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Friends' Intelligencer Association,


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SINGLE SUBSCRIPTION, $2.00 PER ANNUM. To subscribers residing west of the Mississippi River a discount of one-fourth from this rate, making the price $1.50 per annum.

To those who get up and forward “ Clubs give one extra copy, free, for each ten subscribers.

Single copies, 5 cents.

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REMITTANCES by mail should be in CHECKS, Drafts, or Post-oprice Money ORDERS; the last preferred. Money sent us by mail will be at the risk of the person so sending. Draw checks and money orders to the order of FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCÉR AssoCIATION, LIMITED.


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1. The First-day School a Missionary of

the Society : By Howard M. Jenkins, · 599 STATISTICS OF ENGLI»H FRIENDS,


604 EDITORIAL: A Statistical Study,

боб BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, DEATHS, 606, 607 NEWS OF FRIENDS : Fairfax Quarterly Meeting,








612 FERMENT IN THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND, 613 POETRY: The Days Are Slipping By; What Great-Grandmother Did; Resolve,

614 MISCELLANY: Co-operation in England;

Prayer as a Means of Defense; Sea-
sonable English Maxims; The Cost
of the War; A New Labor System;
The Expansion Policy; Dangerous
“ Crackers" in Cities; A Widow's
Only Son; Tlousework and Farmwork,





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. Established 1810 at 824 North Second Street.



Telephone Connection.


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23 North 13th Street (above Market)

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Barlow's Indigo Blue Cheapest and Best,


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No liquors or other offensive goods or methods LIGENCER, when answering Adverresorted to.

tisements in it. This is of value to 1311 Market Street.

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:' Meeting of committees were held during Seventh-day These fleeting years of life

afternoon, from 2 to 5.30, and details of the First-day Are all too short for bickering and strife,

School work and general arrangements for the Conference The wounds, the scars that follow in the trail

were considered. It was decided to hold the meetings of Of bitter words, -of what avail ?

the Conference from 9.30 to 12, and 2.30 to 5 o'clock. Granted a victory with the tongue or pen,

In the evening a social meeting, a reception to visitors But leaving wounded hearts behind, amwhat then?

by the Richmond committee of Friends was held at the Can victory for our pride

(unoccupied) High Point Hotel,-in whose rooms a numA treasure 'mid life's memories abide,

ber of visitors are quartered. There was a large gathering, And serve us as a lasting good

the extensive hall and piazza being crowded, from 8 to 10 To recompense the loss of human brotherhood ? Let us be kind !

It was a pleasant opportunity for all to meet. -W. H. J., in Sunday School Times.

On First-day at 10.30, and 3, religious meetings were held in the tent which Richmond Friends had provided for

the Conference uses, adjoining their meeting house on THE CONFERENCES AT RICHMOND.

North A street. This was provided with seating accom[EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE.]

modations for about 1,200 persons, and it was about filled

at the morning meeting. At this there was ministry by a The train from New York, arriving at noon on the 19th number of Friends, including John J. Cornell, Dr O. instant, at the Baltimore and Ohio railroad station in

Edward Janney, Edward Coale, Charlotte W. Cocks, Philadelphia, brought two special cars and fifty-one persons

Martha Schofield, and Henry W. Wilbur. None of these for the excursion to Richmond. There were soon added

spoke at much length. Lydia H. Price offered prayer at most of the delegation from Philadelphia Yearly Meeting,

the opening, and Isaac Wilson at the closing, -- which was and about 12.30 we were on the way. At Wilmington

at 12 o'clock.

In the afternoon, the gathering was again others joined, and we sped to Baltimore, where further

large, though the tent was not so full. A Friend offered additions were made and we were now fairly en route with

prayer, and Isaac Wilson spoke, followed by Mary Tra 218 people occupying five sleeping cars and two day

villa. Davis Furnas, of Waynesville, Ohio, spoke briefly, coaches, with one baggage car. Old acquaintances were

with others.

H. M. J. renewed and there was much social visiting ; the meeting with new friends was a pleasant feature as we sped along

RICHMOND CONFERENCE PAPERS. this beautiful green country, and across the broad rivers, swollen and muddy from the recent rains. Washington

I. and the historic Harper's Ferry awakened the usual inter- THE FIRST-DAY SCHOOL A MISSIONARY OF THE est, and here, too, were Friends to join our party, adding

SOCIETY. numbers and enthusiasm. Groups were gathered here and

BY HOWARD M. JENKINS. there to discourse on Conference and Society topics, show

Looking for influences and means which, rightly eming that loyalty and zeal were yet characteri-tic of our people. At Cumberland, Md., a late supper was enjoyed ployed, and divinely approved, might tend to the inby many, though many others preferred an earlier partak- crease of the church, through its planting in new ing of the remnants of well-filled lunch-baskets.

places, I have long been impressed with the thought Greetings and interchange of salutations between old- that one of the most practical and serviceable of these time Conference attenders were numerous, and while hearts means is the First-day School. were saddened by missing many faithful workers who used The principles on which the Society of Friends to give unsparingly of their strength to the cause, and who has been established preclude, as we believe, the emhave passed forward to other service and richer enjoy-ployment of means of denominational growth which ments, there was the feeling of thanksgiving that new

to other Christians seem not only permissible but shepherds were coming forward to gather and feed the

appropriate and praise-worthy. We cannot beat drums flock. Cincinnati was reached by 9 a. m., the 20th, where,

and blow horns in the streets, we cannot appoint and after a bountiful breakfast, a change of railroads landed us,

hold “revival” meetings, we cannot bring to bear after a three-hours' ride, in beautiful Richmond, where a compulsion of the civil law, or as in an earlier. day warm welcome awaited us, and we were soon assigned to terrors of an inquisitorial tribunal. In so far as we may carry the faith into new acceptance by new be- With the First-day school available, then, as a lievers, we must do it, apparently, by the two agencies means for introducing the doctrine and the rule which which have been employed from the beginning, the we hold to the notice of others, let us consider for a ministry and the fress, and by-as I conceive—this moment how this may be done. I conceive that there third instrumentality of which I am now particularly are many amongst us who are willing to give some to speak.

part of their time and strength to the propagation of The two older means are not alike. The ministry the Truth which we profess. Some of them are in we cannot employ at will. It is a conviction to which this meeting to-day; many are beyond the sound of Friends adhere, and to which the founders of the my voice. Many are already teaching; many others Society bore emphatic testimony, that a minister must have not taken up the work. What can they do? be“ of the Spirit” and “ inwardly called by it.” Such How are they to do? a one is not subject to use as part of a humanly pre- I believe that in many places it is possible to form arranged plan of work. The rise of the Friends and a group of persons whose disposition and conscience their early spread and increase, came it is true—in incline them to the views which the Friends' maintain. their outward appearance, at least—from the power of It must be so. Are there not, then, teachers who preaching, and it is true also that the sustained exist- will gather them in ? Let the teacher, man or woence of the Society, persisting through two centuries man, in any place, city, town, or village, North or and a half of trial, a small peaceable body in the midst South, East or West, where the Quakers have of many aggressive large ones, an earthen pot, one been heard of, or where they are unknown, speak but would think, certain to be soon crushed by collision to one or two, and the work is begun. It is the decwith those of iron and bronze in whose company it laration of Quakerism, the courage to announce one's floats upon the stream of time—this persisting life has convictions, which is that first step that counts for so been due in no small degree to the zeal, the devotion, much, and which when taken, makes the next steps the unremitted labors of those preachers of the Word, natural, and by comparison with the first, easy. un hired, unsalaried, who have crossed land and sea in

In many places, I say, these beginnings might be discharge of ministerial duty. But the service of the made. If the teacher has a gift for work among ministry comes not at will. We conceive that those children, there are children everywhere and some who are messengers of the Gospel are to be directed always willing to attend Friends' First-day school. by Gospel Authority, and not by Conferences such as It may be a mission school among the neglected; it this, however sincere, however judicious.

may be a school for the better-to-do. If the teacher's For the spread of the Truth, then, subject to gift is for older people, it is a strange community, in systematic employment, and earnest and thoughtful this year 1898, where there will not be some to direction, we have the printed tract, newspaper, and her in an hour's religious study, once a week, along book, and we have the First-day School. What can the line of the Friends' belief. And if we have in be done with this latter agency?

our cities and towns, as I think we may have, though It is apparent that the teacher is not upon the the question is still unsettled, some of the class of same plane with the preacher. The Apostle says, in people who make the Adult schools of the Friends those suggestive and instructive passages in his first in England, then here is a work for the teacher of letter to the Christians at Corinth, that there are many still a different class. members in one body, and all have not the the same Perhaps I do not make my point perfectly plain. office; we have gifts differing according to the grace I assume the religious earnestness of many persons, that is given us; he exhorts, therefore, each unto his young and old, amongst us. I assume their desire work, the minister to his ministry, the teacher to his to serve the Society. I assume that they are ready teaching. It is an encouraging view, an admirable and willing to give a part of their time a few hours exhortation. We see that all have not the same ser- a week—to this service. I assume that they are vice. We see that the teacher is in the line of duty willing to do this regularly and systematically,—not to teach well, as the preacher is to carry his message spasmodically, but steadily, not once in a while, but faithfully.

continuously. I assume that they have the courage Let us then consider the teacher's work. It is to announce themselves Friends,—that if they will subject to oversight and direction. It lies within the not do this as their fore-parents did, by uniform and scope of a considerate, judicious, and wisely exercised unfashionable" apparel, they are willing to do it in church authority. We may plan our First-day Schools. some such definite and real way as will make others We may plant them and water them. We may devote understand they have a faith and a rule of life, and to them not only our zeal, but our experience, our are ready-more than ready-to make both known. judgment, our sense of the fitness of things, all the If I am wrong in these assumptions, I am wrong in concentrated learning and humble knowledge that we my thesis, I am at fault in this brief address. can bring to help them on.

Suppose I am not wrong, how then should the It will be said, of course, that the teacher in the missioner who will undertake this work, proceed? First-day School must have a gift of teaching. So, Will he, will she, not distribute the literature of the too, must every other teacher. Everyone who under- Friends? It is, alas! not so abundant, in a form takes to impart, in any school, the truths of the life adopted to modern-day use, as we could wish, but it of which we are part, must possess a share of that does exist. Will the intending teacher patiently Power which is not humanly made.

hand or send this to those who will receive it? Will

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he not follow it up, then, by establishing the First- | Society, has it been without accessions from those day school ? Let there be but two, a teacher and a who were born and bred in other religious bodies, and scholar, and the school exists. Let there be the two who under convincement joined with the Friends. only, and that work of instruction which we desire We must remember, always, that among those who is begun. Let it but be known that a Friends' First- have done most for the Society, who have been most day school exists, and behold here is our missionary, faithful to its principles and its order, and most active facing its work! Simply thus to begin is to lay hold in the services which it needed, many have been and upon the possibility of ultimate success.

are the “convinced” members. In England, the Friends, about 16,000 in number, It is thus not reasonable, and we need not suppose have 40,000 scholars in their Adult and Children's it to be true, that our missionary work in the world First-day schools. Besides their circulation of books, is finished. If the Friends have a right to be, they newspapers, and tracts, they have in this wide-spread have a duty to increase. If they have the duty of school work a great missionary power. They have increase, it is upon the First-day school that an imsecured a hearing for their cause. If, because the portant part of the work now rests. conditions are changed, or because of some other Let me not leave my thesis obscure. I am not reason, there is not a preaching leader for this present regarding the First-day school as a finality. It is a time like George Fox in his time, still the work of means, only, not the end. As a missionary of the spreading the Truth goes on by new means. The Society, it is the forerunner of the religious meeting Society does not abandon itself to decay and death ; | To gather in the school may be a beginning of gathit presses forward, still, possessed and animated by ering in the more essential manner. The Society's the conviction that there is a place for it, and work growth is the object sought, and the growth of the for it to do, that there are fields, as before, white unto Society, as we believe, would be promotive of human the harvest. Shall we not here, also, employ the advancement toward the

advancement toward the peaceable Kingdom of means which are beside our hands? Shall we not Christ. increase and spread by effort which is possible to us? What stands in the way? Why may we not plant STATISTICS OF ENGLISH FRIENDS. Quakerism in fifty new places within a year and five

From an article in Friends Quarterly Examiner for Seventh month, hundred in a decade ?

1898. I will not here dwell at length on what I believe,

It was in 1861 that the Meeting for Sufferings stated and what you believe, is the fitness of the Friends'

that the usefulness of such statistics had been frequentsystem for the conditions of our time.

That we may

ly under consideration, and, acting on its advice, the The cure for the world's ills is applied Yearly Meeting agreed that returns should be made on Christianity, and the Friends' system, faithfully main

a form then produced, which form has not been largely tained, was and is intended to be a revival of the

varied since. In 1862 the first return was presented, essential simp.icity of the primitive Christian church.

“Why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the showing that on December 31st, 1861, there were 13,things which I say?"

844 members, and 3190 habitual attenders; also that “Everyone, therefore, who

there had been a decrease in the year amounting to heareth these words of mine and doeth them shall be likened unto a wise man who built his house upon a

eighteen. Comparing these figures with those for Derock." And everyone that heareth these words of

cember 31st, 1897, we find an increase of “ members mine, and docth them not, shall be likened unto a fool

of our Yearly Meeting of 3010, and of " attenders ” of ish man who built his house upon the sand.” Such

4290. The intermediate returns show us the steps by is the language of that Master whom the Christian

which this margin has been built up. follows. Whoever, then, can build a structure of

In 1867, for the first time, the membership of each practical Christianity, one which applies the rule of separate Quarterly Meeting was given in the abstract, Jesus to the conditions of real life, builds, whether it

and in 1869 a very interesting summary for seven years be but a few stones laid together, or an imposing

was given, with the admissions and outgoings in each structure reared high, upon the rock foundation. Can Quarterly Meeting.

Quarterly Meeting. In these seven years the total inthis be done among us? Why can it not ?

crease of membership had been 84, and of attendances Why can it not? I may repeat. If the religious 613. Already the loss of members had been stayed, thought which the Friends hold, and the system of and probably the date of the first tabular statement was life which they have evolved in connection with it has

about the numerical nadir of the Society. I look upon value, its value will make it welcome. If it is the the demand for it as a sign that Friends had begun to cure, or a cure, for ills that exist in the world, there realize that in order to provide for the continued exmust be some in many directions willing and anxious istence of the body it was absolutely necessary that its to learn of it. What then can be needed from us constant depletion should be stopped. The Society but the courage to present it, and the patience to had taken stock; it was not to its liking, and like a persevere until we make our message plain ?

wise tradesman it began to take measures to bring the We may remember, as light of experience shed balance on the right side. upon these plans, that Friends in the beginning were In order to show concisely the various movements men and women who came forth from other com- of membership during the thirty-seven years over munions, and that they appeared in response to those which the statistics exténd, I divide the whole period who carried to them the message of Fox and his into five periods of five years each from 1862 to 1886, associates. And never since, in the history of the and into two periods of six years each from 1887 to


1898, and take in each period the average for one year. 1862-6 more than twice as many individuals entered I thus reduce the 37 sets of figures to 7. The dates are the Society by birth as came in by convincement, as those of the Yearly Meetings at which the reports are minors or by reinstatement taken together. In the rereceived, but the figures given in these Tabular State- turns of 1894-8 considerably more than twice as many ments always refer to the previous year.

were admitted by Monthly Meetings as were born inRemovals into this country from Ireland and from to membership. Probably, up to the present time, other Yearly Meetings are fairly constant throughout, birthright members form the majority of the members only ranging from 27 to 40 per annum; we thus re- of the Society of Friends in England, but in a few more ceived members most rapidly between 1877 and 1881. years it will not be so. This change appears to be inRemovals out of this country to other Yearly Meet- evitable, and although on the social side it may have ings have varied from 25 to 47 per annum.

The bal- its drawbacks, yet one can scarcely doubt that it will ance is a little against us; we have lost from this cause have its good effect on the spiritual side. Let us trust alone about four annually, or 263 in all. Ireland has that the renewed Society of Friends will work not less lost to us in the same time a balance of 240, so we earnestly for God and for humanity than did the Somust have lost to America and Australasia a balance ciety of our youth. of over 400.

Turning to the losses by " disownment,” we find The death-rate has shown a fairly regular diminu- that in each period of years there has been a steady retion in each period, and as the membership has mean- duction; the annual loss, beginning with 44, has run while been rising, this is satisfactory. From 1867 to down to 28, 19, 15, 17, and in the last twelve to 9 only. 1871 we lost 285 per annum, or 20.7 per thousand of In the last fourteen years, there has, however, been an membership, taking the membership in the first year additional loss, averaging 39, under the next heading the period as the basis for the calculation; in the suc- of " dissociations.” Probably this number represents ceeding periods it has been 20, 19, 16.5, 15.6, and, in cases which would not otherwise have been dealt with the last year, 15.3 per thousand.

under the discipline of the Society, mainly those who As the Society of Friends has a low birth-rate, and have ceased to meet with Friends for worship. We recruits a certain number of individuals by convince- may regret the fact of the loss, but such nominal memment in mature life, an extremely low death-rate can bership is often not only a cause of spiritual weakness scarcely be looked for; indeed, if a census of our mem- to the meetings, but to the individual also. bership were taken, it would probably be found that a Resignations of membership are fairly constant rate of 15.3 is already nearly as low as can be expected, throughout the whole period, and average 74 annually. and that it speaks well for the careful lives of Friends. It might have been expected that with an increased It is a matter for consideration whether a census of membership, and with many admissions, including members, embracing particulars of age, condition some who are but imperfectly“ convinced ” of Friends' (whether married or single, etc.), and as to origin of principles, we should have had an increase of “resignamembership (whether by birth or admission), would tions." That this has not been the case must be partly not be a most valuable contribution towards our due to the increase of a spirit of unity arising from the knowledge of some of the problems which confront us. developments of common work in Adult Schools and

If the death-rate is becoming satisfactory, it is far other forms of service. otherwise with the birth-rate, for notwithstanding the During the thirty-seven years under review the constant increase of membership, the number of births losses by disownments have been 721, by resignation registered is most steadily diminishing. Beginning with of membership 2753, and by dissociation 549. . 269 per annum, it runs down to 268, 241, 215, 183, The most interesting statistics are those relating to 170, and in the last six years to 154 only, representing admissions, under the three heads of“ reinstatements," the abnormally low birth-rate of 9.5 in the thousand. “admissions as minors,” and “convincements.” This can scarcely represent the full number of births. Reinstatements are a constantly reducing number; We know that there are some who refuse to register they were never large, but from 18 they have sunk to their children as members, because of their objection only 5 per annum. In 1862 there were a certain numto birthright membership; and there will be a certain ber of those who, though disowned for “marrying number of children born, only one of whose parents is out” or other slight cause, remained attached to the a member; and, again, it is probable that a certain pro- Society of their birth; these were willingly re-admitted portion of those admitted by convincement are already on application; but we may gather from the fact that in advanced life; but after making all allowances, it is in thirty-seven years only 378 have so found their way clear that the prudential habits of Friends have dis- back to the fold,—the lesson that it is much easier to couraged marriage to such an extent that we must for hold together than to gather again after we are once the present expect the balance of deaths and births to parted. be largely against us. During the thirty-seven years

The admissions as minors have also been instruc9682 deaths are met by only 7815 births, or an annual tive; in the seven periods they have been 38 per anloss of 50 over the whole period. Unfortunately, how- num, 47, 53, 71 (between 1877 and 1881), and then 51, ever, whilst the first five years show a loss of 11 per -51, 56. In the figures for the later years we see that annum, the last five years show a loss of 103 per an- the admissions of children have not kept pace with

The decrease of the birth-rate has an impor- those of adults. Two causes have probably checked tant bearing on the constitution of the Society. In these admissions—a change of sentiment as to birth


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