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lowing character which he gives of Mr. Canning | dington and Mr. Pitt, that the enclosed paper at this period of his life :should be transmitted to them without the signa"Jan. 24, 1803.-Canning has been forced, tures, which are ready to be affixed to it."like a thriving plant in a well-managed hot-house; p. 103. he has prospered too luxuriantly-has felt no check or frost. Too early in life, he has had Mr. Canning penned this ingenious præscript—the We can easily conceive the spirit of fun in which many, and too easy advantages. This, added to title of which would have revealed its author; very acute parts, makes him impatient of control.but when Lord Malmesbury lent his graver and Astonished to find obstacles and difficulties in his more deliberate countenance to the device of sigway; angry with those who conceive less quickly nifying signatures to be ready, since none were to and eagerly than himself, or who will not keep be had, he could not have had in his thoughts that pace with him in his rapid plans and views; and excellent maxim, which he afterwards so forcibly. indulging an innate principle of vanity, he under- inculcated on another young friend,— rates others, and appears arrogant and contemptu"April 11th. It is scarce necessary to say that ous, although really not so. This checks the right no occasion, no provocation, no idea, however and gradual growth of his abilities; lessens their tempting, of promoting the object you have in effects, and vitiates the very many excellent, honora-view, can need, much less justify, a falsehood. ble, and amiable qualities he possesses. The world, Success obtained by one, is a precarious and basewho judge him from this, judge him harshly and less success. Detection would ruin not only your unfairly; his success accounts for his manners. Rapid prosperity never creates popularity, and it honor of your cause."-p. 414. own reputation forever, but deeply wound the requires a most careful and conciliating conduct to make the two compatible."-pp. 169, 170.
We need not pursue this bubble to its bursting and vanishing into nothing; but we must just We quote this-not as a just, and still less as a notice the extraordinary efforts of Mr. Canning favorable character of an early friend, for whose and Lord Malmesbury to persuade Mr. Pitt not to public and private qualities we preserve and cher-attend the house of commons, lest his presence Ish the highest admiration and the most affectionate should seem to countenance the ministry-and the regard; but, for the sake of observing that it was ludicrous gravity with which Mr. Canning deplores with this spoiled child, as he thought him, that the failure of his "capital measure," which was a Lord Malmesbury-at the age of near threescore, device to prevent Pitt's keeping an engagement to and professing to have retired from public lifechose to associate himself in an intrigue, as absurd the infatuated ex-minister, contrary to the most dine with Addington at Richmond Park, which in all its parts as can well be conceived. Its details earnest efforts of his young friend, persisted in would be tedious; but the substance was thisdoing. All this is very amusing as we read it, "Nov. 1, 1802.-It was thought right to draw but it is humiliating to think of; and in this case, up a paper to be signed, if approved, by persons of as in others of the Diary already noticed, we eminence in different public avocations, in each think that the person who was most disliked house of parliament, to be presented by them to makes really the best figure, and that the sober Mr. Addington; its object, as will appear from good sense and good faith of Mr. Addington conthe paper itself, was to prevail on him to remove trast very favorably with the various ingenious, spontaneously, and prevent the matter being but not very ingenuous devices, that were embrought before the public."-p. 87.and "when signed by a sufficient number of lead-ployed to supplant him. As to Mr. Pitt's share in these transactions, we are glad to be able to say ing and independent men of all descriptions in that, though the hopes and wishes of Mr. Can each house," from whom it was supposed to em-ning and Lord Malmesbury may seem to throw anate, it was to be presented simultaneously to some doubts over the candor of his conduct toMr. Pitt and Mr. Addington, and, by the Duke of York (whom Lord Malmesbury had already initiated into the design,) conveyed to the king. So far, so well. We can fancy our young political Hotspur exclaiming, "Our plot is a good plot as ever was laid-our friends true and constant; a good plot-good friends and full of expectation-an excellent plot, very good friends. Why my Lord of York commends the plot and the general course of the action!" Alas! when all those " good friends" and the many persons of eminence" were to be assembled to sign the important document, it was found that there were no such persons in rerum naturâ—not one-and that the whole confederacy consisted of no soul but the original coterie which had imagined it, Mr. Canning, Lords Granville Leveson and Morpeth, and our venerable diplomatist;-but genius and art united are never without a resource-and behold, Mr. Canning writes to Lord Malmesbury
wards Mr. Addington, all that he himself was are not liable to any serious reproach to none responsible for-his own words and actionsat all, we think, in the earlier period of the Addington administration; for the evidence of Lord Malmesbury leaves no doubt that he was perfectly and zealously sincere in his endeavors to restrain the hostility of his younger friends who had resigned with him, as well as to confirm the support of those of his former colleagues who had taken when Mr. Pitt heard accidentally, on the 10th part in the new government;-so much so that March, 1801, that the Duke of Portland intended, on his own part and that of his other colleagues, to propose to Mr. Addington to recall Mr. Pitt,
*We are glad to be able to say that Lord Sidmouth's papers are in the hands of his son-in-law, the Dean of preparing for the press a work that will do to that honest Norwich, and we have reason to hope that the Dean is
minister and excellent man more justice than has yet been done to his abilities and public services. Lord Malmesbury seems to have been much prejudiced against him by the influence of Mr. Canning's pleasantries. We have, however, ourselves seen evidence, which we hope may exist in Lord Sidmouth's papers, that at a subsequent period Mr. Canning, in a very frank and generous manner, (as was his nature,) expressed his regret for their
"It is thought to be most respectful to Mr. Ad- former differences.
the latter waited on the duke, and in the most | Addington's place in the old one. We have peremptory manner prohibited any such interfer- heretofore ventured to express our doubts as to ence with Mr. Addington, (iv. 42;) and when, on Mr. Pitt's policy in all this affair-his original the 14th, in pursuance of the same views, Mr. Can-breaking-up of the great party of which he was ning pressed Mr. Pitt for a categorical answer as to the head-his present failure to reunite it-his his real feeling towards Mr. Addington, Mr. Pitt-ousting Mr. Addington's government before he "Without hesitation, and in the most unquali-knew on what basis he could replace it-and, fied manner, replied, that it was impossible to above all, the way in which, first and last, he have behaved with more confidence, more open- dealt with the Roman Catholic question. ness, more sincerity, than Addington had done, Malmesbury's details are too long to quote in from the first moment to this; and that the man- extenso, and too connected to be separated, but they ner in which he had conducted himself, added to will be read with interest, and the result may be his long friendship for him, had raised him higher thus stated-that the precarious state of the king's than ever in his good opinion."-p. 46. mental health, never so liable to disturbance as from the Catholic question-the peculiar difficulties created by Mr. Fox's former profession of French principles and his consequent removal from the privy council-and the great and growing perils of the country, both internal and external, afforded not merely an obvious apology, but-in the opinion of Lord Malmesbury, the Duke of Portland, and the great majority of Mr. Pitt's friends, and, no doubt, in Mr. Pitt's own conscientious conviction— a full justification of proceedings which, in opposition to such authority, we can hardly persist in blaming, though we can never cease to regret. These difficulties helped to accelerate his death, if they did not absolutely cause it, by anxiety, disappointment, and affliction: the impeachment of Lord Melville, and the battle of Austerlitz, filled the cup of bitterness, and he died, as was emphatically said, at 46, of old age and a broken heart.
And amidst not a few subsequent provocations on the part of Mr. Canning and his "young friends," who were exceedingly dissatisfied and angry at his reserve, he steadily adhered to his engagements with Mr. Addington.
In alluding to the last moments of this illustrious man, whose glorious eloquence we heard with youthful admiration, we have a melancholy pleasure in laying before our readers, whom we may presume to be admirers of the name and character of Pitt, the following interesting anecdotes, which the noble editor has given us from the note-book of his amiable and able father, the second Earl of Malmesbury, while he was Lord Fitzharris, and a member of Mr. Pitt's last Board of Treasury.
As time lapsed, and circumstances changed, so, no doubt, did in a certain degree the mutual relations of the late and existing ministers, and Mr. Pitt became naturally more and more reluctant to attend in parliament the discussion of new measures which he had not advised and might not approve, but which his general inclination to support Mr. Addington disabled him from opposing. In the spring of 1803, however, this state of affairs was essentially altered, by Mr. Addington's making him an overture for his return to office, but on terms which Mr. Pitt thought he could not accept. The particulars of this transaction are given by Lord Malmesbury in much and interesting detail; and we are bound to say that the conditions were such as we do not think Mr. Pitt could have accepted, though his refusal was somewhat too haughtily stated. This affair, however, seems to us to have placed the rival parties on new and independent ground; it was a fresh point of departure; and though Mr. Pitt appeared still very reluctant to oppose the ministry, his connexion became gradually less cordial. Mr. Addington about this time fancied that he strengthened him- "On the receipt of the news of the memorable self by offering office to Mr. Sheridan and others battle of Trafalgar, (some day in November, 1805,) of the old opposition, and by actually bringing I happened to dine with Pitt, and it was naturally into his government Mr. Tierney, who a few the engrossing subject of our conversation. I shall years before had fought a duel with Mr. Pitt. never forget the eloquent manner in which he This seems to us to have fairly released Mr. Pitt described his conflicting feelings, when roused in altogether and at last, after many moves on the the night to read Collingwood's dispatches. Pitt political chess-board, which may be followed very observed, that he had been called up at various agreeably in Lord Malmesbury's Diary, Mr. Pitt hours in his eventful life by the arrival of news of concurred with Mr. Fox and the old opposition in various hues; but that, whether good or bad, he several important votes, particularly one on the could always lay his head on his pillow and sink defence bill, in which Mr. Addington had a ma-into sound sleep again. On this occasion, however, jority of only thirty-seven, on which he resigned, and Mr. Pitt returned to office-almost alone. Lord Malmesbury details the circumstances in which this short-lived and unfortunate administration was formed on so narrow a basis, after Mr. Pitt had proposed for office his new ally Mr. Fox, and his old connexions the Grenvilles, &c., for whose sake he, no doubt, had broken off the negotiation with Mr. Addington in the spring of 1803. The king had now positively excluded Mr. Fox, and though the latter very generously desired that this might not prevent the accession of his friends to office, they all made common cause with him. Mr. Canning and Lord Granville Leveson were zealous for the introduction, first of Mr. Fox, and then of the Grenvilles-but all parties adhered to their resolutions, and Mr. Pitt, instead of forming a new government, found himself in the necessity of doing little more than taking Mr.
the great event announced brought with it so much to weep over, as well as to rejoice at, that he could not calm his thoughts, but at length got up, though it was three in the morning."
"The battle of Austerlitz and its consequences, which he saw in their true light, greatly disappointed and depressed him, and certainly rather accelerated his end. I well remember walking round St. James' Park with him in November, 1805. He was naturally of a sanguine disposition. His plans were vast and comprehensive, and held out to his powerful mind the hope of establishing a European Confederacy, that should crush French ascendancy. When that battle was fought, the last ray of hope was so dimmed as to leave him without the possible expectation of seeing the fulfilment of that for which he had so long, so strenuously, and so successfully exerted himself, and which he felt (if ever accomplished) must be
brought about by other hands than his. He re- | land, the same security against the pains and signed himself to the will of that Providence to penalty of the law against Popery as they enjoyed whom he had always looked up, as well in the in Ireland by the bill of 1793, which bill enabled days of victory as in the hour of peril, and calmly them to hold commissions in the army as far as awaited that last call to which we must all respond, the rank of colonels. with the true spirit of a Christian, and felt that his sand had too nearly run out for him to think any longer of worldly matters. He went to Bath, and only returned to Wimbledon, (where he had a villa,) to die there.'
"I have ever thought that an aiding cause of Pitt's death, certainly one that tended to shorten his existence, was the result of the proceedings against his old friend and colleague, Lord Melville. I sat wedged close to Pitt himself the night when we were 216 to 216; and the speaker, Abbott, (after looking as white as a sheet, and pausing for ten minutes,) gave the casting vote against us. Pitt immediately put on the little cocked-hat that he was in the habit of wearing when dressed for the evening, and jammed it deeply over his forehead, and I distinctly saw the tears trickling down his cheeks. We had overheard one or two, such as Colonel Wardle, (of notorious memory,) say, they would see how Billy looked after it.' A few young ardent followers of Pitt, with myself, locked their arms together, and formed a circle, in which he moved, I believe, unconsciously out of the house; and neither the colonel nor his friends could approach him.
"I met Pitt at Lord Bathurst's in Gloucestershire, where he passed some days, [in December, 1802.] We went to church at Cirencester. In discoursing afterwards on the beauties of our Liturgy, he selected the Thanksgiving Prayer as one particularly impressive and comprehensive. The one, In Time of War and Tumults,' he thought admirably well drawn up, as well as that for the parliament; but added, with respect to the first of the two, that he never in hearing it could divest himself of the analogy between Abate their pride, assuage their malice,' and the line in the song of God save the King,' Confound their politics, frustrate their knavish tricks.' I observed, that Pitt was constantly taking down and quoting from Lucan, of which author he appeared to be extremely fond. Nothing could be more playful, and at the same time more instructive, than Pitt's conversation, on a variety of subjects, while sitting in the library at Cirencester. You never would have guessed that the man before you was prime minister of the country, and one of the greatest that ever filled that situation. His style and manner were quite those of an accomplished idler.-Lord Fitzharris' Note Book for 18051806."-vol. iv., pp. 341–347.
After the death of Mr. Pitt and the accession of the Talents' administration, there is little to notice till we arrive at the celebrated attempt to inveigle the king into the first step towards a concession of what were called the Catholic claims, which ended in the dismissal of that arrogant and fraudulent ministry in whose detection and discomfiture Lord Malmesbury took more part, as we have already hinted, than was commonly supposed.
"On the 9th of march, [1807,] I found that a bill was actually preparing, evidently as a sort of preliminary step to other bills still more explicit, to take off the restrictions now existing against the Catholics. The bill in the first instance was stated to be one that had no other object in view than to give the Irish Catholics, serving in Eng
"The Union made these regiments liable to serve in England and Scotland, and the act as it now stood, (they said,) gave them security in Ireland only. This appeared a just measure if pursued, and one not to be opposed.
"To this bill the king did not object, and in this shape it first appeared in the house of commons, as a clause attached to the mutiny bill, of which it was naturally to make a part. But ministers finding this go down with scarce any remark made upon it, thought they might go a step further; they withdrew the clause to the mutiny bill, and substituted in its room a bill which, by one stride, gave to the Catholics in every part of his majesty's dominions the privilege of entering into the army or navy, of holding any rank in either, and of being allowed to attend their own places of worship. This gave rise to a very spirited debate, in which Perceval, with great force and ability, showed to the house the radical alterations such a measure would make in our constitution, and the dangerous innovations with which it would be attended both in church and state. Government was violent in support of it, and Lords Howick and Temple talked vehemently.
"Strong symptoms, however, soon appeared that they met with opposition in the closet, as the second reading of the bill was postponed from day to day. On Wednesday, the 11th, the king came to town, and saw his ministers as usual at the queen's house, to whom, (it was told us,) he expressed himself very distinctly, that to such a measure he never could assent.”—vol. iv., pp. 358, 359.
At this crisis Lord Malmesbury-forgetful of all his former indignation against Lord Auckland for a like conduct-urged the Duke of Portland, with whom he had always maintained his early relations of confidence, to communicate to the king his grace's sympathy on what he heard of his majesty's feelings on this subject, and to acquaint him that if he should be driven to extremities by his present ministry, there were others who were ready to undertake the responsibility of office on the adverse principle. This letter was dated the 12th of March, 1807; but before it was despatched
indeed before it was written out fair-the king himself had anticipated its advice by sending for Lord Grenville, complaining of the deception attempted to be practised on him, and declaring that he never had consented, and never would consent, to Lord Howick's bill. The Duke of Portland's letter arrived no doubt opportunely to confirm the king's resolutions, which were also supported by some of the existing government.
"The king said the prince had come down on purpose on Saturday, [March 14,] to declare his intentions of acting and speaking against the bill; that the chancellor (Erskine) has also been from the beginning against it, as well as Lord Ellenborough and Lord Sidmouth. This last he said had behaved handsomely."-vol. iv., p. 373.
And upon this the king gave the Duke of Portland carte-blanche for forming that administration which, with many serious modifications, and the sudden or premature deaths of no less than five of its leaders--Portland, Perceval, Londonderry, Liverpool, and Canning-and many vicissitudes
of difficulties and prosperity, terminated the most pressions it so frequently creates; and, finally, perilous, but eventually the most glorious, war that the confidence and security of private liferecorded in our annals by the most triumphant the great foundations of society-are seriously peace and may be said to have lasted till, by a compromised by a precedent, which is the more series of mistakes and misfortunes, it was led-as dangerous from the amusement that it affords, and always happens to a party too long and too com- the respectable names with which it is unfortupletely prosperous-to terminate by suicide an nately connected. existence of five-and-twenty years. In the Duke of Portland's ministry Mr. Canning received the foreign seals-Lord Fitzharris became his undersecretary-Lord Granville Leveson went as ambassador to Russia-and Lord Malmesbury, confidentially consulted by Mr. Canning, brings down to the battle of Wagram and the convention of Cintra-but with little detail and no novelty-his summary of our foreign and domestic transactions. "Here," says the editor, in his parting words— "Here Lord Malmesbury appears to have closed this Diary.
"Of the Journal which I have published, and which composes this fourth volume, it may be said that it contains much matter already known to the reader. I have not suppressed it on that account,
because I think that no corroborative evidence of history can be produced so unsuspicious as a diary, in which events and conversations are regularly recorded within a few hours of their occurrence, and that by an intelligent observer, (like Lord Malmesbury,) whose personal ambition has been satisfied with high rewards, or arrested by incurable infirmity. The man who is in this position, having nothing to hope or to fear, and writing for no immediate purpose of the day, will probably relate history with as little excitement or prejudice as can possibly be found in any active mind." -vol. iv., pp. 411, 412.
PENNSYLVANIA HAS PAID!-don't be alarmed
not her debt, but the dividends upon it for February. The event was celebrated throughout the state, as became its strangeness, with ringing of Friends looked agape on each other in bar-rooms bells, waving of flags, and firing of cannon. and railway stations. Drab waistcoats heaved with uncontrollable emotion; mint juleps were gulped like water when the news was told.
In the city of London the excitement was inde
scribable. Feebly we attempt to portray it in
There had been talk of an Express o'ernight;
Within an office hard by Lendenhall
His books, more truly, told their tale too well; Which show'd he 'd lost two thousand pounds a year,
And left stock on his hands he could not sell : He rushed on 'Change,-found that they paidand fell!
And men came buying in hot haste-indeed,
To some of these last observations we have by anticipation replied in the distinction we took between the sincerity of the journalist and the accuracy of the facts or justice of the opinions he records with that reservation we grant to the noble editor all the merit that he claims for his grandfather, who is beyond doubt entitled to as much credence as any journalizing politician and quidnunc can be entitled to. But however trustworthy the author may personally be, it by no means follows that we are to give him that kind of implicit confidence which the editor seems to challenge. In the first place, he is very often deceived by a second-hand narrative of facts; but even when the naked fact is true, it may be so disguised by being clothed in black or in white as not to be recognizable. Of such a diary it may be said, as the Stoic said of human life in general—ταράσσει τοὺς ἀνθρώ πους οὐ τα πράγματα, ἀλλὰ τὰ περὶ τῶν πραγμάτων doyuάra-no one alive would, we believe, be much disturbed by any of the facts recorded by Lord Malmesbury if simply and accurately narrated, though great and serious pain has been inflicted by the color that he gives them and the opinions which his grave authority pronounces upon them. No man, however honest, or even kind-hearted, can be free from temporary impressions and personal prejudices-which, though they should have only flashed momentarily across his mind, stand LEGAL CRITICISM.-Mr. Sergeant Hill, disputpermanently Daguerreotyped in his Diary-so that ing once with a young pupil who contended for truth itself becomes an auxiliary to falsehood. the accuracy of Richardson's description of love On the whole, we are bound to say, this publica- in Clarissa Harlowe, the learned sergeant alleged tion seems to us to be in principle wholly unwar- that Richardson was anything but an accurate rantable; that as regards either political events or man; and, in proof his assertion, asked the young personal character, it would be in general a very student if he had read Clarissa's will; and added. fallacious guide; that any historical value it may "You will find there is not one of the uses or have is nearly counterbalanced by the false im- trusts in it that can be supported."
But on the whole they bought more freely far
And whispered with white lips, "By Jove, they
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 53.-17 MAY, 1845.
Foreign Quarterly Review,
POETRY.-Bridges, 309.-Prophet in the Wilderness; Laman Blanchard, 312.
MR. CAUDLE'S SHIRT-BUTTONS. "THERE, Mr. Caudle, I hope you 're in a little better temper than you were this morning? There -you need n't begin to whistle: people don't come to bed to whistle. But it's like you. I can't speak, that you don't try to insult me. Once, I used to say, you were the best creature living now, you get quite a fiend. Do let you rest? No, I won't let you rest. It's the only time I have to talk to you, and you shall hear me. I'm put upon all day long it's very hard if I can't speak a word at night; and it is n't often I open my mouth, goodness knows!
"Because once in your lifetime your shirt wanted a button, you must almost swear the roof off the house! You didn't swear? Ha, Mr. Caudle! you don't know what you do when you 're in a passion. You were not in a passion, wer'n't you? Well, then, I don't know what a passion is and I think I ought by this time. I've lived long enough with you, Mr. Caudle, to know that.
"It's a pity you haven't something worse to complain of than a button off your shirt. If you'd some wives, you would, I know. I'm sure I'm never without a needle-and-thread in my hand. What with you and the children, I'm made a perfect slave of. And what 's my thanks? Why, if once in your life a button 's off your shirt-what do you cry 'oh' at?-I say once, Mr. Caudle; or twice, or three times, at most. I'm sure, Caudle, no man's buttons in the world are better looked after than yours. I only wish I'd kept the shirts you had when you were first married! I should like to know where were your buttons then?
Yes, it is worth talking of! But that's how you always try to put me down. You fly into a rage, and then if I only try to speak you won't
thing and another! They'd never tie themselves up to the best man in the world, I'm sure. What would they do, Mr. Caudle? Why, do much better without you, I'm certain.
"And it's my belief, after all, that the button wasn't off the shirt: it's my belief that you pulled it off, that you might have something to talk about. Oh, you 're aggravating enough, when you like, for anything! All I know is, it's very odd that the button should be off the shirt; for I 'm sure no woman 's a greater slave to her husband's buttons than I am. I only say, it 's very odd.
However, there's one comfort; it can't last long. I'm worn to death with your temper, and shan't trouble you a great while. Ha, you may laugh! And I dare say you would laugh! I've no doubt of it! That's your love-that's your feeling! I know that I'm sinking every day, though I say nothing about it. And when I'm gone, we shall see how your second wife will look after your buttons! You'll find out the difference then. Yes, Caudle, you'll think of me, then for then, I hope, you'll never have a blessed button to your back.
No, I'm not a vindictive woman, Mr. Caudle; nobody ever called me that, but you. What do you say? Nobody ever knew so much of me? That 's nothing at all to do with it. Ha! I would n't have your aggravating temper, Caudle, for mines of gold. It's a good thing I'm not as worrying as you are-or a nice house there'd be between us. I only wish you'd had a wife that would have talked to you! then you'd have known the difference. But you impose upon me, because, like a poor fool, I say nothing. I should be ashamed of myself, Caudle.
"And a pretty example you set as a father! You'll make your boys as bad as yourself. Talking as you did all breakfast-time about your buttons! And of a Sunday morning too! And you call yourself a Christian! I should like to know hear me. That's how you men always will what your boys will say of you when they grow have all the talk to yourselves: a poor woman up? And all about a paltry button off one of your is n't allowed to get a word in. wristbands; a decent man would n't have men"A nice notion you have of a wife, to supposetioned it. Why won't I hold my tongue? Beshe 's nothing to think of but her husband's but- |cause I won't hold my tongue. I'm to have my tons. A pretty notion, indeed, you have of mar- peace of mind destroyed-I 'm to be worried into riage. Ha! if poor women only knew what they my grave for a miserable shirt-button, and I'm had to go through! What with buttons, and one to hold my tongue! Oh! but that's just like you,. men!