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restrained by force or fear, or excited by pride and interest. Choice, affection, principle can seldom be employed. The discipline of a great school must be that of a man of war, and it is conducted in either case under much the same necessity. Two or three boys may be watched every hour--evil checked as it arises-every occurrence improvedreligion infused into every pursuit and instruction, without any necessity for recurring to stimuli which befit only the lowest condition of mortal existence, and are never found, in their application, to produce any other effect than to depress or exasperate generous natures.
There is an error which universally obtains in every plan of education, public or private, and which is perhaps a principle cause of the distaste of our young persons for grave and solid studies. They are never taught to think. Materials in abundance are set before them, but they know nothing of the use and end designed by working them; they are ignorant of the rationale of grammar, or the application of science. The memory is burdened as a drudge, whilst the understanding remains torpid and unexercised; and thus the interest which real knowledge inspires is lost in the mere acquisition of words. A boy can give a rule but not a reason. Pestalozzi has attempted, with some success, to improve former methods of imparting knowledge, but even his system falls short of rational instruction, where the understanding and the heart should keep pace with the progress of the memory. The practice of enforcing by authority, instead of leading the mind to investigate, explain, and digest in the exercise of its own energies, disposes a youth to affirm rather than prove, and resting contented with a crude and superficial acquaintance with all subjects, to shrink from the labour of acquiring solid and accurate information.
It would be a very salutary practice to withhold from young persons the use and enjoyment of every thing, however simple, whether an effect of art or nature, till they had prepared themselves to explain its history, origin, place, and means of production. Thus no moment would run to waste, and table talk, which now consists of little more than barren details, would become a vehicle of much interesting and useful communication.
If science ought not to precede language, they should walk together as friends from the commencement, and be associated throughout the progress of education.
But leaving the reader to form his own opinion on the comparative merits of public and private education, I shall lay before him, in the next chapter, the method resorted to by Mr. Richmond in his family arrangements.
And this our life, exempt from public haunt,
One great reason why so few people in the world are truly religious, and why among the truly religious so many are not happy in their religion, is this, that early religious habits are too commonly associated, not with cheerfulness, but with constraint and gloom.-Jebb.
Mr. Richmond's first object was to make home the happiest place to his children; to render them independent of foreign alliances in their pursuits and friendships; and so to interest them in domestic enjoyments, as to preclude the feeling too common in young people, of restlessness and longing to leave their own fire-sides, and wander abroad in search of pleasure and employment. In this attempt to satisfy his family and engage their compliance with his wishes, he so completely succeeded, that every member of it left home with regret, even on an occasional visit, and returned to Turvey with fond anticipation, as to the place of their treasures.
To his daughter F- he writes-
"We are going on quietly at home. Little K-, by a sudden determination, is gone into Norfolk. My love and respect for your dear, most dear mother, has prevailed to gain my consent; otherwise I much prefer a mother's and elder sister's roof, for female education, to any school. But I leave this affair in God's hands, and hope he will overrule it for the best. I have long thought
that though a good school is better than a bad home, a good home is the best of schools. Children are for the most part educated in temper and habits of all kinds, not by governesses, but by companions, and here all is contingency. But so much of my own happiness consists in making your dear mamma happy, that I waive my objection to a temporary alienation from the parental roof, and pray God it may not injure K―'s spiritual welfare. Some may think I am too fond of seeing my children around if it be a weakness I must plead guilty to it: from their infancy I have looked forward, as far as providential circumstances would permit, to find comfort, support, and companionship in my children. My middle, and if spared, my old age, may much require it; and if my life be short, can any wonder that I should like to see and know much of them while I remain in this world. It has ever been my hearts desire and prayer to give them a useful, happy, exemplary home; were I to fail here, life would indeed become a blank to me. I would strive to roll the troublous trial on God," but I should deeply mourn in secret. Sons must in due season go forth into a wanton and wicked world to seek their bread; but daughters, while unmarried, are better calculated to become comforters and companions to their parents, as they go down to the vale of years.
Your affectionate father,
A happy home greatly depends on the recreations and amusements which are provided for young people. It is no small difficulty to give a useful direction to their play-hours: little more has been contemplated in the gambols of youth than the health and activity of their bodies, and the refreshment of their spirits; it is well when these objects
can be obtained without the indulgence of sinful tempers; but youthful sports have often proved the nursery of pride, ambition, and contention. In public schools these evils have been encouraged, or at least deemed unavoidable. The seed of revenge in manhood has been planted in boyish violence, and the unheeded acts of oppression by the elder boys towards their juniors, have trained them to tyranny in riper years. Private education affords greater facilities for checking these evils, but the want of the stimulus supplied by numbers is apt to render the pastime uninteresting and home distasteful.
Mr. R. was alive to these inconveniences, and endeavoured by a succession and variety of recreations to employ the leisure hours to advantage. He had recourse to what was beautiful in nature or ingenious in art or science; and when abroad he collected materials to gratify curiosity. He fitted up his museum, his auctarium, and his library, with specimens of mineralogy, instruments for experimental philosophy, and interesting curiosities from every part of the world: he had his magic lantern to exhibit phantasmagoria, and teach natural history; to display picturesque beauty, and scenes and objects far-famed in different countries: his various microscopes for examining the minute of plants and animals; his telescope for tracing planetary revolutions and appearances; his air-pump and other machines for illustrating and explaining the principles of pneumatics and electricity; authors of every country who treated on the improvements connected with modern science; whatever, in short, could store the mind with ideas, or interest and improve the heart. When he travelled he kept up a correspondence with his family, and narrated to them the persons, places, and adventures of his progress. On his return he enlivened many a