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of their divine appointment, in the numerous prophecies, which in these later days are ful'filled, and still under our own eyes continue to receive their completion. The language of "the prophets, also, is remarkable for its niagnificence. ... Each of the writers is distinguished 'for peculiar beauties: but their style in general may be characterized, as strong, animated, ‘and'impressive. ... Its ornaments are derived, not from accumulation of epithet, or labored 'harmony; but from the real grandeur of its images, and the majestic force of its expressions. ... It is varied with striking propriety, and enlivened with quick but easy transitions. ... Its 'sudden bursts of eloquence, its earnest warmth, its affecting exhortations and appeals, af'ford very interesting proofs of that lively impression, and of that inspired conviction, under “which the prophets wrote, and which enabled them, among a people not distinguished for 'genius, to surpass in every variety of composition, the most admired productions of pagan 'antiquity. ... The greatest part of the prophetic book ... was written in some kind of measure for verse. But, 'as the Hebrew has been a dead language for nearly two thousand 'years, we can have no power of ascertaining the pronunciation, or even the number of the syllables. The quantity and rhythm of its verse must therefore have entirely perished, and there can be no mode of discovering the rules, by which they were governed. Grey's Key. -Much has been written, concerning the different degrees of inspiration, with which the prophets were endowed: but, I own, I never found satisfaction in any discussion of this subject. Certainly the Scriptures intimate some disparity between Moses and other prophets, and several ways in which divine communications were made: and let others determine what credit is due to the rabbinical determinations in this respect. It seems enough to observe, that the credit of scriptural prophecy does not depend on such distinctions, but on internal evidence; and on the highest authority, that "holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” Probably none, except prophets, ever had an idea, how the illapses of the Holy Spirit come into their minds, and beyond doubt evinced their divine origin. All the prophets were so superintended, both as to the words used by them, and the messages delivered, as to be preserved from error, and to give us the very word of God: and this is enough for our satisfaction. Many things, howover, relative to this subject, will come in our way, and an opinion will be given on them, as we proceed. - It should be peculiarly observed, by every diligent student of the sacred Scriptures, how constantly and confidently the preceding history is assumed for granted, and as certainly known and believed by the people, in every part of the prophetical writings; and in what numerous instances, they are quoted as "the Scriptures, which cannot be broken,” and “the oracles of God,” in the New Testament. It would carry me much farther, than this introductory dissertation will admit, to enter into particulars: let the reader consult the marginal references, and doubt, if he can, whether the historical books, preceding the time of each prophet, were not extant and deemed authentic, when he wrote; and whether Christ and his apostles did not consider the whole as "the word of God.”—The distinction between the greater and the minor prophets cannot well be passed over in silence, in this place: but it means no more than, that the prophecies transmitted to us of some of them, are more than those of others; but not at all of higher authority. To encourage men in searches of this kind,' (that is, of the prophetical writings,), 'they will 'find such an harmony and correspondence between the figures and emblems, whereby the *prophets point out things to come, that the careful comparing of them with each other will afford the best clue to guide the attentive reader, through the most difficult parts of their 'writings; and is likewise a most surprising proof, that they all wrote by the direction of one and the self same Spirit. ... As it is highly reasonable to believe, that some parts of the Old •Testament prophecies reach to the end of the world; so it is reasonable to expect, that in 'every age Providence should open some new scene, which will give further insight into the 'meaning of these sacred writings. I confess I can by no means approve of the opinion of 'some learned men, who are for cramping the sense of the prophets, and confining thern 'within as narrow a compass as they can; and will needs maintain, that the prophets scarcely foresaw any thing, but what was to come to pass in or near their own time. I must own 'myself puzzled, to assign a reason why God should appoint a succession of prophets, to fore'tel what should come to pass within the compass of about three hundred years, (for within that time most of those prophets lived, whose writings make up this part of the scripture'canon which is called by that name,) and take no notice of any other occurrences which should happen in succeeding times: ... whereas to extend the prophetic views to the end of the world, seems much more agreeable to that description of God's prescience, which the holy writers give us, That “He declares the end from the beginning,” and his wisdom "breaches from one end of the world to the other mightily, and sweetly does it order all ' 'things.' So that even when the whole mystery of God's dispensations shall be finished, it 'will appear that nothing was contained in them, but what God hath formerly declared to his servants the prophets, as it is expressly affirmed, Rev. 10:7. For a further proof of this 'assertion, I desire it may be considered that the prophecies, which foretel the visibility ‘and universality of Christ's church, accompanied with perfect peace, prosperity, and holí. 'ness, cannot, with any probability, be said to have yet received their accomplishment; as 'neither have those predictions, which foretel the flourishing state of the Jewish church and 'nation in the latter times: and to suppose those prophecies to have already received their ‘utmost completion, is, in my judgment, to give too great an advantage to the Jews, and in 'effect to acknowledge, that they never were, nor will be, fulfilled in their natural and obvious 'sense. ... Whereas on the other side to assert, that many prophecies relating to the Messias, ‘are already fulfilled in our Lord Jesus Christ; a truth which can be made out beyond all con“tradiction; and withal to maintain that several others concerning the same subject relate to his second coming, and their accomplishment shall usher in or accompany that, his glorious 'appearance: I say, the observing this distinction between the different times; wherein the several prophecies, relating to the coming of Christ shall be fulfilled, effectually answers all the arguments by which the Jews support themselves in their incredulity. ... The ancient Jews, always acknowledged that the chief design of the prophets was to foretel the times of the Messias: and when Christ and his apostles explaii ed the prophecies in a spiritual and mystical sense, they interpreted them according to the received notions of the synagogue; and are never taxed, that we find, for misapplying particular texts, as if they did not belong 'to the times of the Messias. ... It does not appear, that this mystical way of applying the 'scripture-prophecies to the times of the Messias was even called in question; till the Jews 'came to engage in dispute with the Christians; and then, to avoid the force of their argu'ments, they found it necessary to reject the opinion of their ancestors.' Lowth. These hints may prepare the reader for that mode of interpreting the prophetical writings, which
is adopted in this publication, and may throw light on the subject. 'The prophet Isaiah, on whose writings we first enter, is remarkable for the elegance and sub
limity of his style and imagery; in which the best judges have decidedly given him the preference to the most adınired writers of antiquity. He is equally distinguished by the plain and copious manner, in which he speaks of Christ, and the tinies of the gospel: on this account he has been called, The fifth Evangelist.— The book opens with sharp rebukes of the people for their idolatry and iniquity, and denunciations of divine vengeance upon them; but intermixed with encouraging intimations of niercy, and predictions of Christ. After wards follow various prophecies of judgments about to be executed on several nations, as well as ou Judah; through all of which the reader is led to expect future deliverances and glorious times to the church of God. Then there is inserted an account of Sennacherib's invasion, and of some particulars relating to Hezekiah, which end in a prediction of the Babylonish captivity. The prophet then copiously enlarges upon the deliverance of his people from that calamitor's state, in language peculiarly applicable to the spiritual redemption of Christ: at length he drops, in great measure, types and shadows, and speaks in the most emphatical language of the Savior's person, sufferings, and glory; and of those things which pertain to the promulgation of his gospel, and the setting up of his kingdom on earth; until he closes with descriptions, which lead the mind to consider the final felicity of the righteous, and the misery of the wicked in another world. We shall find the whole book replete with instruction; especially, we shall meet with the most decisive internal evidence of its divine original, and it will reflect light on every part of the sacred volume, on which all our hopes of happiness are founded. 'Isaiah is certainly one of the most difficult of all the prophets, though perhaps few are sen
'sible of it, but they that try to explain him. The profcundness of his thoughts, the loftiness of bis expression, and the extent of his prophecy, have made the commentaries hitherto 'written upon him, fall short of a full explication of his book: and be that will undertake to ‘fathom the depths of this prophecy, is in great danger of going out of his own. This proph'et seems to have been favored, with an entire view of the gospel-state, from the very birth ‘of the Messias, to that glorious period, when “the kingdoms of the world shall becon e the kingdoms of the Lord, and of his Christ.”.... In those parts of this exposition, where there 'is any inention made of the Jews being restored to their own land, upon their conversion, ‘and some other particulars relating to that glorious state of the church in the latter times; ‘let the reader not judge of what is said upon these obscure subjects, as so many positive assertions, but only as probable conjectures. ... For in these, and such like abstruse matters.; 'a modest inan should not pretend to be “wise above that which is" plainly and expressly
6 “written." ; Lowth. One grand reason of the difficulty found in explaining the predictions of Isaialı, (which the
author likewise considers as much greater than exists in the writings of any oher prophet,). is the total want of that internal chronology, and geography of prophecy, which is of so great use to the expositor in explaining the most abstruse parts of the predictions of Daniel, and the Revelation of the apostle John. Such a clue, or guide, is wholly wanting in the prophecies of Isaiah; and the times and scenes, to which the prophet calls our attention, can only be ascertained by the events which are foretold, in the most sublime and rapturous language.
THE a vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, The title, 1. God, by his prophet, charges Judah and Jerusalem
which he saw concerning Judah and with base ingratitude and atrocious wickedness; and describe Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, their sacrifices, calls them to repentance with promises of for- | Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. giveness, and warns then against obstinate rebellion, 10--20. He laments Zion's degeneracy and the iniquity of her princes; denounces severe vengeance; yet intimates a subsequent recovery of the nation to purity and prosperity, 21--31.
Num. 12.6. 24 4,16. 2 Chr. 32:32. Ps. 89.19. Jer. 23: 16. Nah. 1:1. Hab. 2:2. Matt. 17.9. Acts 10:17. 26.19. Cor.
Chr. 26:32: Hos. 1:1.
not survive Hezekiah: yet even in that case, Chap. I. V.). The name of this prophet, sig- be must have prophesied sixty years at least nilying "The salvation of the Lord,' was very || - In general, the reader must be referred to suitable to the subject, on which he so fre- | the notes, on the second book of Kings, from quently and delightfully expatiated, and which the fifteenth to the twenty-first chapter, incluhas procured bim the title of 'the evangelical sive; and to the second book of Chronicles, from ‘prophet,' nay, of 'the fifth Evangelist. Tra- the twenty-sixth to the thirty-third chapter indition reports that he was of noble birth; that clusive, for the state of Judah and Israel, dur his daughter was married to Manasseh; anding the term of years, in which Isaiah prophthat he was sawn asunder by the command of esied.- Many of his prophecies, indeed, relate that idolatrous prince, to which the apostle is to other kingdoms; but always on account of supposed to allude. (Note, Heb. 11:35–38.) It their connexion, one way or other, with the must, however, be allowed that these tradi- chosen race.—The two usual ways, whereby tions are very uncertain; and some think he did 'God communicated his will to he prophets,
2 Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O ||P the Holy One of Israel unto anger, they earth; e for the LORD hath spoken, 'I have are #gone away backward. nourished and brought up children, and 5 Why should ye be stricken any & they have rebelled against me.
inore? 'ye will f revolt more and more: 3 The "ox knoweth his owner, and the the whole head is sick, and the whole ass his master's crib; i but Israel doth not heart faint.“ know, my people doth not consider.
6 From the sole of the foot even unto 4 k Ah sinful nation, a people *laden the head, there is no soundness in it; but with iniquity, 'a seed of evil doers, " chil-wounds, and bruises, and putrefying sores: dren that are corrupters! They " have they have not been closed, neither bound forsaken the LORD, they have provoked up, neither mollified with ointment.
7 Your country is desolate, your cities
d Deut. 4:26. 30:19. 32:1. Ps. 50: -6. 10:8,14. Matt. 13:13-15, 4. Jer. 2:12. 6:19. 22:29. Ez. 19. Kom. 1:28. 2 Pet. 3:5. p 5:19,24. 12:6. 29:19. 30:11,12, t Job 2:7,8. Luke 16:20,21. 36:4. Mic. 1:2. 6:1,2.
k 23. 10:6. 30:9. Gen. 13:13. 15. 37:23. 41: 14,16,20. Ps. 89: u 2 Chr. 6:28,29. Ps. 77:2. Jer. e Jer. 13:15. Am. 3:1. Mic. 3.8. Acts 7:51,52. Rev. 18:5.
18. Jer. 50:29. 51:5.
6:14. marg. 30.12. Neh. 3. 19. Aets 4:20. * Heb. of heaviness.
| Heb. alienated, or separated. Job 5:18. Ps. 38:35. Jer. 62 f 5:1,2. 46:3,4. Deut. 1:31. 4:7,1 57:3,4. Num. 32:14. Ps. 78:8. Ps. 58:3. Jer. 2 5,31. Rom. 8: 14. 8:21,22. 33:6. Hos. 5:12,13. 8. Jer. 31:9. Ez. 16:614. 20: Jer. 7:26. 16:11,12. Matt. 3.7. 7. Col. 1:24.
Mal. 4:2. Matt. 9:12,13. Luke 5,&c. Rom. 3:1,. 9:4.5. 23:33.
4 9:21. Jer. 2:30. 5:3. 6:28-30. 10:34. 8 03:9,10. Deut. 9:22-24. Jer. m Jer. 2:33. Ex. 16:33.
Ez. 24:13. Heb. 12:58. B Or, oil. 2:5—13. Mal. 1:6.
n Deut. 29:25. 31:16. Judg. 10: r 2 Chr. 28:22. Jer. 9.3. Rev. lý 5.5,6,9. 6:11. 24:10-12. Lev. h Prov. 6:6, Jer. 8:7. 10. Jer. 2:13,17,19. 16:8-11.
26:34. Deut. 28:51,52. 2 Chr. 1 5:12. 27.11. 14:18. Deut. 32: o 3:8. 05:3. Deut. 32:19. Ps. 1 | Heb. increase repolt.
28:5,16_21. Ps. 107:34,39. 28,29. Ps. 94:8. Jer. 4:22. 9-3 78:40. Jer. 7:19. 1 Cor. 10:22. $ 23. Neh. 9:34. Jer 5:5,31. Jer, 6:8.
Dan. 9:8-11. Zeph. 3:1-4.
'were visions and dreams; see Num. 12:6. In though in the highest degree equitable and 'vision the inspired person was awake, but his l 'just. Bochart in Bp. Louth. 'external senses were bound up, and as it were V. 4. "They were not only wicked as their laid asleep in a trance. ... (Num. 24:16.) ... It is 'fathers, but totally corrupt, and by their evil called vision, not from any use of the corpo- l'examples corrupted others.'—Every genera'real sight, but because of the clearness and tion of Israel degenerated, more and more 'evidence of the things revealed. It was from the faith and piety of their ancestors: 'sometiines accompanied with external repre- they were not only corrupted in their early 'sentations.' Lowth. (6:1. Ez. 40:2. Rev. 21:10.) years, but corrupters and tempters of others;
- This chapter may be considered as an intro- a circumstance extremely affecting to those, ductory address prefixed to the subsequent who mark the progress of impiety. In short, prophecies; and the title may belong to the almost the whole nation were estranged from book in general, or to the chapter in particular. the Lord, and had turned their backs on him It is thought by some, that this was not Isa-l and on his holy service; and had alienated iah's first vision, though placed as an intro- themselves from him. (Marg.) duction to the rest.—"The prophecy contained V. 5, 6. The wickedness of the people was ‘in this first chapter stands single and uncon- become so incorrigible, that it would answer 'nected, making an entire piece of itself. It no purpose to inflict any further chastisement, "contains a severe remonstrance against the seeing they would “revolt more and more: corruptions prevailing among the Jews at and what did it avail to throw away medicines that time; powerful exhortations to repent on the dying patient, when they only exasper‘ance; grievous threatenings to the impeni- ated his disease? It inight therefore be prop'tent; and gracious promises of better times, er to let them alone, till ripe for utter destruc'when the nation shall have been reformed by tion. (Notes, Jer. 5:3—6. 6:27—30. Matt. 15:12 'the just judgments of God.' Bp. Lowth. - 14.)–Or the sentence may mean, that they
V. 2. Marg. Ref.- Notes, Deut. 4:26–28. were so covered with the wounds and bruises 32:1. Ps. 49:1–4. 30:1-3.). The Lord, in this of their former smitings, that it might be inas in inany other places, with peculiar majesty | quired, where another stroke could be inflictand sublimity, appeals to the whole creation, | ed: or, why they would persist in those crimes, in the controversy between him and his peo-|| which ensured further punishment, when they ple. He had brought them up with all the were already in so miserable a situation.-Tbe tenderness and attention of a parent, till they following metaphorical description, taken from hari arrived at full maturity; but they had un- | the desperately diseased or wounded condition gratefully rebelled against him, and apostatiz- || of the body, may relate either to the corrupt ed to worthless idols.-The word, rendered state of the Jews in respect of religion; or to brought up," generally means exalted: God their calamities. In the former sense, even had greatly exalted Israel, which exceedingly the princes, and prophets, or priests, (the head aggravated the guilt of their rebellion. (.Notes, and the heart of the body politic and eccleEx. 19:4–6. Deut. 4:6—8. 32:8–15. Ez. 16:9—siastical,) were altogether diseased, and faint 22. Acts 13:16-19.)
as at the approach of death; religion and ins1.3. (Votes, Prov. 6:6–11. Jer. 8:4—7.) The tice were expiring; idolatry, impiety, bypocrimost stupid of the domestic animals are ob- sy, and every kind of iniquity, were become servant of the hand by which, and the place almost universal; the disease had been so long where, they are fed, though the owner seeks increasing, and magistrates and ministers bad only his own interest in his care of them: butso neglected the proper means of checking its the highly favored people of God did not know progress, that the whole body was, as it were, or understand their immense obligations, nor ulcerated, putrefying, and tending to one genconsider their own true interest, which coulderal mortification. Notes, Jer. 8:21,22. 30:12 only be secured by cleaving to him.— The Is-1-18. Ez. 34:2–6. Matt, 9:10–13.)-The pas'raelites, chosen by the mere favor of God, sage may be accommodated as an 'illustration 'adopted as sons, promoted to the highest dig- of the total depravity of human nature, but nity; yet acknowledged not their Lord and ought by no means :o be adduced as a proof their God, but despised his commandments; ll of the doctrine; which it cannot be, except as 6]
are ? barned with fire: your land • strangers in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of devour it in your presence, and it is deso-the-goats. late, as overthrown by strangers.
12 When 'ye come to appear before 8 All the daughter of Zion is left as me, who hath required this at your hand, a cottage in a vineyard, as a lodge in a to tread my courts? garden of cucumbers, das a besieged city. 13 Bring no more "vain oblations: oin
9 Except the LORD of hosts had e left|cense is an abomination unto me: the unto us a very small remnant, we should new moons and sabbaths, the calling of have been as Sodom, and we should have assemblies, I cannot away with: " it is inibeen like unto Gomorrah.
quity, even the solemn meeting. 10 T Hear the word of the LORD, ye 14 Your new moons and your appointed rulers of 'Sodom; give ear unto the law of feasts "my soul hateth: they are a trouble our God, ye people of Gomorrah: uno me; *1 am weary to bear them.
11 To what purpose is the multitude 15 And, when ye spread forth your of your sacrifices unto me? saith the LORD: hands, "I will hide mine eyes from you; I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, yea, when ye make many prayers I will and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not not hear: your hands are full of blood.
9.5. 34:9. Jer. 2:15.
14:22. Juel 2:32. Zech. 13:8,9. a 5:17. Deut. 28:33,43,48–52. Matt. 7:14. Rom. 9:27. 11:4--|| Heb. great he-goats.
r 61:8. Am. 5:21. Lam. 5:2. Ez. 30:12. Hos. 7: 6.
1 58:1,2. Ex. 23:17. 34:23. $ 43:24. Am. 2:13. Zech. 11:8 9. 8:7.
g Gen. 18:26,32. 19:24. Deut 29: Deut. 16:16. Ec. 5:1. Matt. Mal. 2:17. • Heb. the overthrow of stran- 23. Lam. 4:6. Am. 4:11. Zeph.
t1 Kings 8:22,54. Ezra 9:5. gers. 2:9. Luke 17:29,30. 2 Pet. 2:6.
Heb. be seen.
Job 27:8,9 Ps. 66:18. 134:2. b 4:4. 10:32. 37:22. 62:11. Ps. h 1 Kings 22:19-23. Am. 3:1,
in Ps. 40.6, Mic. 6:8.
Prov. 1:28. Jer. 14:12. F.z. 8. 9:14. Lam. 2:1. Zech. 2:10. 9: 8. Mic. 3:8-12.
n Ez. 20:39. Mal. 1:10. Matt. 17,18. Mic. 3:4. Zech. 7:13. 9. Joho 12:15. i Gen. 13. 13. Deut. 32:32. Jer. 15:9.
Luke 13:25-28. 1 Tim. 2:8. c Job 27:18. Lam. 2:6.
9:26. 23:14. Ez. 16:46-48.
u 58:7. Ps. 55:I. d 8:8. 10:32. Jer. 4:17. Luke Am. 9:7. Rev. 11:8.
p Lev, 23: Num. 28: 29: Deut. || Heb. multiply prayer. Matt 19:43,44. Ki Sam. 15:22. Ps. 50.8,9. 51:
16: Lam. 2:6. Joel 1:14. 2:15. 6:7. 23.14. e Lam. 2:22. Hab. 3:2. Rom. 16,17. Prov. 15:8. 21:27. Jer. 41 Cor. 11:17. Pbil. 1:15. x 59:2,3. Jer. 7:8-10. Mic. 3 9:29.
6:20. 7:21. Am. 5:21,22. Mic. || Or, grief. Ps. 78:40. Eph. 4: 9-11. 6:13. 10:22. 17:6. 24:13. 37:4, 6:7. Matt. 9:13.
1 Heb. bloods. 31,32. 1 Kings 19.18. Ez. 6:8.
the depraved state of Judah was a fact, which very small renınant. (9) 'A type of those can on no other principles be accounted for. 'few converts among the Jews, who, embrac
V: 7–9. The prosperous state of Judah,l'ing the gospel, should escape both the tem. during the reigns of Uzziah and Jotham, doesporal and eternal judgments, which came not accord to the description here given: and upon the rest of that nation, for rejecting therefore commentators have generally dated Christ, and his messengers. This remnant this chapter in the beginning of the reign of'are called the Ewouevo in the New Testament Ahaz: (Notes, 7:1–3. 2 Kings 16:5—9. 2 Chr. || 'Luke 13:23. Acts 2:47.' Lowth. (.Nole, Rom 28:5—8.) though it has been thought, that it|11:1–6.) might be written in the close of Jotham's V. 10-15. From the mention of Sodom reign., (2 Kings 15:37.)— The enemy so deso- and Gomorrah, the prophet took occasion, lated the land, that Jerusalem alone was pro- with a holy indignation, to address the rulers tected from the ravages: and that city was of Judah, under the title of the rulers of Sodshut up, iinpoverished, and left alone; so thatom,” and the citizens of Jerusalem, as "the it reseinbled a hut erected to accommodate inhabitants of Gomorrah.”. Many of them the gardeners, who during a few weeks watch-still attended to the ritual observances, in ed their cucumbers and melons from being de-| their sacrifices, and solemnities; but their nustroyed by the jackals, or foxes, or stolen dur-merous oblations, though such as the law roing the night. "Zion, with her children or in- quired, were vain, and their very incense an habitants, thus cut off from communication abomination: nay, the Lord was not only weawith the neighboring country, resembled a ry of their solemn feasts, and hated thein; but besieged city, or one taken by siege, as some he would pay no regard to their multiplied read it.-The original will indeed bear either prayers, though offered with great apparent sense, without altering the text: but in gener- devotion. And the reason was evident; beal, whilst any instructive sense can be made cause they were hypocrites: they neither reof the Hebrew text, as it now stands, it behoves garded the typical intention of the sacrifices us to be very cautious how we sanction those, and ceremonies, nor used them as acts of holy who alter, without good authority, whatever worship, and as a means of sanctification: but does not accord with their views, and thus in proudly relied on the form as a meritorious fact give us their own opinions, instead of the service: and wickedly used their pretence of “word of God.” But few passages will be left,|| devotion, either as a cloke of atrocious murwhich need alteration, if we adhere to this ders and oppressions, or as a compensation rule: and perhaps it will be better to consider for them. Their hands were full of bloodthem as trials of our modesty; than by conjec-guiltiness, of which they did not repent, and ture, or on dubious authority, to devise new from which they did not desist, »utes, 66:3, meanings and sentences, and add them to the 4. 2 Sam. 15:7--11. Ps. 50:7–21. Prov. 15:8,9. word of God. (Note, Prov. 30:5,6.)—The LORD 21:27. Jer. 6:18.-20. 7:8–11. An. 5:21-24. of hosts, the God of armies, bad a small rem-Matt. 23:14.)—“The solemn meeting," or the nant of pious servants at Jerusalem, and for day of restraint. 'Certain holy days, ordained their sakes he preserved the nation: otherwise by the law, were distinguished by a particular as their crimes had equalled, so their punish-charge, that “no servile work should be done ment would have resembled, that of Sodom'therein." (Lev. 23:36. Num. 29:35. Deut. 16: and Gomorrah. (Notes, Deut. 29:19–25. Lam.|8.) This circumstance clearly explains the 4:6. Ez. 16:44–61. Rev. 11:7–12, v. 8.) “reason of the name, the restraint, or the day of
16 Wash you, make you clean; "put || 21 [ How is the faithful city 'become away the evil of your doings from before an harlot! kit was full of judgment; righta cease to do evil;
eousness lodged in it; but now murderers. 17 Learn to do well; seek judgment, 22 Thy silver is become dross, thy * relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, wine mixed with water: plead for the widow.
23 Thy princes are rebellious, and 18 Come now, and let us reason to-||companions of thieves; Pevery one loveth gether, saith the LORD: Though your gifts, and followeth after rewards: 4 they sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as judge not the fatherless, neither doth the snow; though they be red like crimson, cause of the widow come unto them. they shall be as wool.
24 Therefore saith the Lord, the LORD i9 If eye be willing and obedient, ye of hosts, "the mighty one of Israel, s Ah, I shall eat the good of the land:
will ease me of mine adversaries, and 20 But 'if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall | avenge me of mine enemies: be devoured with the sword: & for the 25 And I will turn my hand upon mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.
y Job 11.13,14. Ps. 26:6. Jer. 1 c 41:21. 43:21-26. 1 Sam. 12:7.
4 11. Acts 22:16. 2 Cor. 7:1. Jer. 2.5.&c. Mic. 6:2,3. Acts Jam. 4:8. Rev. 7:14.
17:2. 18 4. 24.25. z 55:6,7. Ez. 18:30,31. Zech. 1: d 44:22. Ps. 51:7. Mic. 7:18,19.
3, 4. Matt. 3:8. Eph. 4:22—24. Rom. 5:20. Eph. 1.6–8. Rev. Tit. 2.11-14. 1 Pet. 2:1.
7:14. a Ps. 31:14. 37:27. Am. 5:15. e 3:10. 55:1-3,6,7. Jer. 3.12Rom. 12:9. Eph. 4:25—29. 1 14. 31:18-20. Hos. 14:1-4. Pet. 311.
Joel 2:26. Mati. 21:28-32. b 23. Ps. 82:3,4. Prov. 31:9. Heb. 5:9 Jer. 22:3,15,16. Dan. 4:27. 3:11. 1 Sam. 12:25. 2 Chr. 36: Mic. 6.8. Zeph. 2:3. Zech. 7: 14-16. Heb. 2.1-3. 9,10 8:16.
g 40:5. 58:14. Num. 23:19. 1 * Or, righten.
Sam. 15:29. Tit. 1:2.
h 48:2. Neh. 11:1.18. Ps. 46:4. 3:1-3,11. Acts 4:5—11.
Mark 11:17. Luke 19:46.
22:12. Hos. 4:18. Mic. 7:3.
30:29. 19:26. 60:16. Jer. 50.34. 1 Jer. 6:28-30. Lam. 4:1,2. Rev. 18:8.
Ez. 22:18-22. Hos. 6:4. s Deut. 28:63. 32:43. Prov. 1-35, m Hos. 4:13. 2 Cor. 2:17.
26. F.2.- 5:13. 16:42. 21:17. n 3:14. 2 Chr. 24 17-21. 36:14. Heb. 10:13. Jer. 5.5. Ez. 22:6-12. Dan t Zech. 13.7—9. Rev. 3:19. 9.5.6. Hos. 7:3_-5. 9:15. Mic.
'restraint, given to those days.'
. Bp. Lowth.- Ez. 18:28–32. Am. 5:10—17. Mic. 6:9—15.) The great day of atonement seems especially V. 21–24. In the time of David, and in the meant. (Lev. 9:)— Although God command- | former part of Solomon's reign, Jerusalem was 'ed these sacrifices for a time, as aids and ex- indeed a holy city, a proper type of the true 'ercises of their faith: yet, because the people church, the faithful spouse of Christ: but, nothad not faith and repentance, God detested withstanding all her distinguished advanta'them.'
ges, this once virtuous matron was become an V. 16–20. This exhortation to the degen- infamous harlot, to the astonishment and reerate Jews implies, though it does not express- / gret of all the true servants of JEHOVAH; and, ly mention, the mercy and grace of God instead of wholly adhering to his worship, she through the promised Messiah; by which they was most grievously defiled with idolatry, and might be enabled to do the duties here insisi- was also a receptacle of inurderers and rubed on, and also be accepted in doing them. bers. Nay, the apparent religion which reAttending to these most reasonable exhorta-|| mained was hypocritical; dross and not șiltions, their guilt, though the most atrocious | ver; or at best wine mixed with water, by which could be imagined, would be fully par- which it had lost its strength and flavor. doned, and their pational prosperity restored: ||(Notes, Jer. 6:27-30.9:7. Lam. 4:1,2. Ez. 22:18 otherwise their ruin was inevitable.-The 1.-22. Mul. 3:1—4.) Therefore “the Lord of words ren lered "relieve the oppressed," are hosts, the mighty One" who had so often detranslated by some learned men "amend that livered Israel, with most tremendous emphasis which is corrupted:” but perhaps they mean, declared, “that he would ease him of his ad"make happy such as are bitter of soul.”—The versaries, and avenge him of his enemies." 'word, which is translated “reason together," || The expressions are taken from the upeasisignifies properly, for two contending partiesness which men feel, when provoked to an. "to argue the case together; but here it seems ger by multiplied insults, and the relief and 'to mean the effect or issue of such a debate, | pleasure which revenge seems to afford them. 'viz. the accommodating their differences. So All that is discomposing and the effect of sin"God, upon the repentance and reformation of ful passions, must be removed from onr con"the people, engages to pardon all that is past, ception of the divine conduct, as thus delineat‘and look upon them with the same grace and ed: but such language strongly marks God's 'favor as it they never had offended: for by abhorrence of sin, and his love of justice.
their “sins being made white as snow" is (Notes, Ez. 5:13. 16:35–43.) He has no pleasmeant, ... the sinners themselves being thor- | ure in the sufferings of wicked men: but, as 'oughly purged from guilt. Lowth. (Noles, Ps. Governor of the universe, he greatly delights 51:1,2. Ez. 36:25—27. Zech. 13:1. 1 Cur. 6:9- || in honoring his own law, and displaying his 11. Rev. 1:4–6, v. 5. 7:13–17, v. 14.) It is own righteous and holy character; and he will plain, from this and other similar passages, therefore avenge himself on all incorrigible that legal sacrifices could not atone even for transgressors. external national crimes, where public refor- Mixed with water. (22) 'It is remarkable, that mation was generally neglected. This kind 'whereas the Greeks and Latins by mired
of reasoning by the second table, the scrip-wine, always understood wine diluted and lowtures use in many places against the hypo- l'ered by water; the Hebrews on the contrary, crites, who pretend most holiness and religion generally mean by it wine made stronger and in word; but when the charity and love to- | .more inebriating, by the addition of higher 'wards their brethren should appear, they de- l'and more powerful ingredients. ... The east'clare that they have neither faitli nor religion.'|'ern people to this day deal in artificial liquors (.Marg. Ref.-Notes, 58:5–12. Jer. 7:5--11. Il of prodígious strength, the use of wine being 8]