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This thought has been the motive for all his work his early manhood was his defence of Turner, and one on architecture also. The chapter on “The Nature of of his early adventures was his championship of the Gothic” in “The Stones of Venice" is central in this Præ-Raphaelites. Even now, as an old man, he has department. He loves Gothic because it is adaptable one of his collection of Turner drawings placed every to human needs, whether for college, mansion, hall, or morning at the foot of his bed, as part of the day's church, not rigid in its lofty, unchangeable plan, as mental nourishment; and still, one of his chronic sorclassic temples are—and because in its carved orna- rows is that not all the Turners at the National Gallery ment there is room for the artist to show his love for are shown upon the walls. Thus does he live over natural forms of fruit, flowers or bird, as well as for again the subject-matter of his young manhood's conthe creations of his brain in phantasy or terror. He troversies. Thanks chiefly to him, both Turner and rather appreciates lack of regularity and symmetry, the Præ-Raphaelites are on a secure pedestal of fame does not mind if the pillars are not quite the same size, and eminence. He championed both-against the aror count differently on the two sides, as they do at tistic hierarchy of the time-because they threw aside Lima and Pisa, or if the floor slopes a little, as it gen- convention and cared only for Truth. Of course, in erally does ; he is anxious chiefly that the building addition, Turner, Holman, Hunt, Rossetti and Millais, should show itself to be the work of honest, unpre- were men with a very remarkable power of seeing the tending and devout men, rejoicing in the beautiful Truth, and painting it, without which power the very things in nature, and giving ungrudgingly (as they best intentions would have been no use at all as art. thought) to God of their best, and loveliest. This giv- | This fidelity to, and reverence for, natural forms has ing to God reminds me that when reading “ The Seven also led Ruskin to prefer very fine detailed drawings, Lamps of Architecture " I kept a piece of paper by me careful and even microscopic, to those works which headed "Notes on the Building of Meeting-Houses" ; proceed by dabs. But all this must be read chiefly in but that it appeared that since we wholly reject as dan- his books. All his works are unsystematic, but those gerous the notion of a building being a temple, there which treat chiefly of painting are “Modern Painters," was not much to the point in a book which treats of
“Val D'Arno," " Lectures on Architecture and Paintbuildings whose costliness and beauty were to express
ing," "The Elements of Drawing," " A Joy Forever," the devotion of their builders and be an abiding place “The Two Paths," "Lectures on Art," Ariadne for a divine spirit. Let us for a moment change our Florentina," "Mornings in Florence," "St. Mark's attitude of mind, dwell on the other thought, and enter Rest," "The Laws of Fésole," "The Art of England," with our author's help into the aims of those old Vene- besides numerous pamphlets, collected in “On the tians who built St. Mark's :
Old Road," and long passages in
and elsewhere. • It was in the hearts of the old Venetian people far more than a place of worship. It was at once a type of the Re- Perhaps the second volume of “Modern Painters deemed Church of God, and a scroll for the written word of is the characteristic and central piece of writing on God. It was to be to them both an image of the Bride, "all
this subject. In it he proceeds gravely to classify the glorious within, her clothing of wrought gold,' and the actual Table of the Law and the Testimony, written within and with
effect of pictures, according as they exhibit this or And whether honored as the Church or the Bible, was that divine attribute—the divine infinity, the divine reit not fitting that neither the gold nor the crystal should be pose, the divine purity, and so on. Yet, if we come to spared in the adornment of it ; that as the symbol of the Bride,
consider, this must be quite the right way to go about the building of the wall thereof should be of jasper, and the foundations of it garnished with all manner of precious stones ;
it. The high thoughts given by a painter must be and that as the channel of the word, that triumphant utterance lights on the divine Nature, if God be indeed universal, of the Psalmist should be true of it : 'I have rejoiced in the way and if Nature be His garment or His expression. Let of Thy Testimonies as much as in all riches ? And shall we
us be thankful for the utterance of this truth. Books not look with changed temper down the long perspective of St.
like the second volume of Modern Painters Mark's Place, towards the sevenfold gates and glowing domes of the temple, when we know with what solemn purpose
the among the most precious possessions of a nation. shafts of it were lifted above the populous square ? Men met
The volume has been separately reprinted, at the there from all countries of the earth, for traffic and for pleasure ; price of ten shillings; and in the notes which the aubut above the crowd swaying for ever to and fro, in the rest
thor has added at the foot of the pages, we may find inlessness of avarice or thirst of delight, was seen perpetually the glory of the temple, attesting to them, whether they would hear
terest in reading what the mature judgment has to or whether they would forbear, that there was one treasure say upon the zeal of its own youth: the sayings are the which the merchantman might buy without a price, and one reverse of complimentary as a rule, though now and delight better than all others, in the word and the statutes of
then he gives himself a pat on the back. But the God. Not in the wantonness of wealth, not in vain ministry to the desire of the eyes, or the pride of life, were those marbles
principal alteration the years have brought, revealed hewn into transparent strength, and those arches arrayed in in these notes, has been a development of religious bethe colors of the iris. There is a message written in the dyes lief. He was brought up on rigid Evangelical views, of them that once was written in blood; and a sound in the
and being, more than most, a father's and mother's echoes of their vaults that one day shall fill the vault of heaven. He shall return to do judgment and justice !' The
The boy, he retained them until well into manhood, and strength of Venice was given her so long as she remembered their fervid expression throughout the first three volthis ; her destruction found her when she had forgotten this ; umes of “Modern Painters was what caused him to and it found her irrevocably, because she forgot it without ex
so severely reprobate this book in later years, and to No city ever had a more glorious Bible,"
refuse to reprint it between 1873 and 1888. For the We cannot conclude this brief sketch of Ruskin's
reaction has been keen with him, and his later life has art teaching without mentioning that the chief work of been spent in labor to lead his readers into what he
believes to be nobler and broader forms of faith. Mr. them, yet, when his father wished to hear of their welCollingwood tells us that an intended marriage after fare, while they were feeding his flocks in Shechem, mid-life was stopped by his supposed want of ortho- and proposed sending him to them, he dutifully said, doxy. He has suffered for his faith. Here is, then, a Here am I.” No finching from filial duty for fear bit of the religious teaching of the later years :
of his brethren, yet surely he must have known that
some kind of harsh treatment would be his portion at Christian," did I say ? “Alas! If we were but wholesomely unchristian. It is our imaginary Christianity that
their hands, and when he found them not at the exhelps us to commit these crimes, for we revel and luxuriate in pected place, instead of returning home to his father, our faith, for the lewd sensation of it; dressing it up like
he went on in quest of them, thus rendering obedience everything else in fiction. The dramatic Christianity of the
not only to the letter, but to the spirit of his father's organ and the aisle, of dawn service and twilight revival, the Christianity which we do not fear to mix the mockery of, pic
wishes, a lesson to all. But even before he came near torially, with our play about the devil, in our Satanellas, them, they knew it was he, and plotted to kill him, sayRoberts, Fausts; chanting hymns through traceried windows
ing, “ We shall see what will become of his dreams." for background effect, and artistically modulating the ‘Dio'
What an exultant spirit seems to be there, gloating through variation on variation of mimicked prayer; while we distribute tracts next day for the benefit of the uncultivated
over the chance to wreak spite on the victim of their swearers, upon what we suppose to be the significance of the hate. The oldest brother, Reuben, however interposed Third Commandment; this gas-lighted and gas-inspired to prevent his death at their hands, advising them to Christianity, we are triumphant in, and draw back the hem of our robes from the touch of the heretics who dispute it.
cast him into a pit, intending to deliver him after a
But to do a piece of common Christian righteousness in a plain time, and return hini to his father. But his design was English word or deed, to make Christian law any rule of life, frustrated, as in his absence they sold him for twenty and found one national act or hope thereon, we know too well pieces of silver to a party of Midianites, who were gowhat our faith comes to for that! You might sooner get light
ing to Egypt. ning out of incense smoke than true action or passion out of your modern English religion. You had better get rid of the We will pass hastily over the despair of Reuben on smoke and the organ pipes both, leave them and the Gothic finding him gone, and the heart-rending grief of his windows and the painted glass to the property man, give up father when by their deception they convinced him your carburetted hydrogen ghost in one healthy expiration,
that Joseph was indeed dead, devoured by wild beasts, and look after Lazarus at the doorstep. For there is a true Church wherever one hand meets another helpfully, and that and we wonder that they could hold their peace, when is the only holy or mother Church which ever was or ever their father refused to be comforted, saying, “I will shall be.
go down into the grave with my son, mourning."
How true it is that the commission of one crime ofteii For Friends' Intelligencer.
requires that of another, to conceal the first. Murder THE CHARACTER OF JOSEPH.
in their hearts, deceit and falsehood were resorted to
for concealment. The character of Joseph, as delineated in the Bible,
What must have been Joseph's feelings when he has appeared to me as more closely resembling that of
thought of his past life, contented and care-free, and Jesus than does that of any other personage in the
then on the future before him,—far away from his Scriptures. Obedient in childhood to his father, gentle father and family, taken to a strange country, and sold to his brethren, faithful to his master's trusts, pure and
as a slave, while but a lad of seventeen? Yet there true under temptation, wise in his advice to the king as
was a recompense for even these evils. We are told, to preparation for approaching famine, prudent in the
“The Lord was with Joseph.” How comforting that distribution of provisions to the needy, modest in bear
presence must have been in his isolation from home : ing while enjoying the confidence and support of his
what a support in his trials. Even his master persovereign, magnanimous in the treatment of his sup
ceived that the Lord was with him, and "he found pliant brothers : in what other person do we find all
grace in his master's sight," and "the Lord blessed these characteristics so intimately blended, forming so
the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake.” Notice the complete a character ? Many other worthies men
effect of the presence of one good person ; for his sake tioned in both Old and New Testaments have memor
were the others blessed. Then followed the temptation, able and distinguishing qualities, but none other so
out of which he came pure and unscathed, yet through conspicuous, none other so perfect as he.
the calumny of his temptress, he was cast into prison The first account of him, excepting his birth, is in
with others. But the Lord was still with him, and the 37th of Genesis, where he is described as being 17
"showed him mercy, and gave him favor in the sight years old, and that " Israel loved Joseph more than all
of the keeper of the prison,” and “that which he did, his children, because he was the son of his old age; and
the Lord made it to prosper." Then came the butler's he made him a coat of many colors ;” and for the and the baker's dreams, their interpretation by Joseph, reason that his father thus loved him so greatly, “his and their fulfillment. After this we see a too common brethren hated him, and would not speak peaceably phase of human nature ; the butler forgot Joseph, afunto him.” Envy and jealousy, two of the worst foes
ter being restored to his former place, notwithstanding to the happiness of the human family, took possession Joseph's touching appeal to him, to “think on me of their hearts, increased and intensified by the dreams
when it shall be well with thee, and show kindness, I he dreamed, which in his innocence he told them, and
pray thee, unto me, for
I was stolen away upon which they placed an interpretation against and here have I done nothing that they should put themselves. Knowing well the feelings entertained by me into the dungeon." Conscious of his innocence,
he could well make this plea. “Two full years passed,
Two full years passed," earnestly requested another meeting, but he felt his when Pharaoh, the king, was troubled with those re- service was ended. markable visions, which so seriously affected his king- Once, intending to take a boat from New York to dom, and, indirectly, were the cause of Joseph's re- go up the Hudson, and another boat lying by, he lease. When no one could explain the dreams, the
made a mistake and went aboard one going to a town butler remembered his own case, and freely spoke to in Connecticut. The passengers soon gathered around the king of Joseph and his wonderful gift. The king him, a plain Friend being a novelty, and engaging sending for him, told him what he had heard of his him in conversation on religious topics, he explained abilities. But in his modesty and uprightness he dis- the truths of Christianity so forcibly he soon had a claimed any such power, saying, “ It is not in me;
most instructive meeting. One person was so pleased God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace.” We are
with the old Friend that he insisted on his going to are all familiar with these dreams, and their interpre
tea at his house. Another would lodge him free, and tation, which so pleased the king that he said, “ Can
would pay his
passage back to New York. we find such a man as this is, a man in whom the spirit Meeting, he related that at first he did not incline to
On a visit to the writer's house, at our Quarterly of God is?” Even he recognized the presence of that
attend, there was so much discussion and so much of Spirit which continually dwelt with Joseph, and recog
the militant church of self-acting, he could not enjoy nized his wisdom by appointing him ruler over all,
the meeting, but his Good Father addressed his inwith but this reservation, “Only in the throne will I
ward ear : "I love this people. Why can't thee go be greater than thou.” He said, “See, I have set thee
and visit them, and do the work I may give thee?" over all the land of Egypt." What a change for Jo
He yielded to the counsel, and was much favored in seph : yesterday a slave and in a prisoner's gaol ; to
testimony. day, “ clothed in vestments of fine linen," commis
He was an original thinker, and it required a sioned to ride in the second chariot” while “they
close attention to his discourse, or else we would not cried before him, bow the knee." Nowhere in all the
comprehend the truths he explained. His view was narrative do we find any intimation that this grandeur
that much of the Scriptures, especially as historic and homage tempted him to forget the God, who in
events, were but as illustrating some deep spiritual his vicissitudes had so marvelously preserved him, and truths not understood by those not enlightened by the at last had uplifted to so great a height, nor can we light of Christ. Holding these views, the discrepancies suppose that in his inmost soul he enjoyed this Divine
that modern criticism has shown he avoided in these presence more, or that “the Lord was with him” any writings, not quoting as literal facts, which too many inore now, when ruler over all the land,” than wheni
of our ministers have done, the legends of a rude quietly performing his menial service in the prison, people. A Friend who did not appreciate these though he experienced the consciousness of larger spiritual expositions of the "wheel within the wheel,” powers and of greater opportunities for good to his a spiritual life in the outward life, asked him if the use fellows.
ELIZABETH H. COALE. of language was not to be understood ? He replied: Holder, Ill.
“Thee is not deep enough." (Conclusion to follow.)
He carried the view of complete non-resistance so
far that the writer asked him what he would do it For Friends' Intelligencer.
attacked by an insane person, or if another one was. RECOLLECTIONS OF ALEXANDER
He replied : “Such is my confidence in the care and YOUNG.
goodness of my Father, I believe, should I be placed
in such a position, He would protect me or show me ALEXANDER YOUNG, a well-known minister of a for
what to do." mer generation, on a religious visit in Sullivan county,
In an interview the writer had with him he related New York, had appointed a meeting in that moun
some of his former experiences. About the year 1818 tainous country, in a town remote from Friends.
or 1820, being on a visit to his sister living near While sitting in a hotel, bowed in body and mind, a
Jericho, L. I., she informed him of the great departure person of note came up to him and addressed in, or
of her once dear friend Elias Hicks from the doctrines of nearly in the following language : “Well, sir, I understand you are going to preach for us to-night. she read to him several of his letters she had received
our Society, and to prove to him the alleged statement A Presbyterian comes along and he tells us unless we
on doctrinal subjects. He said, " I paid strict attention believe in his doctrines we can't be saved. Again a
to their contents, and though they were new, yet so Methodist comes and he tells us he only is right, and
convincing were they, that I was in perfect unity with we are lost if we do not believe in his doctrines. And
him when done reading and all in harmony with an Episcopal clergyman comes too, tells us the same
Divine revelation.” Alexander also spoke of the story. Now, I want to know what you have got to tell us ?” Alexander raised his head and said, “ If opening of these truths to Edward Stabler. When
he first heard of E. H.'s views, his reflective mind you do not know right from wrong, probably I shall
examined them and for some time he reasoned on have nothing to say to-night.” “Well," the person
their truth. He found he must be still, and in faith replied, “if that is your religion, I will go and hear The novelty of such views, joined to his sing, believed. In that quiet resting state these subjects
leave all discussion and rely on the Power in whom he ular dress, caused a large meeting, and being favored
were opened with great clearness, and in after years to open our doctrines with much clearness, they very
TEMPERANCE AND THE CHURCH.
ad he could speak from what Deity enlightened him the Father, and unwearied sacrifice of self to the with authority.
manifest duties of life as he met them in his daily The last days of Alexander Young were marked walk. with increased lustre, and it appeared almost if he While the love of the brethren (our own housewere in his celestial home. Such brightness and hold of faith) is enjoined we are also cautioned not to spiritual life are seldom witnessed.
forget the strangers. It is natural that our affections Westbury', L. I.
ISAAC HICKS. should go out to those with whom we mingle in
religious worship and are interested with in Christian FRIENDS' NEW TESTAMENT LESSONS. work, but our love must extend to all children of the SECOND MONTH 20, 1898.-No. 8.
Father,-especially to the unfortunate and those who
are in bonds, whether of the body or the soul. GOLDEN TEXT.-To do good and communicate forget not.
Again, personally, our lives must be clean and our Hebrews 13: 16.
affections pure, free from the undue love of things Scripture Reading : Hebrews 13: 1-17.
which, good in themselves, become debasing when
permitted to dominate us. HISTORICAL.
As though in summing up, the Apostle uses the The plain and simple duties of life as set forth in
words of our Golden Text, and continues, "For with the Scripture reading of the lesson are old yet ever
such sacrifice God is well pleased.” We are not new, and need to be repeated and impressed upon our
alone to keep ourselves unspotted by the world, but minds, for the tendency to lapse into reliance upon
we are to be fruitful in deeds of loving kindness and creedal confession and formal performance of religious beneficence, helping the less fortunate, strengthening ceremonies is the same to-day as in the time of Jesus.
the weak, and uplifting the fallen. Also, we are to comWe will remember that his protest was not against municate or impart of the heavenly riches which we the law—he declared that he came not to destroy the
may possess, that others may be fortified and establaw but to fulfill it—but he unsparingly condemned
lished against times of trial or temptation. the blindness and hypocrisy of the Pharisees who scrupulously adhered to the letter of the law while ignoring or wilfully trampling under feet its true pur
TEMPERANCE LESSONS. (FOR ADULT CLASSES.) pose and spirit. Some expressed formulæ of doctrine or belief, and rules for their observance are requisite, The temperance question is at the same time moral even in an organization so simple as our own,—the and political. On the one hand the use of alcoholic important thing is that all shall be done “ in the life"
stimulants is the chief single cause of the various forms and under the quickening influence of the Spirit, and of human degeneracy, shown in pauperism, insanity, not as mere form.
and crime ; on the other, the management of the TEACHING
drinkers and of the traffic in intoxicants is a chief The lesson to-day fully and clearly impresses upon problem of our police departments, while our revenue us the necessity of both faith and works. The system is very largely dependent on the manufacture Apostle says, “Be not carried away by divers and of fermented and distilled liquors. strange teachings,” he would have us with fixed and
As a moral question the whole subject comes disdefinite convictions. Again he says, “Let us offer tinctly within the domain of the church. This has up a sacrifice of praise to God continually''; he would long been recognized so far as personal abstinence is also have us give expression to our convictions in concerned. In 1743, the United Societies of Methopraise and thankfulness, which he calls “ the fruit of dists (England) declared that members were expected lips which make confession of his name.” It is fre- “ to avoid evil especially drunkenness, quently said that it does not matter what one believes buying and selling spirituous liquors, or drinking them, so his life is correct—that is the essential thing. True, except in cases of extreme necessity.” This statement correctness of life is most important, but in order that was modified later, but has come by degrees to repreit may find its best and fullest expression and exert sent to a considerable degree the attitude of most of its most potent influence it must be the result of a the Protestant churches. In 1865, the Presbyterian sincere, reverent, and uplifting belief. By which we church expelled from membership all “who are endo not necessarily mean such a belief as finds formal
gaged in the manufacture and sale of intoxicating expression in creed or confession, but that unshakable drinks to be used as a common beverage.” The posisense in the soul of a great Central Power which tion of the Society of Friends in this matter is well makes for righteousness and to which we are respon- known. sible for our highest and best—with which we should By degrees also the various churches have come be co-workers.
to feel responsibility as to the methods of publicly The difference between a correct life without belief dealing with the great national vice, and as to the comand a correct life founded upon conviction is the plicity of State and Nation, through the various revenue difference between morality and religion—the differ- systems, with the traffic. This sense of responsibility ence between a mere conformity to a standard set up has led to the adoption of resolutions or of public by the world and the active principle of goodness in statements on the subject by most of the leading a consecrated heart. Here again our best illustration churches. Among the more recent utterances are the is Jesus-his whole creed was love and an abiding following: and ever-sustaining faith in the power and presence of The Baptist Home Mission Society adopted resolu
tions in 1890, in part, as follows: "We declare our- lutely the rule. Luxury is not only bad for the indiselves among its [the liquor traffic's] most pronounced vidual, but it tends to separate him from his fellows. and uncompromising foes, believing that it has no de
But in spite of this fear, which sometimes comes over fensible right to exist, and that it can never be re- me, still I feel from the very fact of our having from formed.
We stand pledged to work and pray, the earliest times recognized that great doctrine upon and (as God shall give us wisdom and light) to vote
which so much depends in social — and indeed, all for the absolute abolition and overthrow of the iniquit-other-questions, and upon which the proper solution ous traffic."
of these great questions depends more than upon any The American Christian Convention (1886) deliv
other, the absolute equality of the sexes, that we ered itself thus : “ This Convention announces itself as
have a peculiar facility in dealing with a great many the patron and aider of all activities and associations
social questions. that point clearly, definitely, and wisely to a direct and
Industrial questions make a great part of social immediate erasure of permissions or sanctions of society or law upon the iniquitous traffic."
questions at the present day. Friends ought to be The National Congregational Council of 1889 says
able—are able, I trust—to take a leading part in the in part : “ The saloon is so great a menace to the settling of these in the direction of industrial peace. peace of society and so great a hindrance to
Apart from the belief of Friends in the doctrine of the advance of the cause of our divine Master as to peace, that doctrine which is one of our distinguishing demand the wisest and most efficient means
principles, and which I hope as a Society and as indifor its removal."
viduals we shall always hold most strenuously, the The General Conference of the Methodist Episco- strong democratic character of which I have spoken pal Church (1892) says : “The only proper attitude ought to be peculiarly of service in this direction of toward it (the liquor traffic) for Christians is that of assisting industrial peace, peace carried into private relentless hostility. It can never be legalized without life, and in all matters which require close, sympathetic sin."
attention to the needs of others less fortunate than ourThe General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church selves. (1892) says : "No political party has a right to expect One other matter has struck me as affecting us in the support of Christian men so long as that party dealing with these social questions, that which is, perstands committed to the license policy." In 1889 it haps, our chief distinguishing doctrine, the spirituality said : “ Total abstinence is the only safe rule for the
of true religion-our view that religion is not a matter individual and prohibition by law
of form, but of the very life. Truly, this ought to help method by the State."
us in regard to a great number of subjects upon The Roman Catholic Plenary Council, 1885, says
which the question is constantly raised as to what of liquor dealers in membership in the Roman Catho
is secular and what is religious. Can we draw such lic Church : “ If they can, let them choose a more
a distinction, which I cannot but think unmeaning and honorable way of making a living."
full of danger ? Surely every question ought to be The above will show the expressions of the lead
a religious question. Surely we cannot lay a certain ing churches. That they do not carry the hearty
number on one side, and say, These are secular, support of the membership is shown by the fact that
and these are religious. A week ago, with some little has been accomplished in the period elapsing German friends of mine, men of education and since these earnest utterances, although the power of
much thought, we were discussing the question of the church membership, if applied together, could
peace and war. As soon as I had laid before them have crushed the liquor traffic. Suggestions. Discuss the church work of neigh- true; we agree with every word of it. But this is the
our own views on peace, they said : "Oh yes, quite boring denominations, and look for opportunities of true; we agree with every word of it. But this is the co-operation. Consider the public and private expres- religious view, not the political view of the question; sion of other denominations, and see how far we can
not the view that any person in the world could think Do not let discussion degenerate agree with them.
of acting upon !” It seems to me that the distinction either into debate or into unkind criticism.
so often made between things secular and things reJ. H. H.
ligious leads distinctly to that state of mind which would cause us to put a certain number of questions on
one side, as those which are to be taken down on SunFRIENDS AND “SOCIAL QUESTIONS.”
days, and talked about on the death-bed. If the reFrom the address by Robert Spence Watson, at the Friends' Conference at Manchester, England, 1895.
ligious view is good for anything it is good for everyTHEN again, if we are a really democratic body, we
thing. The social questions that press for solution
cannot be solved unless we have the religious sanction ought to have no difficulty in dealing with men of all
of what we are doing. classes on equal terms. I say, a democratic body. I sometimes fear there is a tendency amongst us rather in a direction which is opposed to this true spirit of How awful would be our lot if the inclinations of equality, a tendency toward rank, and wealth, and po- our will were followed by fulfillment of our hasty desition, towards things which are dangers and danger-sires, and sudden longings were always granted. One ous; and that it would be better for us if the old habit day, we shall bless him, not more for what he has of simplicity, in every matter of life, were more abso- | granted than for what he has denied.---H. E. Manning.