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school fund.

and buildings shall, under the direction of the legislature, constitute a board of commissioners for the sale, leasing, and general management of all lands and funds set apart for educational purposes, and for the investment of school funds in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

SEC. 2. All lands, money, or other property grant- Property how ed, or bequeathed, or in any manner conveyed to this state for educational purposes, shall be used and ex. pended in accordance with the terms of such grant, bequest, or conveyance.

Sec. 3. The following are hereby declared to be perpet- Permanent ual funds for common school purposes, of which the annual interest or income only can be appropriated, to-wit:

First. Such per centum as has been, or may hereafter be granted by congress on the sale of lands in this state.

Second. All moneys arising from the sale or leasing of sections number sixteen and thirty-six in each township in this state, and the lands selected, or that may be selected in lieu thereof. (5 Neb., 103.)

Third. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or may hereafter be granted to this state, where, by the terms and conditions of such grant, the same are not to be otherwise appropriated.

Fourth. The net proceeds of lands and other property and effects that may come to the state, by escheat or forfeiture, or from unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of the estates of deceased persons. (5 Neb., , 206.)

Fifth. All moneys, stocks, bonds, lands, and other property, now belonging to the common school fund.

Sec. 4. All other grants, gifts and devises that have been, or may hereafter be made to this state, and school fund. not otherwise appropriated by the terms of the grant, gift, or devise, the interest arising from all the funds mentioned in the preceding section, together with all the

Fines, penal. ties, and li

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rents of the unsold school lands, and such other means as the legislature may provide, shall be exclusively applied to the support and maintenance of common schools in each school district in the state. (5 Neb., 103, 206.)

Sec. 5. All fines, penalties, and license moneys cense moneys. arising under the general laws of the state, shall belong

and be paid over to the counties, respectively, where the same may be levied or imposed, and all fines, penalties, and license moneys arising under the rules, by-laws, or ordinance of cities, villages, towns, precincts, or other municipal sub-division less than a county, shall belong and be paid over to the saine respectively. All such fines, penalties, and license moneys shall be appropriated exclusively to the use and support of common schools in the respective sub-divisions where the same may accrur. (5 Neb., 310, 515; 6 Neb., 45; 8 Neb., 31, 162; 9 Neb., 184, 352, 404.)

Sec. 6. The legislature shall provide for the free instruction in the common schools of this state of all persons between the ages of five and twenty-one years.

Sec. 7. Provisions shall be made by general law for an equitable distribution of the income of the fund set apart for the support of the common schools, among the several school districts of the state, and no appropriation shall be made from said fund to any district for the year in which school is not maintained at least three months. (5 Neb., 104.)

Sec. 8. University, agricultural college, common University and

school, or other lands, which are now held, or may hereafter be acquired by the state for educational purposes, shall not be sold for less than seven dollars per acre, nor less than the appraised value.

Sec. 9. All funds belonging to the state for educaremain invio- tional

purposes, the interest and income whereof only are to be used, shall be deemed trust funds held by the state, and the state shall supply all losses thereof that

Common schools.

Distribution of income.

common school lands.

Funds to

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may in any manner accrue, so that the same shall re-
main forever inviolate and undiminished; and shall not
be invested or loaned except on United States or state
securities, or registered county bonds of this state; and
such funds, with the interest and income thereof, are
hereby solemnly pledged for the purposes for which they
are granted and set apart, and shall not be transferred
to
any

other fund for other uses (5 Neb., 427.) Sec. 10. The general government of the univer-Government of .

university. sity of Nebraska shall, under the direction of the legislature, be vested in a board of six regents, to be styled the board of regents of the university of Nebraska, who shall be elected by the electors of the state at large, and their term of office, except those chosen at the first election, as hereinafter provided, shall be six years. Their duties and powers shall be prescribed by law; and they shall receive no compensation, but may be reimbursed their actual expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties. (5 Neb., 426.)

SEO: 11. No sectarian instruction shall be allowed Sectarian in any school or institution supported in whole or in prohibited. part by the public funds set apart for educational purposes; nor shall the state accept any grant, conveyance, or bequest of money, lands or other property, to be used for sectarian purposes.

SEO. 12. The legislature may provide by law for Reform the establishment of a school or schools for the safe schools. keeping, education, employment, and reformation of all children under the age of sixteen years, who, for want of proper parental care, or other cause, are growing up in mendicancy, or crime.

ARTICLE IX.-REVENUE AND FINANCE.

SECTION 1. The legislature shall provide such rev. enue as may be needful, by levying a tax by valuation,

Exemption from taxation.

so that every person and corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to the value of his, her, or its property and franchises, the value to be ascertained in such manner as the legislature shall direct, and it shall have power to tax peddlers, auctioneers, brokers, hawkers, commission merchants, showmen, jugglers, inn-keepers, liquor dealers, toll bridges, ferries, insurance, telegraph and express interests or business, venders of patents, in such manner as it shall direct by general law, uniform as to the class upon which it operates. (4 Neb., 301, 537; 6 Neb., 564; 7 Neb., 230; 9 Neb., 509; 12 Neb., 201, 364.)

Sec. 2. The property of the state, counties and municipal corporations, both real and personal, shall be exempt from taxation, and such other property as may be used exclusively for agricultural and horticultural societies, for school, religious, cemetery and charitable purposes, may be exempted from taxation, but such exemptions shall be only by general law. In the assessment of all real estate encumbered by public easement, any depreciation occasioned by such easement may be deducted in the valuation of such property. The legislature nay provide that the increased value of lands, by reason of live fences, fruit and forest trees grown and cultivated thereon, shall not be taken into account in the assessment thereof. (7 Neb., 230.)

Sec. 3. The right of redemption from all sales of real estate, for the non-payment of taxes or special assessments of any character whatever, shall exist in favor of owners and persons interested in such real estate for a period of not less than two years from such sales thereof; Provided, That occupants shall in all cases be served with personal notice before the time of redemption expires.

SEO. 4. The legislature shall have no power to release or discharge any county, city, township, town, or district whatever, or the inhabitants thereof, or any cor

Redemption from sales of land for taxes.

Taxes not to be released.

poration, or the property therein, from their or its proportionate share of taxes to be levied for state purposes, or due any municipal corporation, nor shall commutation for such taxes be authorized in any form whatever. 12 Neb., 364.)

Sec, 5. County authorities shall never assess taxes County taxes. the aggregate of which shall exceed one and a half dollars per one hundred dollars valuation, except for the payment of indebtedness existing at the adoption of this constitution, unless authorized by a vote of the people of the county. (12 Neb., 256.) SEO. 6. The legislature may vest the corporate Taxes of ma

nicipal corpo authorities of cities, towns, and villages, with power to rations. make locai improvements by special assessment, or by special taxation of property benefited. For all other corporate purposes, all municipal corporations may be vested with authority to assess and collect taxes, but such taxes shall be uniform in respect to persons and property within the jurisdiction of the body imposing the same. (4 Neb., 346; 7 Neb., 271; 8 Neb., 125.)

SEO. 7. Private property shall not be liable to be taken or sold for the payment of the corporate debts of paemer from

payment municipal corporations. The legislature shall not impose taxes upon municipal corporations, or the inhabitants or property thereof, for corporate purposes.

SEC. 8. The legislature at its first session shall Funding, provide by law for the funding of all outstanding warrants and other indebtedness of the state, at a rate of interest not exceeding eight per cent per annum. (6 Neb., 512.)

Seo. 9. The legislature shall provide by law that all claims upon the treasury shall be examined and ad-state treasury. justed by the auditor and approved by the secretary of state before any warrant for the amount allowed shall be drawn ; Provided, That a party aggrieved by the decision of the auditor and secretary of state may appeal to [the] district court. (7 Neb., 106, 112.)

Property

debts.

indebtedness.

Claims upon

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