known the paths of light, or the place of to be found, not only in the unity of the human darkness?

species, but also in the confusion of languages The details into which we have entered seem to which took place at the building of the tower of prove, with some degree of evidence, that the Babel. If confusion took place then, it could not physical truths most essential to the knowledge have existed before. of the material world, are almost all indicated in the

The history of the human race informs us, that first books of the Bible. They are never, indeed, at its origin there was only one speech (unus sermo.) fully developed, because Moses and his successors But it is difficult for us now to go back to that were not called upon to write scientific treatises. primitive stock, from which have sprung the vaWhile speaking of God, and the works which rious idioms which the different nations of the proclaim his power, they have, as if in spite of earth employ to express their ideas. All that is theinselves, allowed some gleams of their superior proved by the study of their characters, structure, knowledge to break through. Their object, and and construction, is, that the most diverse among almost their sole object, has been to point out their them have a family air and resemblance, which duties to the people they were called upon to di- reveals a common origin.* rect, and, particularly, to fill their minds with the

If we assert the contrary, we shall be forced to fear of the Lord. It was sufficient to unveil to establish as many human races as there are idioms them the principal facts of this visible world, to without analogy or mutual connection ; that is to convince them of the wisdom of the Most High, so say, we should have to establish hundreds. This clearly imprinted on the works he has produced. consequence would not be very philosophical ; it

would oblige us, at least, to multiply the races the impenitence of the Hebrews, says that they have almost in the inverse ratio of the number of indiprophet was also acquainted with the mode of trying viduals who formed part of them. In fact, the Job contains interesting details on the metals and precious * The knowledge of this primitive language is of no

consequence to Scripture ; it only interests philosophers. * See Isaiah xlvi. 11; Ix. 8; Hosea xi. 11; Joel ii. The Bible, accordingly, contains no details in regard to also the Psalms.




smallest tribes, and the most subdivided of savage | it will follow, that all are derived from one and nations, often present the most notable and strongly the same language. marked differences in their languages. As the The same thing would appear to be the case consequence of this state of things, the interior of with the most ancient languages, such as the Africa, or the unexplored regions of Australia, Hebrew, the Chaldee, the Phænician, the Syriac, would contain a greater number of races than the the Abyssinian, and the Arabic; among which whole of Europe or Asia. The same thing would may be included the Egyptian, the affinity of hold true of America, where, however, it appears which to the Hebrew is not less manifest. The to be demonstrated, that the numerous languages analogies of all these idioms are so numerous, of the natives are derived from a common stock, that, according to M. Cellerier, a great number of these having been subjected to the laws of other modes of speech and foreign terms of expression, families of spoken languages.

principally Arabian, are to be found in the Book The most recent researches on the construction of Job. He assures us that he has counted eightyof different idioms, seem to have rendered it prob- five words in that book which are not to be inet able, that, after the violent separation of the hu- with in any other of the Old Testament books. man species, they formed themselves into groups, He has also noticed in it twelve Syriac expresor, if the term be preferred, into families. These sions, eighteen Chaldean, and fifty-three Arabian. groups daily tend to approach each other, and This observation, however, applies only to the thus more and more indicate their paternity and poetical part; the prologue and epilogue are mutual affinities. They thus present the best written in Mosaic Hebrew, and in the ordinary proof of their first and single point of departure ; narrative style. (Introduction to the Old Testathey divide the human species into certain great ment, p. 494.) characteristic families, the subsequent divisions of The Latin, which, like the Greek, has a close which come within the domain of history. These relationship to the Sanscrit, is evidently a derivanalogies and relations will become more and more alive and secondary idiom. The greater part of apparent, in proportion as the philosophical study those of Europe, such as the Italian, Spanish, of nations, and the knowledge of their diverse English, and French, are derived from it. At idioms, acquire greater certainty and fuller de- least, they exhibit such striking resemblances, and velopment.

such numerous agreements, that it is easy to recThe languages which form the Semitic branch, ognize in them the traces of the language from in which inay be included Hebrew, Chaldee, which they have been derived. Phænician, Syriac, Abyssinian, and Arabian, have It is difficult, therefore, in the actual state of been long recognized as having a common origin, things, to go back to the primitive stock from and composing a great family.

which all spoken languages have sprung.

All The same thing may be said of the Chinese and that can be done, is to recognize affinities, more or Indo-Chinese languages, which compose a single less strongly marked, between them, and to detect, group, in which all the monosyllabic languages of as it were, distinct groups or families. Notwiththe east may be included.

standing the great differences observable between With regard to the idioms known under the certain idioms, we conclude, after an attentive exname of Indo-European, they compose a great amination, by discovering in them certain characfamily, including the Sanscrit or ancient and sa-ters which reveal a common origin, and a primary cred language of India ; the ancient and modern and single stock. Persian, which was at first considered to be a Tar The exertions of the most illustrious philologists tar dialect; the Teutonic, with its diverse dia- of our times, have been directed to this important lects, such as the Slavonic, Greek, and Latin, point in the history of language. Their researches with its numerous derivatives. The Celtic dia- on the signs, the structure, and construction of the lects, which, according to Prichard, have the numerous idioms which mankind have employed closest relation to the Indo-European languages, to communicate their thoughts, have proved, bemust be arranged in this group.

yond a doubt, that these constitute distinct groups Although the Sanscrit may appear, at first sight, and many great families. Yet, they have found to be a mother language, and to have only remote in them, considered collectively, too close analoanalogies with those which are somewhat modern, gies, and too obvious affinities, to admit of regardwe arrive at another conclusion when we compare, ing them otherwise than as all derived from a sinwith some attention, the Sanscrit and the Greek, gle and primitive stock, or a mother language. for example. This examination is found to prove This appears so much the more probable, when that numerous relations exist between these two we consider that we often discover stronger reidioms, which would at first appear to have nothing semblances between the idioms spoken by nations in common. Some curious details on this point situate at great distances from each other, than will be found in a notice placed at the head of between those used by neighboring tribes. This Burnout's Greek Grammar. Similar analogies occurs at times, even between nations who have are observable between the Sanscrit, the Persian, no historical connection, and who, accordingly, and all the old and new dialects of the north ; as can afford us no reason for affinities existing beis also found to be the case between the first of tween their respective languages. Klaproth, in these languages and the Hebrew. We shall his Asiatic Memoirs, * has mentioned numerous find the proof of this assertion in the excellent examples of these singular resemblances. German work published by Bopp. This skilful If, as the most eminent scientific individuals philologist has there compared all these languages have supposed, the origin of language depends on with the Sanscrit. Now, as the Greek also the faculty given to man to express his thoughts appears to be derived from it, judging from the by means of words and particular characters, this great number of words common to the two idioms, faculty must be indefinite. It would, in fact, ap

* See page 10 of tbc 37th edition. Paris, 1842.

* Paris, 1824, tome i., p. 214,

From the Examiner.

pear to be so. This circumstance may permit us He was imperfectly acquainted with the lanio conceive the numerous alterations and modifica- guage, was without resources, (the political troutions which language has undergone; modifica- bles of Spain having further involved his family tions of such a nature that often the words of one affairs,) and without a friend. But he had known idiom belong to one class, and its grammar to Lord Holland in Spain, and that generous nobleanother. Even a new language sometimes results man became his active patron. He was enabled from this, differing from that whence it is derived, to establish a Spanish journal; conducted it till and further distinguished from it by the adoption the expulsion of the French in 1814; and received of new grammatical forms altogether peculiar to a pension of 2501. a year from the foreign office. itself.*

Then he seems to have set himself to that arduous task of reeducating himself in English, which gives peculiar interest to his life. He literally

recast his mind in an English mould ; in a few The Life of the Rev. Joseph Blanco White, written years never thought but in English ; and wrote

by himself; with Portions of his Correspond- an admirable English style, strong and simple. ence. Edited by John Hamilton Thom. Three But having for this purpose fixed his residence vols. Chapman.

in Oxford, a sort of evil religious destiny awaited

him there. In the High Protestant Oxford party, This book is properly described by its editor as his vehement southern temperament recognized the materials of an autobiography, rather than the what he thought the temple of his youth's religion completed work. It is in three parts. The first renovated and purified; ihe priest revived in him; stricily autobiographical, containing a narrative of he set himself to new examination of the Christian events, and addressed to the writer's friend, Doc- religion, and became an ardent member of the tor Whateley. _ The second, entitled “ A Sketch English Protestant Church. We observe at this of my Mind in England,” going over much of the time the affectionate care and forethought of Lord ground of the autobiographical sketch, and shaped Holland, in an effort to bring him back to the into a history of the writer's religious experience. quieter paths of literature. His friendly kindness The third, and most extensive, made up of jour-forced him into Holland House with the office of nals, note-books, and correspondence. Mr. Thom tutor to the present lord ; but after two years he has discharged his duty to his friend with mani-flung off the generous restraint, and threw himself fest care and affection, and though the arrange- headlong into religious controversy. He wrote the ment tends to a little confusion and repetition now Doblado assailed Charles Butler's Book of and then, the subject of the book is from first to the Church, and in a work called Internal Evidences last very faithfully reflected. The omission of against Roman_Catholicism, declared himself occasional redundancies, and the intrusion of edito- against Catholic Emancipation. Southey exulted, rial matter, would not in this respect have im- and Allen grieved. Keswick bid him God-speed proved it.

in his glorious efforts ; while Holland House reBlanco White was a name well known in Lon-proached him that after all his efforts to divest don and Oxford society twenty years ago. It was himself of the rags of Popery, the mantle of Fanever doubted, we believe, that he was a sincere ther Torquemada should be still cleaving like the man; though he passed for a very “crotchety” shirt of Nessus.

This book will improve his reputation. It is very evident, however, that no man could There is much in the peculiar construction of his have been more sincere than Blanco White at this mind-in its close union of the moral with the time. He wrote what he plainly felt; and withintellectual faculties, and in its restless desire for out care of what its help to bigotry, or to his own truth-which may remind the reader of Doctor fortune, might be. He seems unaffectedly amazed Arnold. Both have, in an unusual degree, what when Oxford straightway creates him a master of the French call caractère : a word of more mean- arts, and the Duke of York gives him a commising than the analogous one in English.

sion for his son, (whose birth is one of the mysteThe outline of Blanco White's life is curious. ries unexplained in the volumes.) He became a He was a Spaniard; his father of an Irish stock, clergyman of the English church, and preached, his mother Andalusian; and born in 1775, at both in London and Oxford. Seville, at that time the most bigoted town of We suspect that Blanco's first grave doubt of Spain. His family were engaged in mercantile the course he had taken came with his unlookedaffairs, and formed a sort of small Irish colony in for worldly rewards. His nature was not suspiSeville; but misfortunes overtook them, and his cious of others; but it was querulous to a painful mother, a religious enthusiast, took Blanco from degree in things affecting itself; and sensitively the merchant's desk and devoted him to the Ro- alive to what the world might think, and people man Catholic church. This false step colored his say. Nor did he mend his position by voting, four future life. Strongly disinclined to religious dis- years later, for Peel's reëlection at Oxford. But cipline, his mother's influence prevailed against there seems no reason to doubt that his Oxford life repeated attempts to disengage himself from it. was a reasonably happy one. He made friendships He took priest's orders in the Colegio Mayor, in the common room of Oriel which survived the was elected rector of his college, and became one changes of his after life. He corresponded with of the chaplains of the Chapel Royal of St. Ferdi- Southey and Coleridge; explained the Roman nand. But by the time he had attained this rank Catholic breviary to Pusey and Froude; had a high in his church, its degrading influences were so bit- and earnest delight in intercourse with Newman terly felt by him, as well for other members of his and Whateley ; started a review of his own befamily as himself, that he saw no alternative because Murray was starving his Quarterly contributween infidelity or flight. He chose the latter, tors; and was cheered in its failure, as in every and came w England in 1810.

other failure or calamity he met with, by the un* From the Bibliothèque Universelle de Genève, No. failing kindness of his friends at Holland House, 106, 1814, pp. 321-336.

and their delicate and generous sympathy. It was


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