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The Liferary Era, Philade/hia.
“We believe that local histories seldom attain the honor of a second edition,
peopled this part of Montgomery county.”
W. W. H. Davis, //istorian, in Doy/es/own Democrat.
“We do not hesitate to say that ‘Historical Collections Relating to Gwynedd is the most interesting township history we have met with.”
PHILADELPHIA, 921 ARCH STREET, SECOND MONTH 5, 1898.
PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY Friends' Intelligencer Association, (LIMITED.)
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Advertisements of “Wanted,” “For Rent,” “For Sale,” etc., 5 cents a line, each insertion. Seven average words make a line. No advertisement inserted for less than 20 cents.
OR RENT.-CHOICE OF TWO FURNISHED cottages, in the heart of the Appalachians, thirty miles west of Asheville, N. C. A delightful all the year round climate, especially helpful in pulmonary and nervous disorders. J. REECE LEWIS, Waynesville, N.C.
ARGE, Cheerful, Room, well FUR. nished, in private family, for rent. Address No. 16, This Office.
small poultry farm on shares, near New York city. Address I. X. L., This Office.
ANTED.—A WOMAN FRIEND, AS COM
panion and to assist in the care of two small
children. Apply to ANNA. T. HOOPES, 341 East Biddle Street, West Chester, Pa. *
oxas Sheaffs. (first street above Race), Philad'a, Pa.
Thompson Shourds, 2212 Wallace Street. Charles W. Richards, 1220 Angle St., Tioga.
Will be sold on the premises of the late Abel J. Hopkins, in New London Township, Chester County, Pa., situated about three miles from est Grove, and two miles from Kelton, on the P. & B. C. R. R., on
Fourth-day, Second Month 16, 1898.
(WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16th.)
A FARM, containing 27 acres, more or less, bounded by lands of Joel Conard and others. A very desirable and productive farm, all under cultivation. About one acre of asparagus, young peach orchard (trees, 1, 2, and 3 years planted), cherry trees and small fruit, large apple orchard of excellent fruit, The improvements consist of a large brick house, roofed with slate and tin, well built and in good repair, containing 13 rooms and excellent cellar with vault; bath-room with modern conveniences and hot and cold water; porches, large lawn, with fine shade trees. This house is very prettily situated, hnd should be seen to be appreciated. Barn with ample shedding, 2-story hog-house, chicken, carriage, and tool house, and corn crib, all in good repair. Ice house and pond, constant flow of spring water at barn. Any one desiring a nice, cheery location for a home will do well to examine this property before purchasing elsewhere, and will be shown over the same by Mary E. Hopkins, residing thereon, or, T. C. Moore, W. rove, Pa.
Sale to commence at one o’clock, sharp, when conditions will be made known by
TRUEMAN C. MOORE,
George B. Johnson, Attorney.
As one of the oldest houses in the watch trade – established three generations ago—and up to date in every feature of the business, we are able to offer the best and most serviceable watches for the least money. Give us a call.
GEO. C. CHILD,
WILLIAM B. Paxson. MAHLon B. PAxson. Members of the Philadelphia Stock Exchange. FREDERICK PAXSON & CO.,
Stock and Bond Brożers, 1 12 Custom House Place, Philad 'a.
Orders and inquiries by mail or wire receive prompt attention. •
Just Received from England:
A fine lot of handsomely decorated Tea Cannisters in commemoration of the Queen's Jubilee, which are filled with
INGRAM'S FINE BLENDED TEA.
g * * ||||||| $, INGRAM, **śrī:
Hanscom Bros., 1311 Market St.,
Sell a Mocha and Java at 36 cts. that is superior to any coffee obtainable.
A FRIENDS' BoARDING School for
The building is modern, and the location is the hill
y Y|| FRIENDS ISS|||||||||R1||||S. 140 N. FIFTEENTH STREET. re-opened N INTH Month 27th, 1897. The rooms are open daily, except First-days, from 8.30 a.m. to 9.30 p.m., and Friends are cordially invited to avail themselves of the facilities afforded, those from without the city and young Friends boarding in the city being Aarticularly desired to do so. The rooms are designed to be A CENTRE For INFORMATION ON ALL FRIENDLY MATTERS.
NEW BOOKLETS. Among the Rushes. What is the World. Not Changed but Glorified.
Above are uniform with
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Dansville, N. Y.
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Established 1844. The Journal, 1873.
PHILADELPHIA, SECOND MONTH 5, 1898.
Volume LV. Number 6.
A GOOD WORD EACH WEEK.
GoD, who caused light to shine in this outward world, hath judged it necessary to cause the light of his Spirit to shine inwardly in the heart ; and this gives the Ánowledge of the Scriptures, and the true sense and discerning of inward and spiritual things. - IsAAC PENINGTON.
From a Letter to a friend on the Gospel, the Scriptures, etc.
THE VOICE ABOVE.
LOST on the drift, -and where the full clouds flow
Along the precipice there is no way
Slight is his foothold on the slippery stay
And chill and terrible the dying day
Could he but hear some lowing of the herd,
If some familiar sound one moment stirred
He dares not move, some beckoning, leading word
In those waste places of the earth and dim. .
Then like blown breath of music in the height
He thrills, he springs, he gathers all his might, . .
His Father's voice—he needs nor sense nor sight,
- He knows the way to go ! - . *
—Harriet Prescott Spofford, in Harper's Magazine.
For Friends' Intelligencer. JOHN RUSKIN.
BY JOHN WILLIAM GRAHAM. II.-HIS POLITICAL ECONOMY. RUSKIN's economic crusade is the central act of his career. His attack on the political economists constitutes one of the most curious and puzzling incidents in the history of modern thought. We are now perhaps in a position to appraise the measure of truth and misconception on both sides of the great controversy. Certainly Ruskin, and perhaps his opponents too,
were under a primary error as to what Political Econ
course of action will be financially safe or profitable. It does not bid us adopt that course, which may be forbidden by higher considerations. But in 1860, when Ruskin began his campaign by contributing “Unto This Last’ to the “Cornhill Magazine,” claims were made for Political Economy which are now abandoned. The expansion of English manufactures under Free Trade seemed to be a kind of Promised Land to which the nation had been led by obeying the economic lawgivers, after suffering forty years in the desert of Protection; and so the dicta of the science were exalted into a sort of Sinaitic
Tablet of Stone, wherewith to regulate all actions,
public and private, dealing with business or with charity. A stony commandment truly. Thus exalted, it made the narrowest, most inhuman creed that ever turned sour the native milk of human kindness, or raised indignant protest from outraged hearts. What! Ignore all motives but self-interest, and let the weak
one die in uncared-for pain, as judiciously provided
by economic nature, as but one more case of economic friction! Let us settle everything by unfettered competition, that is, by cunning war with our next door neighbor; let no intrusive charity spoil Nature's so successful Laissez-Faire. Let us bow to hard fate
and prudently approximate in our personal character
to the measure of the standard of the fulness of the economic man, shrewd, laborious, passionless, selfish with the unconscious selfishness of a machine. Against this degraded ideal rose Ruskin's cry. His cause was a good one, and his message needed. It
was briefly to the effect that the life is more than meat, and the body than raiment; that men and nations must
press forward to the mark for the prize of a righteous and wholesome life; it is a plea for mercy and helpfulness and enlightened patriotism, a warning of unmitigated directness to do as we would be done by, and to be guides rather than exploiters of the workman and the foreigner. Sweet family life, manly work, strenuous and self-denying endeavor, and a heart at peace; these (he said) are your national riches. Need I point out how he finds the words of evangelist and prophet ready to his hand? e . But his method of attack was unfortunate. He flew at John Stuart Mill as though he were the incarnation of the devil's own selfishness. By this method, though his readers catch the always interesting odor of battle, he raised up many mockers, confused the already tangled issues and darkened counsel; and, it is to be feared, finally ruined in the strife his own health and nerves. People who knew that economics was no deception but an approximately true science, were stumbled at the abrupt message of Elijah from the wilderness. The outcry was so great that the editor of the “Cornhill ” and the publisher of “Fraser” were obliged to ask him to write no more. The man who had been everybody's darling as an art critic was now mentioned with a smile of superior pity. And yet the prophet was right, as well as the economist; only his books are not economics at all—they are something better; they are ethics—ethical essays of an unsystematic kind, on social subjects. And we, now-a-days, read them with no diminished interest, for they point to an ideal of citizenship which we shall certainly never reach by obeying the maxim that “Business is business.” This original error in method led to a further peculiarity of form—particularly in “Munera Pulveris.” The existing economic manuals being shallow and erroneous, Ruskin felt that he must write a better one, in which he would give due force and due honor to generous impulses—give some better guide to practical duty, and show how men in producing and distributing the fruits of the earth, may best order happy lives. He begins thus: “Political economy regulates the acts and habits of a society, with reference to the means of its maintenance. It is neither an art nor a science; but a system of conduct and legislature, founded on the sciences, directing the arts, and impossible, except under certain conditions of moral culture.” And then, not by years of study, not by patient accumulation of facts and sifting of statistics, not by
comparing land tenures and wage lists, and investigat- |
ing trades unions and clearing house returns, but by sheer force of genius, by intuitive meditation in the valleys of Savoy, with a chance newspaper extract or two for text, and for argument and illustration, long discursive examination of remote etymological connections, and the significance of Greek myths and the parables of Dante, did Ruskin attempt a systematic treatise on Economics. The sweet songster of the sky descended from his soaring flight, and took to digging—a skylark with draggled soil-stained feathers, toiling at mud pies. The winged Pegasus had taken to ploughing. What wonder that the furrows struck off suddenly at right angles, and that Pegasus and his broken plough were at times found, strayed and tangled, among the thickets where the flowers grew. “Munera Pulveris' contains what were to have been the definitions only of the new treatise. No more of it has ever appeared, nor ever will. Pathetic, indeed, it is, to read over and over again in these books such sentences as this: “I have not time fully to work this out here, but it shall all be carried out to its legitimate conclusion in its due place, when I come to
Wages,” or Art, or Education, or Coinage, as the case might be. Ever promising, ever hoping, struggling manfully, if so be by a tour-de-force of genius he might do his self-appointed task, storm the whole citadel, so many bits of which so many men were patiently undermining—to extend economics into a universal Gospel—and only finding after all that the bye issues into which a complete guide to human action, public and private, would have to go, were too many for him. For indeed a science must have its limitations at each end, must assume certain things to begin with, as physics assumes mathematics, and mathematics metaphysics. And it must limit also its subject matter in some definite way. The subject of economics is material wealth. But Ruskin replies, “There is no wealth but life. of joy and of admiration. That country is the richest which nourishes the greatest number of noble and happy human beings; that man is richest who, having perfected the functions of his own life to the utmost, has also the widest helpful influence, both personal, and by means of his possessions, over the lives of others.” All this is true, but is beyond the economist's task. - g It is a remarkable sight this; genius working the tread-mill of patient science. The opposite phenomenon is commoner; where dull people are set to do the stimulating, to speak the words that ought to thrill. We are familiar with fustian eloquence and conventional inspiration, and machine-made prophecy. Men are apt to crowd into the higher activities. Johnson writing his Dictionary, Carlyle groaning over his Cromwell Letters and Speeches, are not so touching as that poetess—if I may break through language to express my meaning—that poetess, John Ruskin, attempting to lay down by intuition a law of wages, and dealing with Malthus by permitting men to marry at the fixed age of 30, under a State-permit, granted for good conduct and efficiency.
And now, after all, let me recommend all young,
all earnest people, all souls of a pure enthusiasm to read carefully “Time and Tide,” which is the most sketchy and fantastic, “ Munera Pulveris,” “Unto This Last,” and chiefly “The Crown of Wild Olive.” I think this is Ruskin's very best book. Every paragraph is a triumph of art, of peerless and perfect prose, full of humor and all delight. No one who has really appreciated it can hereafter be quite ignorant of what is good and bad in style, or true and delicate in feeling.
Mr. Ruskin’s conviction of the wickedness of the economic theory of wisdom and duty was abundantly confirmed by the evil products of much that was done under orthodox economic sanction. He fought
against the extension of railways and against steam
machinery. His attitude about railways may be gleaned from the following:
“You have despised Nature: that is to Say, all the deep and sacred sensations of natural scenery. The French Revolution
ists made stables of the Cathedrals of France, you have made
race-courses of the cathedrals of the earth. Your one conception of pleasure is to drive in railroad carriages round their aisles and eat off their altars. You have put a railroad bridge over the Falls of Schaffhausen. You have tunnelled the cliffs of Lucerne by
Life, including all its powers of love,