« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
From Chambers' Journal. ity and favoritism than any other class of editors. RAILWAY LITERATURE.
Hence there resides much influence in these jour
nals for good or for evil. Being looked up io by AMONGST the very great alterations in our the public as authorities on the subject to which social system which railway extension over the they are devoted, they have the power either to breadth and length of Great Britain has produced, puff off unstable schemes, which are never intended the effect it has had upon literature should not be to be carried further than the share market ; or, overlooked. Railways have created a new class by dint of cautious inquiry and fearless exposure, of publications exclusively devoted to their inter- to guard capitalists against them. As vehicles ests. They have called into existence not merely for the publication of various transactions cona new branch of literature, but a whole literature nected with old as well as new lines, they put of their own, with each department definitely their readers in possession of data upon which to marked and industriously filled. They have their form correct opinions concerning the actual condiuseful, serious, business books and periodicals for tion and progress not only of particular companies, the public to consult, as it does the Ready-Reck- but of the aggregate of the new but gigantic interoner or the Times newspaper. They have also est which is now centred in this mode of conveytheir light and graceful belles-lettres, which the ance. To the honor of all the important compafashionable world is beginning to prefer to com- nies be it spoken, open unconcealed irading appears mon-place poetry and blasé fiction.' A glance at to be their rule of conduct, and cach publishes a this new and comprehensive literature will assur- weekly account of the annount of business done edly be instructive of the ever-advancing progress during every eight days. Under the head of of this country.
Official railway traffic returns," there appears in In the useful department, preeminence must be the railway newspapers a table setting forth the given to a neat waistcoal-pocket compendium, money received for the transit of passengers and which is as portable as the tiniest Ready-Reckoner, goods. That every means of calculation and and quite as necessary to the man of business. It deduction may be afforded to the interested reader, may be with truth designated the traveller's best beside this item is placed the amount of receipts companion, although its real title is “ Bradshaw's of the corresponding weeks in as many previous Railway Guide." It consists of a set of tables, years as the line has been in operation; also the interspersed with distinctly engraved maps. The authorized capital of every company, the amount tables tell us the respective distances, the times of its periodical expenses, and the dividend per of starting froin and arriving at every railway sta- cent. received by each shareholder at the last tion in Great Britain ; to which is added a list of division of profits. Thus, by the aid of the railthe fares for each distance. Supposing, therefore, way journals, a person who wishes to invest a man to be lounging in the neighborhood of John money may know the exact value of the shares he o' Groat's a few years hence, (when all the rail. would purchase on the very day he desires to buy ways in this island shall have been complete,) and them; and, moreover, be able to form a tolerably he possess a copy of Mr. Bradshaw's miniature correct notion as to whether the property is likely time-book, he will only have to make one or two to improve, or to become deteriorated in value. references to it to be able to inform himself of the Thanks, therefore, to the exertions of " railway hour, nay, of the precise minute, at which he editors," there is no species of property which a would arrive at the Land's End in Cornwall. capitalist can purchase with his eyes so widely Even by the aid of the edition now before us, a open as railway property ; for if he wishes to traveller being in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, may very invest his money in houses, he must depend greatly safely order by post a dinner for the next day at upon the opinion of his builder, or upon the interMr. Wynn's excellent hotel in Falmouth at a cer- ested report he gets regarding the character and tain number of minutes before or after any particu- responsibility of the tenants. If, again, he desires lar hour; and start with the assurance that, land property, he is almost entirely in the hands though he will have to go over some four hundred of his surveyor; but, in buying railway shares, he and sixty miles-not of ground exactly, but of iron has only to consult the railway newspapers, and rail-he will be nearly sure of finding himself he may judge unerringly for himself. To assist seated at table jast as the Falmouth cook is dish- him in such cases, the “ Railway Record" ating up the pilchards. He can also, before setting taches to its weekly account “ Notes on the traffic ont, calculate from the lists of fares the exact table,” in which is set forth a short statement of amount of money the excursion will cost him, and the condition (whether finished or not) of the line, know, by consulting the maps, through what or any specially in the monetary affairs of each counties, towns, and villages he will pass. All company. this information, and much more about steamboats, There is one peculiarity belonging to these coaches, and carriers, is compressed into the newspapers which, so far as we recollect, no smallest possible compass, and bound up in a neat others possess. They are entirely and unmixedly cloth cover.
devoted to their one subject, to ihe exclusion of Next in utility, though perhaps far above Mr. every other description of matter whatever. The Bradshaw's little work in point of importance, military and naval journals contain short accounts come several newspapers, which are exclusively of what is going on in the civil world; the doings devoted to railway affairs. Those already exist- of laymen are recorded in the religious papers ; ing are the Railway Journal, the Railway Tinies, and, in short, most of the publications addressed the Railway Record, and the Irish Railway Ga- to special classes show some liule sympathy with zette, published weekly, and the Railway Regis- the ordinary affairs of life by some brief chronicle ter, issued monthly. All these periodicals are of them. Not so with the papers under consideraconducted by scientific men, with a high degree tion. We have one before us, for instance, conof respectability and independence; the last, a taining twenty-four pages of close print, and not most essential qualification ; for their conductors one single word relative to anything besides railare manifestly more open to temptations of partial- / ways. So inflexible do the conductors appear in
this respect, that they even exclude the flourishing more fiercely he denounced the scheme. At length eloquence of puffing advertisers. Out of ten pages one of the directors hit upon an expedient worthy of advertisements, not one but has direct or indi of Machiavel. He got himself cautiously introrect reference to railways. Besides several of duced to the proprietor of the journal, professed a the official advertisements of the various compa- desire to risk a few thousands in a newspaper nies, they consist of announcements of patent property, and by the dazzling offers he made, inventions for particular parts of railway machine- actually induced the unconscious proprietor, unry, of the names and addresses of share-brokers, known to his editor, (who would perhaps have and other aunouncements only relating to rail- told him better,) to sell the property. The moways. The news is equally exclusive. Reports ment the bargain was concluded, it was discovered, of meetings of companies, letters from aggrieved too late, that the railway company had, through travellers or disappointed shareholders, information the wily director, possessed themselves of the concerning foreign railways, railway police re- copyright of the paper, of the printing-office, and ports, with a leading article, and an essay or two of the services of the editor. He, however, nobly on locomotive topics, form the sum of contents in refused to change his railway politics, and was a railway newspaper.
accordingly dismissed, taking with him the
respect Froin the researches we have made from time both of friends and enemies. This case will to line in these very exclusive vehicles of railway readily be credited when we state that in one of information, we may conscientiously say that the reports adverted to, it is stated that the cost of considering the templations we have before hinted a certain railway in “buying off” opposition from at which lie in their way to diverge from the land proprietors as well as editors, and in law, straight line of honesty and truth-a better con- amounted to £1800 per mile; and that before a ducted class of newspapers does not exist. Some, single rail was laid, or a spade put into the of course, are better than others ; but it would be ground. as invidious as unnecessary here to make distinc- Before dismissing the four well-conducted spetions.
cial railway journals, and the regular stand which A few of the temptations to which railway railway intelligence and controversy has taken in editors are exposed, may be mentioned in the sec- the columns of the press in general, we must not ond section of our little treatise on the useful de- forget that the London Gazeite has of late become partment of railway literature. The readers of almost a railway newspaper. By a recent act of general newspapers may have observed that al- parliament, not only notices of every projected most every one of these organs, whether provin- line must be set forth, but the decisions of the cial or metropolitan, devotes a column or so to government railway board concerning their expe
Railway Intelligence,” in which all the several diency promulgated in that official publication. haps that the railway is heir to are duly chroni- During the present session of parliament, notices cled. Where, in the case of a provincial paper, for no fewer than 248 new branches or new lines a line is projected or in progress through the dis- have been issued, and it is no uncommon thing to trict in which it is published, that of course forms see the Gazette nearly filled with them. the subject for the exercise of the editor's pen- But of the vast masses of printing called into the pivot on which to turn the graces of rhetoric existence by railways, there is nothing to equal in in his leaders. When rival lines are proposed, quantity the reports of parliamentary committeesrival newspapers naturally take a stand in their those enormous folio “ blue-books,” so dreadful 10 favor, and a fierce pen and ink war ensues ; which the visions of busy editors, but so dear to the eyes introduces us to the controversial department of of enthusiastic statisticians. Whenever a dispute rail vay literature. Without hinting a breath of occurs concerning the expediency of having more disrespect against provincial editors as a body, we than one line laid down between the same places, may now produce our instances of the temptations or when certain interested parties deem any rail. to tergiversation to which they are exposed. We way whatever inexpedient, the controversy is learn from one of the parliamentary reports, that referred to a " seleci committee of the House of in a certain district a warfare between two rival Commons." These committees consist of some companies ran so high, and was so energetically eight or ten members of parliament, who hear evisupported, that the older of the projecting compa-dence on both sides, and give their decision in nies thought it expedient to "buy off” the opposi- " reports.” It often happens that weeks are emtion of their vigorous opponent, and he was soon ployed in merely taking evidence ; every word of able to present an exception to a very general rule; which is accurately noted in short-hand, afterwards narnely, that of a literary man retiring upon a for- printed, and stitched into the well-known blue tune In his case railway literature had proved a
Besides this, there is a report of the golden egg, though he managed to hatch it under committee printed separately, as well as addenda, very discreditable circumstances. Another even appendices, &c. Now, it happened that, in the stronger example of the height to which literary course of the last session of parliament, between warfare has been carried, is mentioned on good forty and fifty of these committees sat, heard evianthority. In a midland county, an editor wielded dence, reported, and-printed. Consequently, at his facts and his logic so manfully, that, in the the very least five-and-forty blue-books were opinion of the opposed company, he created an issued, with their equally blue satellites, in the effect upon the minds of his readers far too serious shape of reports, additions and appendices. Supnot to damage, perhaps to overthrow, their pro- posing we give to each of these iwelve hundred ject. Against bribes-unlike his above-mentioned and fifty pages, (a moderate average,) we may brother journalist-he was proof. A new paper calculate that in one year railway speculation and was started in opposition, but the leaders were railway opposition called into existence upwards of weak and ineffective compared with his. Every sixty thousand folio pages of print! And this is not scheme was tried that ingenuity could invent, or all. These reports give rise to countless pamphlets, cash execute, to silence him; but the more this written either in reply to some of the witnesses, or was attempted, the stronger he wrote, and the for the advocacy of particular views. As regards the
utility or instructiveness of the blue-book branch speed of such an engine, provided the works could of railway literature, we can only say that its be made to stand.” A partial failure on the chief fault is its extreme bulkiness; for much Stockton and Darlington line—on which Stephenhoney is to be extracted from it. Amongst the son's locomotive was tried, and which was openwitnesses are the most eminent engineers, who ed in 1825, for conveying passengers by means furnish valuable information in answer to questions of horse-draught-led to a temporary prejudice put to them; practical men of business supply les against his sanguine views as to amount of speed. sons of sound wisdom; whilst non-professional One writer, who professed himself a friend of lowitnesses sometimes relieve the tedium of scien- comotive engines, delivered himself as follows:tific detail by the quaintness or jocularity of their “ It is far from my wish to promulgate to the replies.
world that the ridiculous expectations, or rather From the statistical, periodical, and controver- professions, of the enthusiastic speculatist will be sial writings which the all-powerful locomotive realized, and that we shall see engines travelling has created, we now turn to its historical litera- at the rate of twelve, sixteen, eighteen, twenty ture. Upon this subject much has been written, miles an hour. Nothing could do more harm toand a short summary of what has already appeared wards their general adoption and improvement we now propose to give. Railways being still in than the promulgation of such nonsense!”. their infancy, of course their history is short. Still Stephenson, who knew well what he
The mere notion of lessening the draught of was about, persisted in asserting the above “nonwheeled carriages by running them on the smooth sense;" but it was so litile heeded even by experisurface of wooden or iron rails, is by no means enced men, that when, in 1828, the promoters of new; such rails, in the form of grooves or ruts, the Liverpool and Manchester railway employed for the reception of the edges of wheels, and him, and he was summoned as a witness before a called trams, were in use quite two centuries ago committee of the House of Commons, they inin the English collieries. Roger North, in de- treated him not to shock the common sense of the scribing the “way-leaves" granted for the priv- members by stating his expectations of higher ilege of laying down such roads, and of transit speed than ten miles an hour. When," said over them at Newcastle, says, " When men have Mr. Stephenson, in the above-quoted speech, “I pieces of ground between the colliery and the riv- went to Liverpool 10 plan a line to Manchester, er, they sell leave to lead coals over their ground, I pledged myself to atiain a speed of ten miles an and so dear, that the owner of a rood of ground hour. I said I had no doubt the locomotive might will expect £20 per annum for this leave. The be made to go much faster, but we had better manner of the carriage is by laying rails of tim- be moderate at the beginning. The directors her from the colliery down to the river exactly said I was quite right; for if, when they went straight and parallel, and bulky carts are made to parliament, I talked of going at a greater with four rowlets fitting these rails, whereby the rate than ten miles an hour, I would put a cross carriage is so easy, that one horse will draw down on the concern. It was not an easy task for four or five chaldrons of coals, and is an immense me to keep the engine down to ten miles an benefit to the coal merchants.'
hour ; but it must be done, and I did my best. I This practice was somewhat older than 1676, had to place myself in that most unpleasant of all when the above passage was written. By the positions—the witness box of a parliamentary middle, however, of the last century, the iron committee. I was not long in it, I assure you, works of Shropshire and Staffordshire had be- before I began to wish for a hole to creep oni at. coine sufficiently extensive to enable the North- I could not find words to satisfy either the comumberland coal proprietors 10 substitute iron for mittee or myself. Some one inquired if I were a wooden trams, and to attract the system south- foreigner, and another hinted that I was mad. But ward. In 1760, iron plates were first laid down I put up with every rebuff, and went on with my upon wooden rails in Colebrook Dale, Shropshire, plans, determined not to be put down. Assistance and were speedily adopted in all the English and gradually increased—improvements were made Welsh mines and collieries ; so that by 1811 there every day—and to-day a train which started from were, in South Wales alone, above 150 iniles of London in the inorning, has brought me in the afthis description of railway. Still, the power of ternoon to my native soil, and enabled me to take steam remained unapplied till the year 1813, when my place in this room, and see around me many Mr. George Stephenson constructed the first loco-faces which I have great pleasure in looking motive engine. Mere theorists thought him crazed; upon." Thanks to the indomitable perseverance for it was never supposed that the smooth wheels of Stephenson in persisting in his " nonsense, of a steam-carriage would adhere sufficiently to there are at present nearly a hundred lines in the equally smooth rails, so as to produce locomo- Great Britain in full operation, on not one of which tion. It was thought that the wheels would run, is the average rate of speed less than twenty miles or rather slip, round without moving the carriage; per hour. So much for the “ ridiculous expectathat, in short, “ they would not bite." But iions of enthusiastic speculatists." From this. George Stephenson determined to try by actual scrap of railway history, we turn to a considera-experiment. “ The first locomotive which I tion of its light literature. made," said that gentleman, at a dinner given to We cannot conscientiously recommend so stronghim late last year in Newcastle, “ was at Killing- ly as the railway newspapers, certain other periworth colliery, and with Lord Ravensworth's odicals professing to be devoted to the lighter matmoney. Yes! Lord Ravensworth and Co. were ters which float about railways, because they seem the first parties that would intrust me with money in a great measure to hoist false colors. On look-to make a locomotive engine. That engine was ing into them, we cannot perceive that they are. made 32 years ago, and we called it. My Lord.' anything more than repertories of general facts: I said to my friends that there was no limit to the and stray witticisms, illustrated with wood en
gravings. We must therefore dismiss them at * Life of Lord Keeper Guilford, vol. i., p. 265. once, to consider the effects which railways are gradually spreading over the current literature of of the historian Michelet—which is exciting such The day.
a sensation, that we must at once take notice of it Composed as a railway train is of mechanical as a separate publication. It is, indeed, a book details, and connected as it is with utilitarian max- which has an individual interest quite independent ims and doings, it possesses, we believe, some of of the quarrel whence it originated. It is a book the elements of poetry. Sink details—remove it which at all times would be welcomed as a proto a distance where we only witness its force and found insight into the social life of France, but speed, and, even as a sight, it becomes sublime. which is particularly valuable at the present time, Regard it further as a recent product of man's when in our own country there is a powerful, perrestless ingenuity—a surprising application of severing influence at work, which strives to hurry physical principles to the convenience of our race, society into accepting spiritual direction and ceand the sublimity becomes moral. Here there libacy, the two monster evils of Catholicism. We surely is poetry. Against railways, indeed, the speak of that active, ardent, and, if successful, voice of a distinguished English poet has lately terrible sect, the Puseyites. Its more recondite been raised. But his effusion was promptly an- principles we are not now to discuss; but what it swered by other sonneteers, who adopted the views openly avows, we may openly challenge; it avows we are now advocating: And why should it not its preference for the celibacy of priests; and it be? The ship, with all its attributes and acces- avows, though less boldly, its approbation of consories, has for ages furnished similes for poets : fession and spiritual direction. who can say that, when time has sufficiently hal- This brings the subject of M. Michelet's work lowed such objects, steamers and locomotives will home to our business and bosoms." This makes not be equally prolific in tropes ? To the novelist, that which is a subject of European interest a a railway train is invaluable ; for where can he special subject of English interest. His work is bring his characters so unexpectedly, yet so proh- full of eloquent indignation, piquant portraits, bisably together as in a double-seated carriage? His torical traits, and subtle analysis; but these are elopements may be managed with far more celeri- literary qualities which the majority of people ty-hence with far more excitement-by rail than would be tolerably indifferent to, did they not by the slow-going posters of the old north road ; all combine to illustrate one strong, vehement and then for a catastrophe, what would satisfy purpose, and that purpose practical. poetical justice and a melo-dramatic author so
“ The family is in question ; abundantly, as to crush up all his bad characters by - That home where we would all fain repose, a railway collision? We perceive that one writer after so many useless efforts, so many illusions dehas taken to the rail for his plots in right earnest. stroyed. We return home very wearied—do we In recent numbers of the Dublin University Mag. find repose there? azine appears a series entitled “ Tales of the
• We must not dissimulate, we must frankly Trains, being some chapters of Railroad Ro- confess to ourselves the real state of things.
There exists in the bosom of society—in the famWe take leave of the subject by mentioning one ily circle—a serious dissension, nay, the most serivery gratifying fact which is intimately connected
ous of all dissensions. with it. Some of the liberal-minded amongst the
“We may talk with our mothers, our wives, or railway directories have provided for their engi.
our daughters, on all those matters about which neers, stokers, and other employées, small and we talk with our acquaintances : on business, on compact libraries for their amusement or instruc- the news of the day, but not at all on matters tion during the many intervals of leisure which necessarily occur.
nearest the heart, on religion, on God, on the These collections of books, sou). enclosed in a case so as to be easily removed from one station to another, form libraries always at the yourself united with your family in one common
“ Take the instant when you would fain find command of the companies' servants at the hours feeling, in the repose of the evening, round the they most need thern. Some time ago we had the family table; there, in your home, ar your own pleasure of selecting such a collection at the re- hearth, venture 10 ulter a word on these matters ; quest of the authorities of a railway near Edin
your mother sadly shakes her head, your wife conburgh.
tradicts you, your daughter, although silent, disap
proves. They are on one side of the table, you From the Foreign Quarterly Review.
on the other, and alone.
“It would seem as if in the midst of them, opSOCIAL ANARCHY IN FRANCE.
posite to you, sat an invisible man lo contradict Du Prêtre, de la Femme, et de la Famille, par
you say.' Michelet. Paris : 1845.
Such is the mysterious opening of the work. During the last four years, France has been the That invisible enemy is the priest. To show how theatre of a passionate struggle of which few the priest becomes your enemy, and your powertidings have reached us here in England. It is ful enemy, is the object of what follows. Al not because the struggle was unimportant, or un-thongh we entirely agree in the reasons M. Micheworthy of European attention, but because other let alleges, and quite see the force of his arguand political struggles which made more noise, ments against celibacy, confession, and direction, usurped our attention, that we heard so little of as destructive to domestic peace, we think he has the angry and profound dissension which agitated omitted iwo elements of the social anarchy, elemost serious minds. The struggle we allude to is ments which marvellously facilitate the dangerous that between the Jesuits and the Philosophers ; ; powers given to the priest by confession and diand we hope to present our readers with a detailed rection. These, as supplimentary rather than account of it in our next.
contradictory to his work, we may briefly indiMeanwhile, there lies before us the latest mani-cate. festo of the anti-Jesuit party—the brilliant book 1st. The husband has not the same faith as his
wife. In France, while the girls are sedulously her husband's heart; what she holds sacred, he educated in the principles of the church, and turn holds sacred. Upon these points, the priest is not out religious, often devout women, the boys, with called to interfere. He may listen to her confesthe greater license of public schools, and the gen- sion, he may direct her conduct ; but he has not eral, almost universal skepticism, or, at least, in- to listen to ihe outpourings of a wounded spirit ; difference in matters of religion prevalent amongst he has not to soothe and flatter la femme incommen, and apparent in every shape of French liter- prise. ature, are found to have no religion at all. There 2nd. The mother does not nurse her infant, does is very liule Voltairianism in France ; but there is not educate her child. This point is perhaps of a wide-spread indifference; no polemics, but no less importance than the former, but less than that fervor of belief, not even fervor of disbelief. only, and being coupled with it, becomes of fearWhen we say France, we mean, of course, Paris ; ful importance. M. Michelet has finely treated for to some of the provinces the same charge will that portion of it which concerns education. It not apply.
wrings from him expressions of the noblest kiud; What is the consequence? A timid, devout, and wisely, feelingly, does he exhort the reader to serious girl, is sold in marriage to an ambitious, pay attention to the claims of nature in this reoccupied, or frivolous man. But the man, whether spect, and not be led away by the foolish notion of he be ainbitious, over-worked, or frivolous, is sure a mother's care making her son effeminate. Wilto be indifferent to all religious matters. We re- lingly would we transfer to our pages all the paspeal, indifferent. Were he a positive skeptic, he sages in which he treats of this matter ; but we might convert her; and then, at least, there would must be content to refer our readers who will, we be sympathy. But he does not attempt it. All trust, all become his readers—to the work itself. her religious scruples are received with a shrug, But this is not all the question. That the child her heart's effusions seared by a bon mot; her is best educated by the mother, because she alone sympathies are outraged. She married without rightly understands him, when the father or the love; she is soon to be a wife without respect, as tutor so often misunderstands him, so often exwell as without love for him who ought to be her pects him to appreciate that which is above his all-in-all.
comprehension—this will scarcely be denied. We But her sympathies though chilled, are not sti- mean, of course, a competent mother, not a silly, filed; they are agitating the heart, they struggle doting woman. But M. Michelet is a Frenchman, for utterance. An English wife so situated, if and as such, we may venture to say, is not so not cursed with some “ female friend and counsel- much alive to the importance of the mother's lor,'' would soon make up her mind; keeping her nursing her child, as all Englishmen are; and thoughts to herself, praying in her own way, and here we fancy he overlooks a grave consideration. praying for her husband, she would devote her. Our readers are probably aware, that it is the very self to the education of her children. There general custom in France for women not only to would be a "silent sorrow” in the home, as there procure wet-nurses for their infants, (as many must always be when such differences exist. But English mothers unhappily also do,) but for the the husband would possess a wife, the children a infants to be sent away into the country to nurse. mother, the house, a mistress. The French wife A serious social error. We pass over all colhas not this refuge. The priest is at her side. lateral evils to dwell solely on those which immeTo him she is bound to confide her sorrows, and diately bear upon our present subject. The young how willingly does she perform the duty! To mother is left alone! She has no husband 10 him she tells all—the secret of her soul, the se- love; she has no child to oscupy her thoughts-no cret of her home. She asks advice, and receives child to form the centre of all her hopes, her it; but from that moment she is lost. The priest fears, her thousand womanly affections. sits at the hearth, in the place where the husband Remember, the case is stronger than with the should sit. The priest has all the deepest utter- English mother, who, if she were to send her ances of the young heart poured into his ear; he baby away from her, would (unless a young wife is the only one to sympathize with her. She is and mother, and to her the case does not so well unc femme incomprise; but the priest is there apply) have other children to occupy her affecready to understand her; he is there with the tions. The French are often facetious on the most poisonous of all fattery-sympathy! He is subject of large English families; and they little there, unconsciously, unwillingly, the refuge for imagine how much of their own social anarchy all her disappointed aspirations, all her outraged results from their obedience to Plato's uncomfeelings. She does not love her husband ; love- promising and audacious law of proportioning the matches are rare in France, and the affection she number of children to the amount of propertycould bestow on him, and which in time might ουχ υπέρ την ουνιαν ποιούμενοι τους παιδας, ευλαβοσripen into love, she bestows on another.
μενοι πενίαν ή πόλεμον." It is a subject we dare This is no exaggerated picture; it is the inevi- not dwell upon. Enough that the position of the table result of an unhappy position. The priest is wife and mother is an isolated one. The infant is perhaps the hastener of the evil; he is not the sent away to nurse.
When it returns home it is first cause of it. If he were the first cause, why almost time for it to be sent to school. The is he not so wherever Catholicism is accepted? mother is thus alone. What are her resources ? Why not in Spain, in Italy, in Ireland ? M. Miche- To be thus alone is to be a prey to the demon let will not contend that the sad evil he so elo- of Ennui. The fearful effects of that condition quently exposes, exists to anything like the same M. Michelet has pointed out; and in one epigram extent in those countries as in France; and why he has condensed volumes : “ Ennui makes her not? Simply, we believe, because the priest is receive friends she knows to be enemies—curious, not there so often called in to interfere. The faith envious, calumnious.” If it makes such society of the wise is also the faith of the husband, her agreeable, what charın must it not lend to the aspirations, if not always shared, are always un
* “De Rep.” ii., p. 85, ed Bekker; confer also "Lederstood; her deepest thoughts find an echu in ges," V., p. 397.