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FRIENDS' EMPLOYMENT SOCIETY, NEW YORK– TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY AND REPORT.

IN this Twelfth month of 1897 our Society completes its thirty-fifth year of existence, and the fact may well claim something more than cursory notice. The feebleness of infancy, the uncertainties and fluctuations of youth, are for us things of the past, and we may thankfully realize that we have now entered upon the era of vigorous maturity, with more of the wisdom of experience than we ever possessed before, yet with unabated strength and resolution. At the close of a period like this, more than one-third of a century, it is well to cast our minds backward, and review the early history of the beneficent institution now known as the Friends' Employment Society of New York It was on Second month 6th, 1862, that a few women met together, having in mind the purpose of doing something

to relieve their fellow creatures suffering from poverty, without thereby destroying qualities of self-respect and self

reliance.

It is a truism in these days that inconsiderate charity often does more harm than good, by fostering the ignoble spirit of Tauperism. But this was not so well understood thirty-five years ago as it now is, and Friends' Employment Society Inow prides itself upon having been among the earliest pioneers in perceiving and acting upon a great Sociological law. “Getting something for nothing ” does not tend to develop high principle in the recipient, and we rejoice that this Soociety is guiltless of having inflicted spiritual injury, while conferring material benefits.

Our organization was at first known by the name of “The Woman’s Association for the Employment and Relief by Clothing of the Suffering Poor.” This was soon found to be over-long and somewhat cumbrous, although it had at least the merit of defining accurately the nature and scope of the Society's work. Our present appellation, while certainly preferable on the score of brevity and compactness, has sometimes been misconstrued to mean employment bureau or intelligence office, and we have many applications from people seeking situations in different lines of business. It is a good name, however, now well known to the public, and one that must have grown dear to the heart of many a needy woman in this great city. We were not gifted with the superabundant wisdom to discern all at once the best way to do our work, lout had to learn it in the school of experience. At the outset our mode of procedure was to buy a quantity of material, have it cut into garments by some of our number, and distributed to be made by the Society’s beneficiaries. These garments were given to the “suffering poor ’’ or sold for the benefit of the Society. Under this system a large pro

portion of the funds had to be expended in the purchase of

materials, and the labor falling on the cutting-out committee became arduous. Only a few years did we continue this method, when the “Friends’ Association for Relief of Freedmen,” “The Friends' Indian Aid Society,” “Society for Pelief of Kansas Colored Refugees,” and the Colored Orphan Asylum responded to our call for co-operation. They, to furnish our Society with garments cut and prepared for sewing, which we distributed to our women to make, with no charge to the institutions. The new method soon replaced the old, as was inevitable, and from that time on, we have been able to extend our charity in employment of more women, this being the only demand on Our treasury. The

list of the institutions for which we have worked is a long

one. Among them may be mentioned The Brooklyn. Industrial School and Home for Destitute Children, Westchester Temporary Home, Blue Anchor Society, Messiah Home, Young Friends' Aid Association, New York Infirmary for Women and children, Episcopal Orphan Asylum,

Protestant Half-Orphan Asylum, New York Infant Asylum, Children’s Aid Society, Female Assistance Society, Hahnemann Hospital, Nursery and Child’s Hospital, Five Points Mission, The Colored Mission, New York Diet Kitchen, New York and Roosevelt Hospitals, and many others. All these have expressed warm gratitude for the help given them, and high appreciation of the excellent work done by our women. It is evident that under this arrangement we are really applying business principles to the excercise of charity and exhibiting the true “quality of mercy” which “blesses him that gives, and him that takes.” Our co-operation with the Charity Organization Society has likewise been of benefit. Where the supply of relief is necessarily limited, and the demand almost unlimited, it is of the highest importance not to accept unworthy applicants. The above-mentioned Society keeps lists of the beneficiaries of the various societies in the city, and investigates the cases of those who seem to be receiving aid from different sources. By this comparison of our records with those of other societies, we are guarded against imposture. In thinking of our early days, many tender memories are revived. Thirty-five years, according to the common reckoing, must have seen one generation removed and its place taken by another. And truly as we look back over the past, the changes and losses which we have suffered seem many and grievous, we could almost say “In these brave ranks, we only see the gaps, Thinking of dear ones whom the dumb turf wraps.” Yet we should not mourn unduly, for we still have with us many of the founders of the Society, and the memory of our lost fellow-workers is a sacred and helpful influence. The names of Hannah W. Haydock, so long and worthily our Directress ; of Sarah H. Barker, who labored faithfully with us for seventeen years ; of Lydia L. Fleet, Lydia Ann Thorne, Phebe M. Bunting, and Margaret G. Corlies, are among those which will recur to every mind, and are fondly cherished. Among those who have aided us in the past with contributions and counsel, and whose loss we have had to lament, were also Samuel Willets, Hull Clark and Robert Haydock. Very dear and precious is the memory of those who have left us ; but we must not forget also to be thankful for the number of those who have been earnest laborers from the first, Phebe Anna Thorne, Jane C. Russell, Caroline Haydock, Mary L. Parsons, and others, and for the new friends raised up year by year to help us bear our burdens. It is not only the past, nor yet altogether the present, that should engage our attention at this time. The future demands our best thoughts and highest resolves. The field of usefulness in which we, as a Society, have chosen to labor, is of vast extent and possibilities. The conditions of life for the poor of a great city are already cruelly hard and do not grow easier from year to year. Small wonder that restlessness and discontent are rife among those whose lot is one of almost hopeless privation and suffering. Anything that we can do to lighten the burdens of these heavy-laden ones, and make them feel that there is some help and sympathy for them, is not only the fulfilment of our duty as women, and as Friends, but is also a manifestation of the civic sentiment in municipal patriotism in one of its highest forms. Whatever government or misgovernment our city may have, the intelligent and self-sacrificing labors of societies like ours will do much towards keeping it from degradation, and raising it to a higher plane of civilization and morality. The receipts and disbursements since our organization in 1862 have been $17,767.45. We hope for more and more liberal donations to our enterprise in the future, for every year we find our means too narrow for all that we would wish to do. Those who have heretofore befriended us would feel well repaid for their generosity, could they see the good they have helped to do, and we trust that they, with many new friends, as time goes on, will feel impelled to support us heartily with purse and with personal exertion. The fruition of our thirty-five years of trial is such as we may contemplate with heartfelt gratitude ; and we have every incentive to push further the work so well begun, never relaxing our efforts, and confidently believing that upon them will rest, in the future as in the past, a well-earned blessing. MARY B. H. WILLIs, Directress. 256 Fourth Avenue. SARAH H. Powell, Treasurer, 324 West 58th Street. ELLA. F. BuNTING, Secretary, 44 East 73rd Street.

New York, Twelfth month Ioth, 1897.

EASTON, MD.—On Second-day evening, Eleventh month 8, many active members of the Third Haven Young Friends' Association met at the meeting house, and re-opened their meetings for the winter of 1897-8. The president, William Henry White, called the meeting to order, after having asked Pauline de W. Bartlett to act in the place of the secretary, who was obliged to be absent. The exercises for the evening were opened by Henry Shreve, who read the 18th chapter of Ezekiel, which was followed by a short, interesting discussion. The Current Topics were responded to by Anna E. White, who briefly touched on many important events. Lottie White selected for her reading the poem entitled “A Moral Sermon.” “What is meant by Soul ?” was the subject of the General Discussion, in which the individual members gave their own ideas of its meaning. This discussion, which proved highly interesting, was opened by Matilda J. Bartlett, who said that the “soul was the seat of the Spirit.” Others thought that the “soul was the Spirit.” The members were called upon to give quotations containing the word “Love.” Then after a short silence the interesting meeting adjourned. PAULINE DE W. BARTLETT, Sec. pro tem. The second meeting of the Association was held in the meeting-house, on Second-day evening, Twelfth month 6. A short silence having been observed, and the minutes of the previous meeting having been read and approved, the 33rd chapter of Job was read by Sallie K. Powell, after which the usual discussion followed. Matilda J. Bartlett not being present with her paper, Helen C. Shreve kindly volunteered in her place, and read an excellent article by William E. Channing, entitled “SelfDenial.” This exceedingly instructive selection brought forth many approving remarks. For the Current Topics, Mary Emma Yeo, gave interesting accounts of the many important events of the day. “Which is better for Soul growth, Morality or Spirituality ?” was the subject of an interesting and instructive discussion. Henry Shreve gave two excellent illustrations, one showing where morality was needed for soul growth, the other where spirituality was essential. Wilson M. Tylor compared the soul to a plant, morality to the growth of the plant, and spirituality to the development of the plant ; thus showing that morality was better for soul growth, which idea seemed to meet the approval of the majority of the meeting. Anna Powell Kemp selected for reading a very good article entitled “Religions in the Plural,” which was read by Robert L. Kemp. - g Many beautiful quotations, containing the word “Labor,” were given by nearly all the members. After a very interesting, pleasant meeting, and a few moments’ silence, we adjourned to meet the 3rd of First month, 1898. LAURA B. SHINN, Secretary.

MooREstown, N. J.-A meeting of Young Friends’ Association was held Twelfth month Ioth.

The president called the meeting to order. The minutes of previous meeting were read and adopted. Taking up the reports from the various committees, Emily H. Atkinson read an article on “Christmas,” stating at what different times Christmas had in times past been observed.

This was followed by the reading of Whittier’s “The Mystic's Christmas,” by Phebe Eves.

The report from the Discipline Committee was a sketch of the life of Edward Burrough, one of the early English Friends, showing a wonderful example of the dedication of a young life ; all his work being accomplished before he was twenty-seven years of age. Following this was a discussion, in which some felt and lamented the dearth of religious thought and expression among the young at the present time. Current Topics were prepared by Anna R. Lippincott, and read by George L. Gillingham. Among the topics referred to were : The enforcement of the rule to prohibit the sale of liquor in the Senate wing of the Capitol ; the acceptance of the office of Attorney-General of the United States by Governor Griggs, of New Jersey ; the announcement by William G. Hubbard that the third First-day in Twelfth month should be “Peace Sunday.” A carefully prepared paper on “Relation of Young Friends’ Association to Meetings and the Individual Responsibility to each,” was given by Gertrude E. Roberts. Many expressed their appreciation of the practical thoughts contained in this paper. Edward Roberts, Jr., read an article on “Control over Thought.” ~. Interesting reports of the exercises were given by the delegates to the meeting at Newtown.

After roll-call the meeting adjourned.
M. A. L., Sec.

FLEMING, PA.—The meeting of the Friends' Association was held Twelfth month 5. The president opened the meeting by reading the 70th chapter of Matthew. After a brief period of silence, roll was called, which was responded to by many helpful thoughts. This was followed by Eva W. Cleaver reading an interesting account of the life of John Woolman. Myra Underwood was assigned a paper on “Important Current Topics.” As she was not able to read them, Florence N. Cleaver was requested to do so. They proved both interesting and well chosen. William Fisher, Jr., prepared and read a very interesting paper on “What is the true measure of our Intellectual Power P” He compared the mind to a bud, which must have the proper conditions of soil, air, sunshine and rain to insure the full measure of its development. We cannot tell what quality the fruit will be until it is fully matured. Thus it is with the mind. Unhealthy minds cannot do good work. But much of what the world calls intellectual greatness is due merely to its being out of the normal, forgetting that the normal, the ordinary and usual things of life are the greatest. To live temperate lives requires a great deal of fortitude and crucifixion of the so-called joys of life, but what real joys come instead | Many other good thoughts were brought out in this paper, which was very much enjoyed. Nancy Fisher read an interesting paper on Rehoboam, giving a sketch of his life, interspersed by elevating thoughts. “The Lily of the Mine,” was the subject of a touching little incident, read by Sue Underwood. Florence N. Cleaver recited, “Our Little Days,” which contained helpful thoughts. Paper, “As Others See Us,” was prepared and read by Anna M. Underwood, who spoke of the smaller lights being stronger than those that flash for a time, then fade. And we should not do good deeds for public praise, but do our duty regardless of praise or censure. Talk, “Is the world really growing better P” opened by Edith W. Cleaver, whose understanding of the question was, are all the nations of the earth, the millions of human beings which inhabit it, growing better each succeeding year P. She thought that it made one feel better to think that such was the case, but the question is so vast that it is difficult for one to decide. Our privileges and opportunities are much greater and people are growing wiser, but are they really growing better P. We all know there are hosts of noble workers in almost every clime, those who not only are endeavoring to selves, but are endeavoring to elevate others. Yet, the war spirit is abroad. Then referring to the conditions of Cuba, Europe, India, and South Africa, and the vast amount of crime in our own country. Other remarks followed. After the reading of the program for next meeting, Association adjourned in silence. FLORENCE N. CLEAVER, Sec.

follow the example of the Master, by leading pure lives them- | clude “currency reform,” the municipal progress of New

LANGHORNE, PA. — Young Friends' Association Twelfth-month 9th, at the home of Mary Bunting, on Maple avenue. The time of holding these meetings has been changed from the third Sixth-day in each month to the Fifthdayprio rtothefull moon. The attendance was large.

Grace Marple read an entertaining account of the life of Joseph John Gurney, who, with his sister, Elizabeth Fry, did muchfor the help and elevation of the poor and distressed. Rettie Mather next read a little poem. An account of Thomas Ellwood, our first Quaker poet, was given by Emily Atkinson. Several of the poems and a poem, “The Burial of Moses,” by Mrs. Alexander, was given by Anna R. Paxson. Sara Palmer Allen in her “Current Topics” gave some excellent ideas on purifying the Press. Quite interesting and sometimes animated discussions followed the readings.

The meeting adjourned till the evening of the 6th of Firstmonth, 1898, at the residence of Edward Palmer, on Maple Avenue.

EDUCATIONAL NOTES. GEORGE SCHOOL. A contest between the two debating clubs, the Union (boys) and the Zeitgeist (girls) took place on Sixth-day evening, the 17th. Cynthia S. Holcomb and J. Pemberton Hutchinson, of Newtown, and John L. Carver, of Friends' Central School, Philadelphia, had been asked to serve as judges. The question, Resolved, “That the conservative forces of the nation are sufficient to secure its perpetuity,” was discussed on the affirmative side by three boys from the Union Club —T. Howard Shelley; Fitch S. Ball and Homer G. White, and on the negative by three girls from the Zeitgheist—Reba Eves, Mary Griest and Minnie Root. The judges reported in favor of the negative side. On Seventh-day afternoon, the 18th, a special meeting of , the Bucks County Natural Science Association was held in the assembly room for the purpose of hearing a lecture on “Forestry,” by Myra Lloyd Dock, of Harrisburg. The speaker is thoroughly conversant with the subject, having spent several years studying forestry, and considerable time in personal investigation of the forest regions of Pennsylvania. The Whittier Literary Society held a regular meeting on the evening of the 18th. The Newtown and Langhorne trolley cars were started for regular work on Third-day, the 21st ult. On Fourthday afternoon the students of George School accepted an invitation to a free ride, which they very much enjoyed. School closed on Fifth-day, at noon, the 23d, for the holiday vacation. Students will return on First month 3rd, 1898, and regular school work will be resumed on the morning of the Fourth.

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York city under Mayor Strong, the great navy of England, etc. Two noteworthy letters of Count Tolstoi on the doctrines of Henry George, one addressed to a German dis

ciple of George, and the other to a Siberian peasant, are also

published in this number.

Friends' Book Association, Fifteenth and Race Streets, Philadelphia, advise us that they have for sale the books by Egerton R. Young, on life among the Canadian Indians,

to which we referred in a paragraph in this column a short

time ago.

THE CHILD ALONE.

THEY say the night has fallen chill—
But I know naught of mist or rain,

Only of two small hands that still
Beat on the darkness all in vain.

They say the wind blows high and wild
Down the long valleys to the sea ;

But I can only hear the Child,
Who weeps in darkness, wanting me.

Beyond the footfalls in the street, Above the voices of the bay,

I hear the sound of little feet, Two little stumbling feet astray.

Oh, loud the autumn wind makes moan,
The desolate wind about my door,

And a little child goes all alone
Who never was alone before.
—Rosamund Marriott Watson, in Scribner's.

A NEGRO BANK PRESIDENT.

A DISPATCH from Washington, on the 22d ult, says: The funeral of William Washington Browne, of Richmond, Va., the only colored bank president in the United States, took place here this morning, and this afternoon his remains were taken in a special car to Richmond. He died of cancer yesterday, having come here for treatment from Philadelphia and Mount Holly, N. J., where he had been in the hands of Specialists. He leaves an estate of over $50,000 and a reputation of having been too honest to make it a great deal larger. He was the president of the Savings Bank in Richmond of the Order of United True Reformers, which he founded and of which he was the head for life.

A pure blooded African slave, born in Georgia in I849, he was able to take part in the war, first in the navy and then in the army, and afterwards got a year or two of schooling in Wisconsin, where he joined the Methodist Church and became a preacher and temperance lecturer, afterward going South. He was eloquent and popular, and courageously fought the Ku-Klux Klan upon returning to Georgia to live.

Subsequently he developed marked business ability, and organized the society of which he became the head, and opened its savings bank in Richmond, which has been very successful. He had the confidence of the white bankers and business men of Richmond, and it is stated that his was the only bank in Richmond that did not decline to pay currency during the panic of 1893, cashing the checks of other banks as well as those drawn on it, and furnishing the needful currency to enable the teachers in the public schools to be paid.

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hold.” He goes on to show that higher “doctrine of the divine Immanence, or the dispensation of the Holy Spirit,” to which the religion of modern men is surely being pressed. “Are we prepared,’’ he says, “to recognize the possession of the spirit of Christ as the test of Christianity, and acknowledge that every one who has this spirit is a Christian, no matter what his name or orders or creed P’’ THE discussions as to whether there is an over supply of ministers in different churches continue, and there appears to be quite a contrariety of opinion. In the Presbyterian Journal, (Philadelphia), one writer, Calvin French, a minister, gives some facts and statistics which throw considerable new light upon the problem so far as the Presbyterian Church is concerned. He shows, for example, that the supply of ministers in the Presbyterian denomination has steadily diminished during the last fifteen or twenty years. The figures cited by him stand thus : In 188o the church had I 14 communicants to every minister; in 1890 the ratio was 126 to 1 ; in 1895, 137; in 1897, 138. That is, since 188o the supply of ministers as compared with the number of communicants, had decreased about eighteen per cent.

THE New Testament, it is perceived by all, consists, (as does the Old), of a variety of “books,” and these are of quite variant character. Four of them give narratives of the life of Jesus, and a large number of others are letters sent by Paul to different companies of Christians. It is very natural to consider that the declarations attributed to the Master have an import and significance Superior to any other matter, and that therefore the four Gospels have the first rank. The Independent, however, argues to the contrary, and its argument strikes us as being rather interesting. It says:

“If we believe that Paul spoke by inspiration of the Holy Spirit, we have no right to say that the authority of God's Holy Spirit, though speaking through Paul, is inferior to the authority of God's son, Jesus Christ. It is through the Spirit that God's revelation is promised us. The Holy Spirit is the official voice of God. We can put the authority of God's Spirit speaking through Paul, below the authority of God's Son, speaking through the man Jesus, only by saying that the man Paul, being a man, obscured or adulterated the pure teaching of the Spirit, while the , man Jesus was a medium through whom the light of God could shine with no distortion or obscuration.’’

The Independent's presentation of the case tends to sustain the view that the divine Spirit dwelt in both Jesus and Paul, in the former in a special degree. (The word “official'' is very curiously used, we should say.)

THE recent death of a prominent English minister and author is alluded to by the British Friend.

“The Congregationalist body and Nonconformity generally have sustained a loss by the removal through death of Dr.

He thinks the

Stoughton. He long occupied a prominent position in the religious world ; and both as a Christian minister and as an author of wide culture and broad sympathies, exercised no little influence on the spiritual life of his time. He presided in 1891 when at the age of eighty-three, at a reception of delegates given by the British and Foreign Bible Society, in whose work he had taken a life-long interest. He addressed in eloquent language his younger brethren on their responsibilities and privileges, urging undiminished effort in carrying the Gospel of God, and the Bible which contains His message of love, to the uttermost parts of the earth. “A letter from his daughter, who married a Friend and has recently joined the Society, gives a touching and delicate glimpse of the closing period of her venerable father's life, concluding with the remark : ‘The words most often on his lips when thinking of the future were,

‘‘‘My knowledge of that life is small,
The eye of faith is dim ;
But 'tis enough that Christ knows all,
And I shall be with Him.’’’’’

CURRENT EVENTS.

IN Philadelphia, on the 23d ult., the Chestnut Street National Bank did not open for business, and on the following day, the Chestnut Street Trust Company made an assignment. William M. Singerly, chief owner of the Philadelphia Record, was president of both, and they are intimately connected with his private business, in different directions. Earnest efforts were made by him, and by others, to arrange for liquidation of the two institutions, in a manner to prevent loss by their creditors, and announcements were made that the prospect of success in doing so was good. It is proposed to issue stock in the Record in settlement.

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NEWS AND OTHER GLEANINGS.

A COLLECTION of old magazines, illustrated papers, etc., has been undertaken in New York City, for the use of the Public Education Association, whose members will meet and prepare the pictures cut from these papers for the use of teachers in the public schools down town, where there are children who will appreciate them.

—Incredible as it may seem, says Harðer's Bazar, there are, as all teachers tell us, many children in the slums [of New York City] who have never seen either a flower or a tree, and who have no idea of what a leaf is when one is referred to. Kindergarten teachers say that no one who has not tried it can form any idea of the difficulties which these limitations present. A child of the slums sees no meaning in a verse in which a bird is pictured as singing on a tree, and feels no incentive to learn one.

—Pundita Ramabai has now under her care (in India) 28o girls, 240 of whom are famine widows. The new buildings at her farm near Poona are going up, and when finished will accommodate 200. Meanwhile she has temporarily rented a house within a few yards of the Sharada Sadan, where a portion of her flock are at present lodged.

—Elizabeth Barrett “eloped '' from her father's house to marry Robert Browning. “The elopement,” says T. W. Higginson, writing on the subject, “was necessary, because the tyranny of her father was so great that not only she but a sister and then a brother could only accomplish marriage by the same means.”

—Mrs. Hannah Gould and sixty-four other women, including trained hospital nurses and a dozen missionaries, sailed from New York on the 15th ult., on the steamer City of Columbia, bound for the Klondike. Mrs. Gould intends to build a hospital and mission house at Dawson City. The population of Dawson is said to be made up at present of eleven women and 7, ooo men ; which shows that there is room there for good women. All but two of the women who have just sailed possess independent means.

—Bishop Leonard (Episcopal) of Nevada says that Indians never use profane language until they learn English and become ‘‘ civilized.''

—Four young women were elected to office in Kansas this last autumn. They are Nettie Bonham, registrar of deeds in Meade county ; Kate Johnson, treasurer of Norton county ; Stella Strait, registrar of Bourbon county, and Della Leslie, county clerk of Brown county.

—The German seizure of a part of China is probably the consummation of a long-laid plan. There is reason to believe that such action was decided upon some years ago, to be taken as soon as a pretext was afforded. The pretext came in the murder of a couple of missionaries, and the seizure of Kiao-Chow immediately followed.—New York Tribune.

—Railway building in the United States, in 1897, was very light, only 1,864 miles. The Railway Age says : “The lowest point in twenty years in respect to railway building was reached in 1895, when only 1,803 miles of track were added, and 1897 has done a little better. California stands first with 2 lo miles laid on different roads, and no track was laid in New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maryland, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Indian Territory, Arizona.” The total length of completed railway in the United States, at the opening of 1898, will be 184,464 miles.

“THERE is,” says Principal Fairbairn, “one thing I profoundly feel ; and that is the way in which churches, taken as a whole, have allowed the industrial class to grapple almost unaided with their problems, to fight unhelped their way into their liberties and rights.”

THE first fifty epileptic patients of the Craig colony of epileptics in New York have been under treatment for five months. The number of their attacks has been reduced over 55 per cent. It has cost but $14, Ooo to shelter, support, and treat them,-only half the sum appropriated by the legislature.

SINCE 1892 there has been a decrease of I, ooo students in the Scotch Universities.

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