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another, but Austria did not consent, so he prepared to do it alone), the people's wrath was incited by systematic tales of French aggressiveness and insults. When the Armenians were massacred and their Assassin was to be upheld, the one fact was suppressed in its heinous details, whereas what was reiterated and reiterated, related to the profits which would accrue to German trade if the Sultan were brought to give favor to Germans and withdraw it from Englishmen.

. So it goes. There is no use of your correspondent, or of any other private person, assuming to report the truth about occurrences in the abstract. All he can do is to report the fictions that the diplomatists, who lead the peoples of Europe about by the nose, are serving up to their devoted country people. I am on the spot, it is true; but don’t expect me to know the truth about Kiao-chau for that reason. Americans, as a rule, know more authentic facts about things European than the European nations concerned. That comes of their having many private newspaper correspondents abroad; in Germany papers generally do not indulge in that expense. They depend upon the Syndicate Telegraphic bureau, Wolf. And this bureau or syndicate is subsidized, as has been testified to in law courts under oath. In other words, it is bribed by the year, besides being subjected to Governmental censorship. Hence, American papers and English papers have more news about Germany’s action than native papers afford.


SINCE the advent of the LeConte pear, pear growing in the South has become a commercial success, which cannot be said of pear growing, as a rule, where confined to the old varieties of the European stock. The introduction of this pear and the Kieffer marks a new era in pear growing. They are both believed to be accidental hybrids between the sand pear of Asia and some of the varieties of the European race. In regard to the Kieffer, the sand pear and the Bartlett were grown together, so close, in fact, that the branches interlaced. Among the seedlings of this sand pear, the Rieffer originated, on the grounds of a gentleman of that name. The origin of the LeConte is unknown ; but it is evidently a product of a similar circumstance. It is found to be as healthy and vigorous as the original sand pear. No disease, so far, has troubled it, and the usual insects that follow the pear seem to avoid it. Under some circumstances the quality is very superior ; but this requires skill to bring about. In a general way, the quality is above the average of pears ; but a special feature of great value is that they can be shipped in barrels like apples, a treatment which no other pear will stand. &

It is remarkable that attempts do not seem to have been made to produce a more extended list of varieties from these. Although hybrids of two very distinct species, they produce seed abundantly. It is hardly necessary to use the word “although,” for horticulturists generally understand that the dictum of some scientific men, that hybrids are necessarily sterile, is utterly absurd.


THE nomination of Attorney-General McKenna to be Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court was confirmed on the 21st inst., by the United States Senate, and on the next day the President sent the nomination of Governor John W. Griggs, of New Jersey, to be Attorney-General. Justice McKenna will enter upon his duties at once, and the new Attorney-General is expected to do so in a few days. THE Princeton University liquor question does not seem to be closed. At the annual banquet of the Princeton Club, composed of graduates, in New York, on the evening of the 20th, extreme anger was shown toward those who had criticised the sale of liquor at the “Inn.” Prof. Shields, who resigned from the Presbyterian church, in resentment of the criticism upon him, was, the despatch says, “the especial object of the graduates' approval. At every mention of his name they sprang to their feet and cheered him.” In a speech by President Patton, of the University, he said: “The friends who give us advice do not know our difficulties, and I cannot stop to explain them. But one thing is sure : Prohibition will not stop drinking in Princeton ; it will only increase the trade, in corkscrews.” This statement was heartily cheered. AARON M. POWELL writes the INTELLIGENCER : ‘‘We had a most interesting Charity Organization Conference here (New York), on the 18th inst., preliminary to the National Conference of Charities and Corrections, to be held in New York in Fifth month next. It was quite up to the Mohonk standard, with addresses by President DeForrest, of our Charity Organization Society; Dr. Stephen Smith, on “The Uses of Medical Charities '' ; Mrs. E. E. Williamson, State Commissioner of Charity in New Jersey, on “The Treatment of Dependent Children’’; and Charles Dudley Warner, a very bright address on “Prison and Prisoners.” It was a very suggestive, helpful occasion, and foreshadows much interest for the National Conference. DISTURBING events continue to be reported from different parts of Europe. In Italy there have been “bread riots,” and “one class of the reserves ''—troops—are to be called out to keep order. In the Belgian Chamber of Deputies, at Brussels, on the 25th “there was a hand-to-hand fight between the Socialists and anti-Socialists.” There are many editors in prison, in Germany, upon convictions of “lese majeste,” i. e., printing something considered by the courts disrespectful to the Emperor, and Herr Trojan, of Berlin, editor of a well-known paper “Kladderdatsch,’’ was on the 25th sentenced to two months' imprisonment for publishing a cartoon which the Emperor did not like. In Bohemia there have been more riots between the German and Czech elements. RUSSIA has notified China of her willingness to provide a loan on the same financial terms as England's offer. Whether Great Britian or Russia secures the Chinese loan is said to depend upon which exerts the greatest pressure. China has complied with all the demands made by Germany in connection with the killing of German missionaries. The statements regarding Germany's intentions to open the port of KiaoChou to the commerce of the world are confirmed. A VIOLENT dispute, culminating in a fight, occurred in the Chamber of Deputies of France, at Paris, on the 22nd. A number of members were involved. The President, Brisson, adjourned the session, and had the room cleared. Disorderly scenes occurred at the entrance to the chamber, on the 25th, troops being called to keep order. There have been serious anti-Jew riots in Algiers. The trial of Emile Zola, the author, for writing the accusatory letter to the President, is fixed for a near time. THE Maryland Legislature, on the 25th inst., elected Judge Lewis E. McComas, Rep., United States Senator to take the place of Arthur P. Gorman, Dem., for the term, beginning on the 4th of March, 1899. There had been a “deadlock” for some time, several Republicans refusing to support McComas.

Two German war-ships were sent last week into the harbor of Havana, and on the 25th the United States battle-ship Maine also arrived there. The reason for sending the latter is declared by the Department officials at Washington to be nothing out of ordinary routine ; it is presupied, however, that the presence of a war vessel was desired by the United States Consul-General, Fitzhugh Lee, for the protection of Americans in Havana. There have been no further riots in that city. The so-called “war,’’ between the Spanish troops and the insurgents, continues, with varying reports of successes on either side.


THE greatest books, says the American Letter in “Literature,” (London), are cheap, for they have survived copyright. The trashiest and most worthless books are also cheap, for if they were dear there would be no market for them. But the best of the new books are dear. The new biographies, memoirs, books of travel, histories, and the like which discriminating readers covet are only to be had at prices which are a trial to a good many Christmas buyers. Nansen’s “Farthest North '' costs $1o ; Tennyson's Memoir, $1 of Mahan’s “Life of Nelson,” $8; the “Life and Journals of Audubon,” $7.5o ; Mrs. Browning’s “Letters” cost $4, which is better, and M’Carthy's “Gladstone,’’ $6. —Mrs. T. J. Fowler, wife of the light-house keeper at the North Dumpling Light, Fisher's Island Sound, R. I., was in charge of the tower in her husband's absence, not long ago, when during a thick fog a break occurred in the machinery by which a bell is rung at regular intervals as a warning to sailors. The bell was at the top of the tower, with no regular way of reaching it. By means of ladders, Mrs. Fowler climbed the tower, tied a long rope to the bell, and rang it till the fog cleared away. The Light-house Board has sent a letter of thanks, saying : “The Lighthouse Board has learned with pride and gratification of your thoughtful courage. . . It is expected that brave and faithful men will be found in its service, but to find a woman able at a perilous time to assume the duties of an absent man, and thus prevent peril to life and property, is a matter for double congratulation.’’

—In the German Reichstag, on the 21st inst., Count Posa

dowski, the Minister of the Interior, announced that the

authorities had decided that women henceforth should be allowed to attend university lectures as guests, with the permission of the rector and professors. He added that arrangements were making for the Federal Government's granting women diplomas, and if the arrangement were successful, further measures were probable. —A writer in the Charlotte (S. C.) Star of Zion says: “One of the biggest contractors in all the Southland is a colored man. Thomas M. Bonnar of Spartanburg, S. C. I dare say he has built more cotton mills than any other one contractor in the South.” —The Commissioners from this country to inspect the plans of the proposed Nicaragua Ship Canal arrived at Managua, Nicaragua, on the I 5th, being welcomed at the railway station by the Judges of the Supreme Court, Cabinet Ministers, members of the national Congress, the military band, and many citizens. —It took 500 pairs of hands to make the bridal veil of Princess Margaret of Prussia. The veil was composed of 500 different pieces, each of which required ten days for completion. They were then joined by the most skillful lace-makers, in a pattern which appeared to be all the work of one pair of hands. —Benjamin Butterworth, United States Commissioner of Patents, died on the 16th, at Thomasville, Georgia. He was in his 61st year. He was a lawyer by profession, served in Congress eight years, and was Commissioner of Patents under President Arthur. * —The Republican Editors' Association of Michigan has decided to send a representative to Mexico to study the practical workings of the unlimited coinage of silver. —The Marquis of Bute, who is an extensive landowner in South Wales, is having his three sons taught the Welsh language.

—The American minister to Germany, Andrew D. White, has cabled to the State Department at Washington, denying statements that he has been discourteously treated, there.

WESTERN HOMES : REPORT TO ILLINOIS YEARLY MEETING. AT Illinois Yearly Meeting, 1897 : 35. The Committee appointed under minute 57, last year, to visit portions of the great West and Southwest, with a view to the centralization of Friends, who may desire to remove from their present homes, presented the following report, which was satisfactory, and the Committee continued, to act as a Bureau of Information in regard to any of the sections visited. The names of the committee are : Morris A. Wilson, Chairman, Magnolia, Illinois. John Corry, Tama, Iowa. Theodore Russell, Winfield, Iowa. George S. Trueman, Genoa, Nebraska. Samuel Coale, Bennett, Nebraska. James Brooks, Salem, Indiana. REPORT OF COMMITTEE. To Illinois Pearly Meeting of Friends : Your committee appointed under minute 57 of last year, to visit localities (where way opened) and report their findings, so that those contemplating a removal to new localities might derive benefits from such investigation, and that such persons might be encouraged to centralize themselves and be enabled to more fully derive the lasting benefits, socially, intellectually and spiritually from a residence near each other, report the following : Through the unceasing efforts of Daniel Griest, D. E.,

Burley, General Passenger Agent of Oregon Short Line R. .

R.; H. Dunn, Traveling Passenger Agent of the same ; Chas. Aldrich, Secretary of Clear Lake Land and Irrigation Co., and a host of others whom it would be impossible to name in this brief report, each playing an important part in making it possible, first, that we with our respective wives, were enabled to make the trip, and second, that the hospitality and many thoughtful acts of kindness enabled us to get

facts and figures concerning different localities visited. For

all of which, to all of whom, our hearts went out in thankfulness. Acquaintances were made which we hope may ripen into closer relationship and lasting benefits may follow. With deep regret we learned that Charles Brook and wife could not accompany us. Leaving our several homes the latter part of the Sixth month, we got together on the line of the Union Pacific road, a short distance west of Omaha, when we proceeded on our journey westward to our fields of labor in Idaho, Oregon and Utah. In order to more fully understand the situation it is necessary to say that most of the country visited in its primitive state is covered with a more or less dense growth of sage-brush, grease-wood, or rabbit-brush, which seems adapted to dry soils, and may be removed with little more labor than is necessary to remove a crop of cornstalks from land, preparatory to further cropping, and this brush when so removed is utilized in various ways as fuel, fencemaking, etc. The ground is then ready for plowing, but without irrigation most of it would remain a barren waste. But with it the capabilities of the country are increased almost beyond thought. The first irrigated plant visited was Idaho Falls, Idaho. To T. J. Smith and others we are indebted for drives over the surrounding country. Here the supply of water is taken from Snake river, by a canal 20 miles long and by laterals and sublaterals distributed over the country, and seemed practically inexhaustible. Here a general system of farming is engaged in ; potatoes, vegetables, wheat, oats, alfalfa, clover and some little corn, apples, cherries, currants, gooseberries, etc., were grown with good results. T. J. Ward, owning a well-kept ranch, informed us he had grown 400 bushels of potatoes per acre ; wheat averaged 30 bushels per acre ; the quality we found to be very fine ; the alfalfa making from 3 to 5 tons per acre. The water is furnished at 50 cents per inch ; one inch is said to water an acre. Land ranging from Io to 25 dollars per acre. Our next stop at Mountain Home, population 500, un

der the guidance of George Cole. Took a lively drive of thirty miles, stopping at several ranches to inspect orchards and fruit, to the growth of which this county seems well adapted. A IO-acre orchard of prunes, consisting of 1,000 trees, was estimated at 4 dollars per tree. Five tons of grapes were grown on I}4 acres ; average price about 3 cents pei pound, with a good market in mining towns. The sheep industry is quite extensive, 1% million pounds of wool having been shipped last year. A reservoir of 423 acres, fed by snow from mountain, supplies the water. Land with perpetual water right from 25 to 40 dollars, with a maintenance fee of $1 per acre per annum. Government lands can be had at $1.25 ; this does not include water. Orchard Home, where we visited the fruit farm of the Orchard Fruit Co., under a most complete system of thorough cultivation. This was quite immense, consisting of 25,000 prunes, 6,000 pears. Another orchard, owned by a different company adjoining, of 7,500 prunes and 200 apples, all of them four years old. Their theory, not to let them bear until five years old. A reservoir system, by draining mountain streams, supplies the water. The water is rented at $1.25 per acre. Country new and as yet in a crude state. Nampa, our next stopping place, population 700 ; water taken from Boise River by canal ; some low places are used for storage lakes for accidents. Here we visited several large orchards, among the number one owned by M. A. Kurtz, consisting of 2,700 apple, 2,300 prunes, four years old ; from present prospects will yield IOO lbs. prunes per tree, and apples from one to three dollars per tree, and the finest and most perfect lot of apples it has been our privilege to see here or elsewhere. Much of the land here is beautifully located for irrigating, ranging in price from 5 to 20 dollars per acre according to location. Boise City, population Io,000, situated in Ada county, the oldest city in the state. Here we met Friends having birthright membership, and with one, Frank Coffin, by special invitation our company, twelve in number, took dinner and spent a very pleasant evening. Through the kindness of R. E. Green, who has large interests here, were shown surrounding country ; found it more fully developed than any place visited, fruit raising, general farming, and truck raising being engaged in, some paying $25 per "acre rent for latter purposes and then realizing good profit. The Boise river furnishes the water supply, and by way of showing the immensity of this irrigation plant, this canal is 52 miles long, 25 feet wide at bottom and 40 feet at top, average depth of water 4 feet. The main laterals, 68 miles in addition. The farmers’ laterals cover a distance of 500 miles. Land ranges from 20 to 50 dollars per acre, which includes a perpetual water right, with an additional charge for maintenance of $1 per acre for land actually irrigated, on deferred payments 6 per cent to maturity, then Io per cent is charged. Next place inspected was Roswell, and country tributary to it, which extends a few miles into Oregon. covered by the Riverside canal, J. H. Lowell, Secretary. Water is taken from Boise river. Some government land here, though not now under the ditch. The growth of fruit and vegetables was very remarkable. Much attention has been given to general farming, and here we find careful, energetic farmers. Land $22 per acre, 8 per cent on deferred

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about four years ago. Here hop culture is engaged in ; alfalfa main grass product, which was immense ; stock raising carried on to some extent. On the river bottom sub-irrigation is sufficient to produce grass, upon which stock do reasonably well. At Nyssa, Oregon, our next stopping place, were met and driven over the country to Ontario, stopping on the way at Arcadia in a fine grove of poplars, maple, balm, ash and locust trees, known as the R., S. & D. ranch, of I, IOO acres, fine orchard of 96 acres, much of it in bearing, and here for the first time we picked from the well laden trees the luscious apricot. The water supply comes from the Owyhee and Malhuer rivers, and covers' many thousand acres. Price of land in bearing orchard $180, including perpetual water right, and a village lot is given to every purchaser of an orchard tract ; unimproved land ranges from IO to 35 dollars. Quite considerable is held by French capitalists and not for sale. This report from Nyssa to Ontario we feel would not be complete should we fail to notice the elegant pic-nic dinner given by the owners of this ranch in the grove previously referred to. Almost everything to tempt the inner man was here served, without money and without price to their guests, and we all did it justice, fully appreciating their hospitality. Ontario we found to be a great cattle and sheep center ; I}/2 million pounds of wool were shipped from here last year. Great herds of cattle were brought from mountain ranges to be carred and carried to eastern points. The Ontario Land & Irrigation Co. own the canal which supplies this section with water from the Snake river ; land with water right from Io to 30 dollars per acre with maintenance charge of 50 cents. This plant is not much developed at present, but where it has been is giving good returns. David Wilson is quite a factor in the makeup of this country and his hospitable treatment we shall ever remember. Placer mining is carried on to some extent in this valley along Snake river. Our next stop at Weiser, Idaho, where the usual travel was gone through under the guidance of Dr. Nimber and others, and the results of our investigation, much the same as heretofore. Many nicely kept and thrifty looking orchards and ranches ; fruit trees bending low with their immense loads of fruit. The land here is irrigated by water from Weiser river, a branch of the Snake, and much of it yet in an undeveloped state, but so far as our experience has proven that for fruit culture this country can have few rivals. Land under irrigation is offered at $25 per acre, which includes perpetual water right. Payette, the next point of view, where, under the care of Charles Loveland, Whitney Shawhan and others, inspected the country, which having been more fully developed than some others gave further evidence of results that follow. The land in many places is so high that the water must be taken from the ditches by means of water wheels, carried up by the action of the water to a height of 30 feet, turned into flumes and by them conveyed to adjacent lands. This is rather an expensive way of distributing water, but many of the ranches seem prosperous even under this system. An orchard, owned by Jacobson, the oldest perhaps we have seen, consisting of 65 acres, trees ten years old and in their prime. Apples, pears, peaches, plums, prunes, apricots breaking down with choice luscious fruit, and now we were abundantly convinced that the half had not been told ; 6o large fine plums being counted on a limb one foot long. The owner felt that he would realize $5,000 from this orchard the present year. We had unmistakable evidence that nine tons of alfalfa had been grown per acre, and corn yielding 6o bushels of Yellow Dent variety. This land is watered from Payette river by a canal built and owned by farmers, no one being allowed water unless he owns one share—present value $100. It pays no dividends, and is kept in the hands of those who need the water. One share will entitle the owner to water sufficient to irrigate IOO acres, maintenance kept up by assessing actual expense pro rata on owners of shares. This seemed to be a very satisfactory way of handling the water and gave general satisfaction, and we felt like recommending it. We were next driven to New Plymouth Colony, 12 miles, where we found a most delightful society, composed of per

sons of temperate habits, the sale of intoxicants in any man

ner being prohibited under forfeiture of land purchased, thus securing a good moral community. Before reaching the town several orchards were visited, and wherever of sufficient age were full of fruit ; apricots and peaches now nearing maturity. Lands of this colony are offered at $35 per acre including perpetual water right, subject to a yearly assessment of $1.50 for maintenance ; part of purchase money cash, deferred payment to draw 8 per cent. To each purchaser of land a warrantee deed is given to one acre of land in the town site, a beautifuly located and rapidly improving town of two years growth. This ended our research in Idaho and we took the train for Salt Lake and proceeded south through the valley to Clear Lake, Utah. Here the developments by the early Mormon settlers for the first 150 miles south of Salt Lake show that small farms with extensive farming and watered by mountain streams produce their legitimate results by transforming an unpromising waste into a fertile and beautiful valley. The Mormon sugar works located in this valley we were told supplied all the sugar needed ; with a capital stock of $700,000, it pays a dividend of Io per cent ; $3.75 per ton

is paid for beets, and a good crop realizes $50 per acre. By

the assistance of Charles Aldrich and his estimable lady we were enabled to take a view of the country. The Central Utah Land & Irrigation Co. own a large claim with a reservoir for storage of water which covers 7,672 acres storage capacity, said to be sufficient for 60,000 acres. The company is largely under control of Philadelphia capitalists. Land held at $35 dollars per acre, with perpetual water right. Fifty thousand acres of government land open to entry. Ten dollars per acre for water right, one-tenth cash ; deferred payments draw 7 per cent with maintenance fee at actual coSt. .

The Clear Lake Land & Irrigation Co., with Charles Aldrich, Secretary, has a plant started here. The supply of water by storage reservoir said to cover about 15,000 acres ; Io,000 acres of this government land subject to entry. This company represents a capital of $300,000 at a par value of

$100 per share, and for every share of stock a warrantee deed

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is sufficiently developed for us to express an intelligent opinion in regard to them. - And this closed our labors in the far West, having traveled over 5,000 miles by rail and 450 by private conveyance, searching for information that we hope may prove a benefit to the Society, and while in all the places visited where water had been applied and energy and brains used, good results followed, yet your committee were united in saying that we felt Roswell, Payette and Plymouth had advantages which it would be well to carefully consider in locating for a permanent home, not wishing to be understood as saying anything disparaging of any section visited. We voice the sentiment of this entire committee and company as well when we add that the generous and hospitable treatment received from start to finish was a remarkable showing of the large and generous impulses of all those with whom our lot was CaSt. Again thanking all of those who in any maner contributed

to make our sojourn so enjoyable, pleasant, and we realize, (to ourselves at least), profitable.

Signed by MoRRIs A. WILSON, Chairman, - * * * * - Magnolia, Illinois. THEODoRE RUSSELL, Secretary, Winfield, Iowa.

THE circulation of the Bible in this country is enormous, steady, and constantly increases. Of Bible and Testaments the American Bible Society annually sells or gives away about a million and a half, the International Bible Agecny sells about halfa million; and other large concerns, of which there are four or five in New York alone, circulate a many great more. With such a distribution as that in constant operation one would think thedemand would presently be supplied, but that is not the experience of dealers. They say the demand increases all the time.

DURING the past year 5, 186 men and 1,414 women in the United States committed suicide.

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