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At Union Bridge, Md., on the 22d of last month, many of the friends of Solomon Shepherd, the oldest, and one of the most esteemed members of Friends' meeting there, gathered to congratulate him on having completed his eightieth year. He was in good health and spirits. A suitable poem, prepared by one of the company, was read, from which we take a few stanzas, the whole being somewhat too extended for our Space : “We have met to-day in thy, pleasant home, Thy friends and children dear, With kindly thoughts and loving hearts, And a foretaste of Christmas cheer.
“We meet to honor thy eighty years
“And now, may our Heavenly Father,
ABOLITION SOCIETY'S ANNUAL MEETING.
THE Annual Meeting of what is commonly known as the “Abolition Society,” (it has a much more extended official name), was held at the Parlor, Fifteenth and Race streets, Philadelphia, on the 30th ult.
The full name of the organization is the “Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully held in Bondage, and for Improving the Condition of the African Race,” and it was organized previous to the Revolution. Its work, so far as the abolition of slavery and the relief of free Negroes unlawfully held, is, of course, entirely obsolete, but the remaining purpose, that of improving the condition of the colored people, remains operative, and as it has some permanent funds, which gives it an annual income for its work, the administration of the Society remains a matter of importance.
At the annual meeting officers were elected, including Wiiliam Still, President, Henry M. Laing and Alfred H. Love, Vice-Presidents, Joseph M. Truman and Lukens Webster, Secretaries, and William S. Ingram, Treasurer. Committees were also appointed.
The Society has an income of about $1,000 a year, and part of this is derived from a fund left by John Parrish, and must be spent in Pennsylvania; other funds have been for some years used to aid schools for the colored youth in the southern States.
SPEAKING THE SHIPS.
UNTRAVELED dweller by the haven-side,
UPON the threshold of the year
THE EARTH'S WEAR AND TEAR.
From a lecture by Prof. W. B. Scott, of Princeton University, delivered at the Wagner Institute, Philadelphia, the following excerpts are taken. (Stenographic report by George B. Cock.) AMONG the subaerial geologic agencies, none is more important than the atmosphere. The atmospheric work,+the destructive effects of rain, wind, frost and the like, attacks the rocks, and destroys them both mechanically and chemically. The mechanical agents are, first and most important, rain itself, then frost, then the wind, then changing temperature. Of all mechanical agents nothing is so important as the rain. The hardest rocks are slowly but surely disintegrated, chemically and mechanically, by the rain; and thus the country is gradually worn down. While the work of the atmosphere is not so striking as that of rivers, it is infinitely more important. While
rivers are confined to their channel and the sea con- .
fined to its coast line, the atmosphere is universal,— every particle of dry land is exposed to it, nothing can escape it. These destructive activities have the general effect of wearing the land down, destroying it, breaking up the hard rocks chemically into soft soil, and then sweeping them away into the river to be carried thence into the sea. While the effect of all these agencies ceaselessly at work is thus to wear down the land to sea level, or very near it, yet the first effect is not to produce a general uniformity of level but to produce relief or differences of level; and this because certain parts of the rocks or a newly upheaved land are removed more rapidly than others. Look at an old brick sidewalk, worn down until
do it very slowly are agents which in the countries of moderate rainfall play a very subordinate part. These are, first, the action of the wind, which by driving sand and gravel along the surface of the ground continually wears away the rocks. In the deserts of Arizona the hard, black basaltic rocks are channeled and polished by the action of the sand, just as if they had been in the hands of the lapidary. One of these pebbles is gouged out while the harder parts are standing in relief, thus giving you the general effect of the destructive agencies which are working upon the land. The fierce sun beating down upon the rocks in the daytime heats them. They get very hot. I have seen in Wyoming, five and six thousand feet above sea level, the temperature of the ground raised to 140 degrees in the sun; the rocks get so hot you can’t touch them without getting your fingers blistered. This heating of the rock means the expansion of it. At night, when the sun sets, the temperature immediately begins to fall. Sometimes there will be thirty to forty degrees difference; after sunset (or Io o'clock) it will be freezing, when it was 85 to 90 before sunset. The outside layers which are chilled immediately commence to contract; the outside contracts against an unyielding hot inside and splits off; and thus there is in all desert regions a continual bombardment among the hills and canyons of falling blocks produced by this surface contraction of the rocks upon the still heated and expanded interior. The wind blows steadily for weeks in one direction. Hundreds of miles may take them in one direction into the sea; as the Atlantic, off the west coast of Africa, is often loaded down with sand blown from the Sahara. Then again this wind may transport these particles of sand and gravel to rivers, and thus in turn they get carried off to sea; and so, even in desert regions we find the work of disintegration and destruction going on in spite of the practical absence of the rain. The work of these temperature changes is not only to break off rocks into big pieces; it breaks them up much finer than that. Most rocks are not made up of a single mineral, but of a great many different kinds of minerals. In a piece of granite, while three minerals make the bulk of it, you will find eight or ten, all told. Every one of these different minerals has a different rate of expansion and contraction when heated and cooled. These different kinds of minerals press together and pull away from each other according as they are heated or chilled, and the different parts gradually remove themselves loose; and thus you may start with a cliff of the hardest granite, and the result of these continual temperature changes will eventually crumble it down to a sand, decomposed by the mere strain and stress set up in the interior of this mass by the action of the continually contracting and expanding minerals. Frost does just the same kind of thing, only much more evenly, in moist regions. All rocks, as we have seen, are made up of blocks. In moist regions, where
there is a moderate rainfall, these crevices or joints between the blocks get filled with water. In all countries with cold winters and in all high mountains, as this water freezes, it pries the blocks out with irresistible power. Freezing water is one of the most irresistible agents; within its own narrow limits it is as violently destructive as dynamite. Take a Io-inch shell of steel and fill it with water; and the ice will break that shell as if it were an eggshell. Every cliff and every exposed mass of rock in every cold country is being broken up as the ordinary changes of the air are doing in a desert without the help of water at all. In this way the whole mass of rock is gradually being worn down. The first effect is to wear it out along certain lines, to give us, at a certain stage of maturity of topography, the extreme of relief, or difference of level or elevation.
commerce whitening—or blackening—every sea, her people are grovelling in abject poverty. The facts in the case are actually startling. In England the line of exemption from income tax is drawn at $800. In Prussia it is drawn at $225. One would think that would leave all except paupers subject to taxation. On the contrary, it taxes only 8.46 per cent. of the people. No less than 91.54 per cent. of the people of Prussia, then, have to live on incomes of less than $225 for each family That is a picture of poverty literally appalling. Only one person in 550 has an income of more than $2,375, and in a total population of 32,000,000 only 37,000 have incomes of more than $7,625 each. That there are no more large or medium incomes is significant, but that more than 29,OOO,OOO out of 32,000,000 people should be living on incomes of less than 62 cents a day, such an income generally having to suffice for a whole family, is the blackest picture of German social economy that any enemy of the Fatherland could wish to draw. A generation ago matters were not as bad as they are now. Or, if they were, the people had not yet been waked to a realization of the fact, and they had no one in particular to blame for it. But Germany is now wide awake. The people know and feel how wretchedly poor they are. Rightly or wrongly, they blame the Government for it. Some demand more aid from the Government, in tariff protection and bounties. Others clamor for free trade, which may not increase their incomes, but would, they imagine, lessen their expenses. Others see in the vast expenditures for army and navy the source of all their woes. And others, weary of the problem, seek to escape it by expatriation. There is a desperate chance that foreign war, or at least colonial conquests, may for a time allay the rising discontent. But that will be an anodyne for the pain, not a remedy for the disease.
SoME one offers a bit of advice for which most of us might find daily application : “Never be guilty of the folly of neglect- . ing to do little because you cannot do everything.''
PHILADELPHIA IN 1774. Senator H. C. Lodge, in Scribner's Magazine. IN 1774 Philadelphia was the largest town in the American Colonies. Estimates of the population, which are all we have, differ widely, but it was probably not far from 30,000. A single city now has a larger population than all the colonies possessed in 1774, and there are in the United States to-day IO4 cities and towns of over 30,000 inhabitants. Figures alone, however, cannot express the difference between those days and our own. Now a town of 30,000 people is reached by railroads and telegraphs. It is in close touch with all the rest of the world. Business brings strangers to it constantly, who come like shadows and so depart, unnoticed, except by those with whom they are immediately concerned. It was not so in 1774, not even in Philadelphia, which was as nearly as possible the central point of the colonies as well as the most populous city. Thanks to the energy and genius of Franklin, Philadelphia was paved, lighted, and ordered in a way almost unknown in any other town of that period. It was well built and thriving. Business was active and the people were thrifty and prosperous, and lived well. Yet, despite all these good qualities we must make an effort of the imagination to realize how quietly and slowly life moved then in comparison to the pace of to-day. There in Philadelphia was the centre of the postal system of the continent, and the recently established mail coach called the “Flying Machine,” not in jest but in praise, performed the journey to New York in the hitherto unequalled time of two days. Another mail at longer intervals crept more slowly to the South. Vessels of the coastwise traffic, or from beyond the seas, came into port at uncertain times, and after long and still more uncertain voyages. The daily round of life was so regular and so quiet that any incident or any novelty drew interest and attention in a way which would now be impossible.
WATER IN TYPHOID FEVER, .
THE Bacteriological Review commends the practice of water-drinking in typhoid fever, the importance of subjecting the tissues to an internal bath having, it appears, been brought prominently to the notice of the profession by M. Debove of Paris, believed by some to have been the first to systematize such a mode of treatment. The practice of that eminent physician consists, in fact, almost exclusively of water-drinking, his requirement being that the patient take from five to six quarts of water daily, this amounting to some eight ounces every hour. If the patient subsists chiefly upon a diet of thin gruel, fruit juices, or skimmed milk, the amount of liquid thus taken is to be subtracted from the quantity of water. The important thing is to get into the system and out of it a sufficient amount of water to prevent the accumulation of ptomaines and toxins within the body. Copious water-drinking does not weaken the heart, but encourages its action by maintaining the volume of blood. kidneys, and the skin ; and by promoting evaporation from the skin it lowers the temperature.
It also adds to the action of the liver, the
DIV () RCE IN ENGLAND ANI) A M HIRICA.
IN England, 353 divorces were granted in the year 1895 on the application of husbands, and only 22O,on the application of wives. An English paper is moved by these figures to remark : “It seems as though woman is at heart a rake, and as an entity more immoral than man.” In America, where about twothirds of the divorces are granted on account of unfaithfulness or other misconduct on the part of husbands, the anti-woman party complain that women are chiefly to blame for “the divorce evil,” because more women than men apply for divorces. In England, where more men apply than women, the antiwoman party draw the astonishing inference that wives are more often unfaithful than husbands. The simple fact is that, under English law, unfaithfulness on the part of the wife entitles the husband to a divorce, but unfaithfulness on the part of the husband does not entitle the wife to one unless extreme cruelty can be proved in addition. This inequality in the law is quite sufficient of itself to explain the disparity in the number of divorces granted to husbands and wives in Fngland.— PWoman's /ourna/.
AN interesting movement is in progress among the Polish Catholics in Chicago, Buffalo, and some other cities. It has developed a definite withdrawal from the Roman authority, and a priest of Chicago, Kozlowski, has been made a bishop, by the “Old Catholic" bishops in Europe. The ceremony, called “consecration,” took place at Berne, Switzerland, on the 21st of Eleventh month last, and the new bishop, returning to this country, will have charge of some eight churches, representing about 30, ooo people. Three of the churches are in Chicago, and two in Cleveland.
The Polish Catholics have long been restive under the strict control of the Papal authority. They particularly dislike the denial of all congregational right of government, ownership of property, etc. It is probable the new movement will spread somewhat, though if confined to Catholics of Polish origin it cannot be very extensive.
RUFUs M. Jones, of the American Friend, sends to the Independent, N. Y., a statement of the number of Friends in the “Orthodox” body, in America, including Philadelphia (4th and Arch Sts.) Yearly Meeting. He states the number as follows:
Yearly Meetings. Members. Monzsters.
Ohio . . . . . 5,256 IO3 New York . . . 3,845 68 California. . . . I,432 32 North Carolina . 5,497 59 New England . . . 4,496 I IQ Oregon . . . . I, 527 29 Indiana . . . . I 9,377 2 I 5 Western e . I 5,604 I90 Wilmington . . . 5, IQ5 57 Kansas . . . . I I, 5 I 3 179 Iowa. . . to . . I I, I2O 183 Baltimore . . . I, I 26 25 Philadelphia . . . 4,450 39 Friends in Arkansas . . . 483
90,92 I I,298 Canada Yearly Meeting . . I, of 5 25 Friends in Mexico . . . . 4OO Total in America . . . . 92,356 I, 323
The total of membership was stated by Rufus M. Jones, last year, to be 9o,436. This would show a gain in 1896 of I,92O.
IN America the influence of women is everywhere felt. Even the most conservative religious bodies are obliged to reckon with it. Remembering the subordinate position of woman in the Jewish system, and their separation even in the synagogues, it is interesting to note a paragraph that Rabbi Kalisch, of Richmond, Va., regards the new National Council of Jewish Women as “one of the most potent and hopeful factors” in preserving and promoting the religion of Israel.
| etc. Speaker Thomas B. Reed, of the U. S. House of Rep
resentatives, delivered an address, and the other speakers
included Marriott Brosius, M. C., of the Lancaster district of
this State. The College was established by Stephen Girard, a rich merchant of Philadelphia, who died 1831, and left his estate mainly for this purpose. It is for the free maintenance The endowment fund, originally $5,000, Ooo, is now $26, ooo, Ooo. There are now I, 5oo pupils, and about 4,500 have passed through the institution. - - : THE work-people in the cotton mills of Fall River yielded to the reduction of wages proposed on the 3d inst. At New Bedford, a dispatch says, the weavers and spinners propose to
alleged high average of education in Germany. A Prussian officer in the German army has been in the habit of questioning raw recruits on simple matters of national history. Here are a few replies to his question, Who is Bismarck P : “Bismarck was Emperor of the French.” “Bismarck is a pensioner and lives in Paris.” took part in the campaign of 1870, and received a medal for good conduct.” “Bismarck descends from the Hohenzollern, and was born on April 1.” Of sixty-six recruits whom the officer had to instruct twenty-one had never in their life heard the name of the “Iron-Chancellor.’’
—F. Marion Crawford, the author, who has resided mostly
in Italy for many years, is lecturing in this country. At Bos
ton, in a reported lecture, he said that as many tongues have built up the English language to what it is, so “we, too, are made up of many elements of which the many-sided AngloSaxon is but the first.” He thought that out of the great mixture, ‘‘something is coming which is to be not only strong but beautful and noble, something of which we are already more than half conscious . . . . I mean a civllization, a literature, an art, broader in purpose and deeper in meaning than all that has gone before.”
—The Union Signal says: “In round numbers 7, ooo women and 3, Ooo men went as delegates to the Christian Endeavor Convention—outside of California, which had 2, ooo delegates. Among these were many brilliant speakers, but the brethren crowded to the front and took up all the time. They also filled up all the offices, though it is perfectly well known that women do at least two-thirds of the Christian Endeavor work at home.’’
—Tempérance people in England are noting with much gratification the fact that the present Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Temple, has dispensed with the use of wines at Lambeth Palace, where during all episcopal regimes since the Reformation such refreshments have been habitually served.
“Bismarck is dead.’” “Bismarck
—The American Dittany (Cunila Mariana) is so generally in use among he poorer classes in some parts of the South as an herb drink that to many negroes the word “tea '.' means
only “dit’ny tea ; '' and the story is told of a thirsty Eng
lishman in the North Carolina mountains who gladly accepted a cup of “tea '.' from an old colored woman and then, bewildered at its unfamiliar taste, exclaimed, “Do you call this tea & What is it 7” The prompt answer came : Yes, chile, dat's tea. Some folks make deirs ob horsemint, but I always make mine ob dit’ny.”
—American tree planters find no difficulty in moving large Trees up to three feet in circumference, are frequently moved, and generally with great success. The Gardeners' Chronicle reports the removal of a large Purple Beech, which was 40 feet high and 6 feet 3 inches in girth at 4 feet from, the ground. The tree was moved in 1880, and is still growing vigorously. Our friends Isaac Hicks and Son, at Westbury, Long Island, have, we think, made something of a specialty of this business.
—The Italian correspondent of the New York Observer gives an account of the fifteenth Roman Catholic Congress, held in Milan last September : “All the speeches made at this congress were first submitted to the criticisms of the ecclesiastical authorities, thus preventing dissensions among the members from being manifested.” This is an effectual way to se
—Dr. S. Amelia Barnett, one of the oldest women physicians of New York city, died on the 26th ult. She had almost completed her eighty-fourth year, and up to a few weeks ago had been in good health. She was born in Newark and was a graduate of the Women's Medical College of New York. She was a professor in the College for several years.
—Currants may be pruned during the winter, Meehans' Monthly says. Red and white varieties should be thinned of young, weak wood which does not fruit.
MAN is not God, but hath God's end to serve,