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the LORD be * beautiful and glorious, and 11 4 When the Lord shall have washed (the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and comely, for them 6 that are escaped of shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem Israel.
from the midst thereof, by the Spirit of 3 And it shall come to pass, that he that judgment, and by the Spirit of burning. is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Je- 5 And the LORD will create, upon rusalem, "shall be called holy, even every every dwelling place of mount Zion, and one that is written among the living in upon her assemblies, "a cloud and smoke Jerusalem:
by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by * Heb. beauty and glory. Ex.
Luke 21:36. Rom. 11:4,5. 23.2. Zech. 9:17. John 1:14. Rev. 7:9_14. 2 l'or. 4:6. 2 Pet. 1:10,17. h 1:27. 5!:1. 60.21. Ez. 36:24
27.6. 30:23. 45:8. Ps. 67:6. - 28. 43.12. Zech. 14:20,21. 85.11,12. Hos. 2:22.23. Joel 3: Eph. 1:4. Col. 3:12. 1 Pet. 2: 18.
9. † Heb. the escaping:
i Ex 32.32,33. Ez. 13:9. Luke & 10.20-22. 27.12.13. 37:31.32. 10:20. Fhil. 4 3. Rev. 3:5.
Jer. 44.14,28. Ez. 16. Joel 13.8. 17:8 0.15. 21:27. 2:32. Ob. 17. Matt. 24:22. | 1 or, to life. Acts 13:48.
k 3:16.&c. Lam. 1:9. Ez. 16:6
Zeph. 3:1 Zech. 3:3,4. 13.1,9.
16:8_11. n 32:18. 33:20. Ps. 87:2,3. 89.7.
111:1. Matt 18.20. 28:20. o Ex. 13:21,22. 14:19,20, 24. 40: 34–38. Num. 9:15-22. eh. 9:12. Ps. 78:14. Zech. 2: 10.
men survived in very disproportionate num" "LORD:”, (Comp. 2:11,12. 10:20. 17:7. 19:18.) bers, and had little prospect of being married: just as that day denotes the day of judgment, and, as the unmarried state was generally in the New Testament, as a time of all other's deemed reproachful among the Jews, it is most remarkable. (See 2 Thes. 1:10. 2 Tim. foretold, that in those circumstances they 11:12,18. 4:8.) ... Even Grotius ... acknowledges would disregard the ordinary rules of decorum, (in his notes on 14:21.) that it is usual for the and many of them together importunately prophets to pass from the threatenings that solicit the same man to take them in marriage, relate to their own times, to the promises that they might bear his name and be exempt- 'which belong to the times of the gospel. ... ed from the reproach: and, that the expense Them that are escaped.] This may be partly might not be an objection, they would under: 'understood of those, that were converted by take to maintain themselves. (Marg. Ref.) the preaching of Christ and his apostles, and The condu here predicted is so contrary to thereby escaped the vengeance which involvfemale modesty, and to the aversion which 'ed the rest of the nation; (See Acts 2:40. 1 Thes. women feel to share a husband's affections, 2:16.) but I apprehend it is chiefly meant of with rivals; that it strongly marks both the pe- those Jews which shall be converted at the culiarity of their circumstances, and the im- 'end of the world, (when the obstinate and inpropriety of their deportment.- Reproach, &c.) corrigible shall be destroyed,) and shall reEuripides thus introduces Polyxene, when led 'turn home from their several dispersions. away to be sacrificed, exclaiming, Without a 'Comp. 27:12,13. 45:20. 66:19. Ez. 20:34–433.) "husband, without marriage, which it beloved Lowth. The words plainly, point at the con'me to obtain!'. (Note, Judg. 11:34–40.)
version of the Jews in the latter ages of the V. 2. The Lord did not intend to destroy world, and the flourishing state of the church, either the family of David, or the seed of Is- which shall follow it. rael; but purposed that they should again shoot V. 3, 4. The Jews relapsed no more into forth and prosper.-Either Zerubbabel of Da- idolatry after the captivity; and they were vid's line, or Jeshua of Aaron's line, might be greatly reformed, and had much true religion called “the branch of the Lord:” and the among them. The dangh:ers of Zioul, also, plenty produced by the land for the returning who had thought themselves very delicate, Jews alter the captivity may be foretold: but when the Lord saw them to be very filihy, these can only be as types and feeble shadows; were purified by the captivity; and the innofor the expressions are so peculiar, that they cent blood which had been shed was purged must be applied to the Messiah, and the Chris- out of Jerusalem by those desolating judgtian dispensation. The Messiah is repeatedly ments. (.Notes, Ez. 22:18–22. 24:9–14.) Yet called, "the Branch:” (Notes, 11:1. Jer. 23:5,6. this was only a shadow of more glorious blessEz. 17:22-24. Zech. 3:8. 6:12,13.) and this ings. That "remnant, according to the elec“Branch of the LORD” is altogether beautiful tion of grace,” (.Note, Rom. 11:1–6.) which and glorious; or “Beauty and Glory:” (marg.) forms the true church, is a holy people, and bis human nature is the inost excellent and they are written or enrolled as the living crubeautiful production of the earth: or “the fruit zens of Jerusalem; 'whose names are written of the earth” may mean, the blessed fruits of 'in the book of life, among God's elect, to his mediation, which belong to the remnant 'whom the promises to God's people peculiarof true believers. (Notes, 45:8. Ps. 85:10–13.) ly belong. (See Ps. 69:28. Ez. 18:9. Phil. 4: But not only the establishment of his kingdom 3. Rev. 3:5. 21:27.) The phrase alludes to the in the times of the apostles; but its enlarge registers which were kept of the Jewish ment also, by the gathering of the dispersed 'tribes and families. Ezra 2:59.' Lou th. The Jews into the church, seems predicted. Then Jews, who ernbraced the gospel, in the aposthey will see, that the Branch which they de. tles' days, were, and the descendants of that spised, is indeed "beautiful and glorious;" and nation who shall hereafter be restored to their bis fruit, which they neglected, truly “excel- place in the church, shall be, washed from the lent and comely" for them. We shall have guilt and pollution of their sins; and especially frequent opportunities of shewing that the from their blood-guiltiness in murdering the prophets use the expression “In that day," prophets, and in crucifying the Lord of glory. with a latitude thus large; for with the Lord li.Notes, Zech. 12:9–14. 1:3:1,7—9.) And this "a thousand years are but as one day.” This effect is produced, not merely by outward caphrase often denotes in Isaiah, ‘not the same lanuities, but by the Holy Ghosi, rendering 'uime with that, which was last mentioned, these effectual, as “a Spirit of judgment, and but an extraordinary season remarkable for a Spirit of burning;” that is, as convivcing and 'some signal events of Providence: called else- humbling the sinner, leading him to judge and 'where by way of excellency, “The day of the condemn himself, and to hate and oppose his
centend there shall be a a tabernacle for None of my beloved touching bis
a Deut. 31:19-22. Judg. 5:1, 1 oil. Deut. 8.7--9.
d Ex. 33: Jo. Num. 23:9. Deut. b Cant. 2:18. 5:2,16. 6.3.
32.2.9. Ps. 441-3. 105:44. 4á. c 27:2,3. Ps. 80:9. Cant. 8:11, Rom. 9.4. 12. Matt. 21:33. Mark 12:1. | Or, made a wall about it. Luke 20:9. John 15:1.
e Jer. 2:2). * Heb. the horn of the son of
Heb. 6:18. Rev. 7:16.
the correspondent judgments which were coming on them, & night: for upon Pall the glory shall be ta
25. The invasion of the land by the Assyrians, or Cbaldt ans, .
OW will I sing to my Well6 a shadow in the day-time from the heat, and for a place of refuge, and "for a covert
vineyard. My Well-beloved hath a vinefrom storm and from rain.
yard in * a very fruitful hill:
2 And dhe i fenced it, and gathered ou CHAP. V.
the stones thereof, and planted it with the A parable of a well-cultivated vineyard, which bare corrupt
fruit; explained of the advantages and conduct of Israel, 1-7.
Their atrocious sins stated by an induction of particulars, and ► Or, above.
5,6. Prov. 18:10. Ez. 11:16. P 31,4,5. 37.35, 46: 13, P. 85:9. 1 Heb. a covering. Ex. 26:1,7. r 32:2,18,19. Matt. 7:24 27. q8:14, 25:4. Ps. 27.5. 91.1. 1.1: Heb. 11:7. sins; and thus, like purifying fire, consuming thus sanctifies believers, or any part of his the dross, and transforming the soul into his professing church, he will vouchsafe them the own holy likeness. (Note8, Mal. 3:1-4. 4:1. tokens of his favor, and the comforts of his Matt. 3:11,12. John 16:8-11. Acts 2:2,3.) presence, in their habitations, and in their as
V. 5, 6. The pillar of cloud and fire was semblies; and he will assure them of his guidIsrael's protection, guide, and honor, in pass-ance and protection, through the perils of the ing through the wilderness: and it is here pre- wilderness, "as the light of a flaming fire loy dicted, that God would equally take care of all night, and as a tabernacle for a shadow froni the habitations of his people, as well as all the heat by day.” For if we be made gloritheir assemblies for public worship. (.Notes, ous by the renewal of his image on our souls, Er. 13:21,22. 40:36–48.) When he puts his “on all this glory shall be a defence," during glory on them, by a new creation unto that the trials of life, in the hour of death, and in holiness, which is his own glory, (Note, 2 Cor. the day of judgment. Let us then seek earn3:17,18.) he places them under his special pro-estly to be washed from sin and made holy, tection;' as the splendid curtains of the taber- and then we must be safe and happy. Let us nacle were covered by those of goats' hair, assure ourselves, that the Lord will take care and of badgers' skins. (Note, F.x. 26:7—14.) of his own cause, in all possible emergeucies: Thus he defeuds the church, and every true let us seek his presence in our families, and believer, from temptation and persecution, and his protection of our habitations, by constantfrom all perils in life and death. (Noles, 25:3ly worshipping him in them; and his blessing -5. 32:1,2,16—20. Zech. 2:1-5, v. 5.)--As a' upon our assemblies, that his ordinances may prophecy this will receive a more signal ac- be honorable and useful: and let us anticipate complishment in the times predicted.
with joy those blessed times, when the purity, A tabernacle. (6) 'In countries subject to extent, peace, glory, and security of the church 'violent tempests, as well as to intolerable will fully explain the import of these predic 'heat, a portable tent is a necessary part of a tions. (Note, Rev. 20:1–6.) 'traveller's baggage, for defence and shelter.' Bp. Lorth.
CHAP. V. V. 1. This chapter contains a PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS. detached prophecy, which, probably, was deIt frequently happens, that those who suffer livered about the same time as that in the prefor their sins, are more careful to avoid out- ceding chapters. The subject of it is nearly ward inconveniences than to obtain forgive-the same with that of the first chapter. It is ness: and instead of being ashamed of their l'a general reproof of the Jews for their wickcrimes, are more solicitous to avoid the re-l 'edness: but it exceeds that chapter in force, proach which arises from unavoidable misfor-'in severity, in variety, and elegance; and it tune, than the infamy which results from vol-adds a more express declaration of vengeance untary and open wickedness. But such con- by the Babylonian invasion.' Bp. Lowth.-It duct tends to indelible disgrace and increas-begins with a parable formed into a sacred ing misery.-The Lord will not contend for song, which the prophet proposed to sing to ever with his church: and though it seem cut his "Well-beloved.” JEHOVAH is the Owner down as a tree, it will shoot forth again, and of the vineyard: but the Father reveals himits branches shall be "beautiful and glorious:"|| self by liis only-begotten Son, who is the yet all its excellency is derived from “the Well-beloved both of the Father, and of every Branch of the Lord,” “the Only-begotten of believer. The original word for any Beloved". the Father," who is “full of grace and truth," occurs more frequently in Solomon's song, and is the perfection of "beauty and glory:”: than in all other parts of the Bible, at least in and the fruits of his incarnation and media- this meaning and connexion. (Cant. 1:13,14, tion are inexpressibly excellent and desirable, 16. 2:3,8—10,16,17. 4:16. 5:2,4,9,10. 6:1–3. 7: in the jus gment of all those, who have begun. 12–14. 8:14. Heb.)-Some render the first to experience deliverance from wrath, and clause, “Now will I sing to my Beloved a song from the power of Satan. These are the citi- of loves touching his vineyard." No doubt, zens of Zion, whose names are registered in however, Christ is meant, whether the prophthe book of life; and every one of them par-i et be supposed to speak in his own name to takes of the Spirit of Christ, and is daily re- the Messiah; or the Father by the prophet newed into his holy image; they wash away thus to address his well-beloved Son. He had all their gụilt and pollution, in the Fountain "a vineyard in a very fruitful hill:” or “na which he has opened: every affiction serves horn, the son of oil," as it is in the original. as a furnace to purify them from their dross; ' A high and fruitful hill.' Bp. Lowth.– The and the efficacious influence of the Holy situation of Canaan, being very higli, is repreGhost, (with which they are baptized as with sented by a horn, which is higher than any fire,) gradually extirpates their lusts, invigor- other part of the animal: and the son of oil, is a ates their spiritual affections, and renders them Hebraism denoting fertility; oil-olive being holy as he is holy. In proportion as the Lorullone of the most valued productions of the 201
choicest vine, fand built a tower in the || the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up; midst of it, and also inade a wine-press and break down the wall thereof, and it therein: and he looked that it should bring | shall be f trodden down: forth grapes, and it brought forth wild 6 And • I will lay it waste: Pit shall not grapes.
be pruned, noi digged; but there shall come 3 And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem, up briers and thorns: 9) will also command and men of Judah, * judge, I pray you, be- the clouds that they rain no rain upon it. twixt me and my vineyard.
7 For the vineyard of the LORD of 4 What could have been done more to hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of my vineyard, that I have not done in it? || Judah #his pleasant plant: and she looked wherefore, when I looked that it should for judgment, but behold foppression; for bring forth grapes, brought it forth wild righteousness, but behold a cry. grapes?
(Practical Observations.) 5 And now, " go to; I will tell you what * Heb. for 4 treading 10:6. I will do to my vineyard: "I will take away
f 1:2 Mic. 4.8.
Matt. 21.34. Mark 11:13. !2.2. Luke 13.7. 20:10,&c. 1 Cor. 9: 7. i Deut. 32:32,33. Hos. 10:1. k Ps. 50:4-6. 51:4. Jer. 2:4,5.
Mic. 6:2:3 Matt. 21:10,41.
Mark 12:9-12. Luke 20.15, 10.
Matt. 23:37. Acts 7:51, c.
Deut. 28:49_32. 2 Chr. 364
. 3,18. LAI. 15.
13,14. Lev. 26:33_-35. Deut.
Deut. 28:23,24. Am.
Heb. plant of his pleasures.
62:5. Ps. 147:11. 149:4. Cant.
7:6. Zeph. 3:17. $ 2.58.6-3. Ex. 22:22-27. Mic. 6:8. Zech. 7.9-14. Matt. 3.8—10, 23.23. Juho 15. 2. 1 Cor. 6:8-11. 1 jolin 3:7, 8. Ý Heb. u scab. 1:6. 3:17. i Gen. 4:10 Ex. 7:23,24, 3:7. 22:21-24,27. Deut 13:9. Neb. 5:1-5. Jol 31 38,39. 34:28. Trov. 21:13. Luke 13:7. Jam. 5:4.
promised land. But the peculiar religious they ought to have been a “peculiar people frivileges of the Israelites may bu intended zealous of good works:" nor could they menunder this emblem, as well as the situation tion any thing, that ought to have been done and fertility of Canaan.
for thein, which God had not done, or was not V. 2. (Notes, Ps. 80:8–16. Matt. 21:33–46. ready to do, whenever they earnestly asked John 15:1–8.). The care of the Lord over Is- him to do it. So that they could assign no rael is here described, by expressions taken | reason for their vickedness, but the desperate from the enclosing and cultivation of a vine- depravity of their own hearts.—*From this, yard. When he separated that nation from 'ainong many other texts of scripture, we may ihe heathen, made a national covenant with conclude, that those may have suficient means them, gave them laws and ordinances, and of grace afforded theni, who nevertheless are took them under his own special protection ‘not actually or effectually converted.' Lowth. and government, "he fenced” bis vineyard:) - This is clear and satisfactory; but the suffithe destruction of the Canaanites, and their cient grace, insisted on by numbers, which yet idolatrous worship, was as the gathering out by their own statement proves insufficient, is of the stones," which would have injured the not very intelligible. Sufficient means leave no vines. His care, in forming this church of the insurmountable obstacle, were the heart propdescendants of faithful Abraham, Isaac, and erly disposed; but sufficient grace properly disJacob; and in reforming the nation under poses it. Neither of these, however, can be to Moses, Aaron, and Joshua, before their en- a sinner a matter of debt, but wholly of grace. trance into the promised land, was represent
_“What was there more to be done to my ed by his planting the vineyard with the choic- vineyard?". This seems the literal translation: est vine, or the vine of Sorek. (Note, Jer. 2:20, not that God had done all that was in his 21.) The temple, with its altar and worship, power, and so was disappointed when he failis intended by "the tower,” in which the hus- ed of success; but that he had done all that bandman inight safely lodge, to watch, and he was proper, or could reasonably have been ready to tend, the vineyard. The stated min-expected. Notes, 2 Chr. 36:14–16. Ps. 81:11 istry of the priests and Levites, the occasional | .-15. Jer. 6:27—30. 36:1—3, v. 3. Matt. 23: ministry of the prophets, and all the means of|37–39.). grace, are denoted, by the wine-press, or vat, V. 5, 6. The Lord
next passed sentence on into which the juice of the grapes, when press- | the vineyard, and informed the people what ed out, might run. But, after all this prepar- he meant to do with it. He would withdraw ation, the vineyard, instead of producing abun- his protection; give up the land, city, and temdance of good grapes, as might have been ple, to be ravaged by their enemies; deprive expected, yielded only wild grapes, or poison- ihe Jews of the means of grace, and leave ous berries, offensive to the smell and nause- | numbers of them to mingle with the heathen: ous to the taste, yet with some resemblance he would thus let his vineyard be overgrown of grapes: that is, hypocrisy and impiety, in- with thorns and briers: nay, he would "comstead of righteousness and true ho iness. mand the clouds to rain no rain upon them;" (.Notes, Deut. 32:32,33. 2 Kings 4:39—41.) he would awfully withhold the sanctifying in
V.3, 4. Perhaps the Jews murmured at the Auences of his Spirit. This was, in part and judgments denounced against them: but the for a time, fulfilled during the Babylonish capLord here offered to make them judges in the tivity; but far more exactly in the destruction controversy between him and his vineyard; as of Jerusalem by the Ronans; their exclusion a judge, before he passes sentence, asks the from the church; their long-continued dispercriminal, what he can urge in his own behalf :sion, even to this day, without priest or propbwhy he should not be condemned. (Votes, 2 let; and either without means of grace, or Sam. 12:1–7. Ps. 51:4.) With the manifold without heavenly influences to render them advantages, and encouragements to holiness, effectual. (Marg. Ref. Note, Hos. 3:4,5.) which they enjoyed, and the promises of ef- V. 7. This verse gives the application of the fectual ussistance contained in their scriptures, Il parable (Notes, 2 Sam. 12:7. Ez. 13:10-16,
8 g Woe unto them that join house to || and their honorable men are famished, house, that lay * field to field, till there be and their multitude dried up with thirst. no place, that * they may be placed along 14 Therefore "hell hath enlarged herself, in the midst of the earth!
and I opened her mouth without measure: 9 + In mine ears said the LORD of hosts, and their glory, and their multitude, and 1 Of a truth many houses shall be a desolate, their pomp, and khe that rejoiceth, shall even great and fair, without inhabitant. descend into it.
10 Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield 15 And 'the mean man shall be brought a one bath, and the seed of an homer shall down, and the mighty man shall be humbleu, yield an ephah.
and the eyes of the lofty shall be hum11 | Woe unto them that "rise up early bled: in the morning, that they may follow strong 16 But " the LORD of hosts shall be exdrink; that continue until night, till wine alted in judgment, and "God that is holy O inflame them!
shall be • sanctified in righteousness. 12 And the harp, and the viol, the 17 Then P shall the lambs feed after tabret, and pipe, and wine are in their feasts: their manner, and ? the waste places of he but they regard not the work of the LORD, | fat ones shall strangers eat.
d neither consider the operation of his hands.
[Practical Observations.) 13 Therefore my people are gone into || || Heb. their glory are men of 1 Pet. 5:5. captivity,'
because they have no knowledge: "famine. Jer. 14.18. Lam. 4:1,
* Heb. ye.
u Jer. 22. 11-17. Mic. 2:2. 15. Luke 21.34. Rom. 13:13 Hab. 2:9-12. Matt. 23:14. 1 Cor. 6:10. Gal. 5:21. 1 Thes. Luke 12:16-24.
5:6,7. x 1 Kings 21.16, 20.
Or, pursue. 28:7,8. Prov. 20:
1. 23:32. y Ez. 11.15. 33:24.
C 22:13. Gen. 31:27. Job 21:11 Or, This is in mine ears, -14 Dan. 5:1-4,23. Am. 6: saith, &c. 22:14. Am. 3:7. 46. Luke 16:19. Jude 12. 1 Heb. If not many houses des-d 19. Job 34:27. Ps. 23:5. 92:5, olate, &c.
6. Hos. 4:10.11.
5.11 6:11. Matt. 22:7. 23:38. 2 Chr 28:5-3.
Matt. 23. 16-27. Luke 19.44. b 2? 28 !. Prov. 23:29,30. Ec. John 3:19, 20. Rom. 1:23. 2 10 16.17. Hos. 7:5,6. Hab. 2: Pet. 3.5.
n 12:4. 1 Chr. 29:11. Ps. 9.16.
21:13. 46:10. Ez 28:22. 38 N, g Jer. 14:3. Am. 8:13.
23. Rom. 2:5. Rev. 19.)--5. b 14.9. 30.33. Ps. 49:14. Prov. 1 Or, the holy God. Heb, the 27:20. Ez. 32:18-30. Hab. 2: God the holy. 6:3. 57:15. Res. 5. Matt. 7:13. Rev. 20:13-15. 3.7. 4.8. 15.3,4. i Num. 16:30 34. Prov. 1:12. 08:13. 29:23. Lev. 10:3 Ez k 21:4. 1 Sam. 25:36–38. 2 36.2S, 1 Pet. 1:16. 2:15. Sam. 13:28,29. Ps. 55:15. Dan. p 7:21,22,25. 17:2. 32:14. 40:11. 5:3-6,30. Nah. 1:10. Luke 65:10. Zeph. 2:6,14. 12.19, 20. 16:20—3. 17:27. 21:
Deut. 32:15. Ps. 17 34. Acts 12.21-23.
:0,14. 73:7, 119:70. Jer. 58. 1 2:9.11.17. 9:14-17. 24:2-4. Am. 4:1-3. Ps. 62:9. Jer. 5:4,5,9. Jam. 1: r 1:7. Deut. 28:33. Neh. 9:37. 9_11. Rev. 6:15,16.
Lam. 5:2. Hos. 8:7. Luke 21: m 10.12. 13:11. 37:23,29. Ex. 9 24. 17. Job 40:11,12. Dan. 4:37.
r. 16.) It related to the whole people of Isra- | dred omers. (Tables.) 'In vain are ye so in el, hnt especially to Judah, who had been pe- | 'tent upon joining house to house, and field to culiarly favored and delighted in as "a plant field: your houses shall be left uninhabited, of pleasures;” (marg.) but the Jews were so ) *and your fields shall become desolate and degenerated fronı the piety of their ancestors, s'barren: so that a vineyard of ten acres, shall that, instead of judgment and righteousness, produce but one bath (not eight gallons) of the land was full of oppression, and the cries 'wine, and the husbandman shall reap but a of the oppressed. (Marg. Ref:- Note, Jam. 5: tenth part of the seed which he has sown.' 1–6.)--The living members of the church are Bp. Lowth. (Notes, Jer. 22:13—19. Luke 12: 'cailed "the branch of God's planting.” 61:3.15–21.) ... The Jews should have been such, and had V. 11-17. The next woe is denounced 'sufficient means of grace to make them so.'|| against the dissolute and intemperate, who Lowth
were so intent upon their excesses, that they V. 8—10. The prophet next declared, in rose early to begin them, and continued till plain language, that the vengeance of God was night, inflaming themselves and their passions conuing on the Jews for their various trans- with wine. They likewise employed all kinds gressions: but he so expressed himself, that he of music to render their festive pleasures more included with them all persons, of every age exquisite: but God and his works were not in and nation, who should be guilty of the same all their thoughts; they only regarded second crimes. He first denounced a woe upon the causes, in their prosperity; and they despised avaricious and rapacious, who were intent by the predictions of wrath, as well as the promevery means on increasing their estates; not ises of mercy, which JEHOVAH sent them by regarding who was turned out destitute from his prophets, as if he were unable to accomloisolwelling or patrimony, provided they could || plish either the one or the other. (.Note, Am. “add house to house, and field to field;" that 6:3—8.). The prophet therefore speaks of the they might be placed alone in the midst of the approaching judgments, as if already come: Jand, as sole proprietors, attended only by the people were gone into captivity for their their vassals and dependents. But the Lord wilful ignorance and folly; the nobles, even had told the prophet in his ears, privately, that the glory of the nation, (marg:) were dying ere long, many houses would be left uninhab- with hunger, the common people with thirst
. ited, especially the most magnificent and ele- || Hell, (the unseen state, including along with gant; and that their estates should be almost the grave, the place of torinent to which the wholly unproductive, so that ten acres of vine- souls of wicked men must descena,) is introyarıl should only produce a few gallons of duced as a voracious monster, opening wide wine, and their corn-fields yield one-tenth of the his insatiable jaws, and gorging his prey withseed generally sown upon then that is, the out measure; whilst all their glory, and multi land would be desolated, and their estates tude, and pomp, the nobles, and the plebeians, would become of no value. (.Vote, Lev. 27:16.) || with the most jovial and sensual of them, -A bath, in liquids, and an ephah in solids, I would at once be swallowed up by it. Thus were measures of equal size; and were the even the nieanest would be brought still lowtenth part of a homer, which contained a hun-ller; and the mightiest abased and humbled, as
18 T Woe unto them that draw iniquity light, and light for darkness; that put bitter with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with for sweet, and sweet for bitter! a cut-rope:
21 Woe unto them that are y wise in their 19 That say, Let him make speed, own eyes, and prudent in their own sight! and hasten his work, that we may see it: 22 Woe unto them that are ? mighty to anul " let the counsel of the Holy One of drink wine, and men of strength to mingle Israel draw nigh and come, that we may strong drink; know it!
23 Which justify the wicked for re20 | Woe unto them that * call evil ward, and take away the righteousness of good, and good evil; that put darkness for the righteous from him! $ 28 15. Judg. 17.5,13. 2 Sam.
3 3,4. 16.0_23. Ps. 10:11. 14:1. 36: u 30.11. Jer. 23: 18,36. 2. 91.5-)). Jer. 5.31. 8:5-9. * Prov. 17:15. Mal. 2:17. 3:15. 22.214.171.124. 28:15,16. 44:15 Matt. 6:23. 15:3_6. 23.10-23. 19. Ez. 13.10,11,22. Zeph. 1: Luke 11:35. 16 15. 2 Tim. 3:1 12. John 16.2. Acts 20:.
-5. 2 Pet. 2:1,18,19. t fin5 Jer. 5:12,13. 17:15. Ez. * Heb. say concerning evil 12 ??,?7. Am. 5.18,19. 2 Pet. that it is good, &c.
y Job 11:12. Prov. 3:7. 26:16. 24. 31:4,5.
7. Prov. 17.23. Mic. 3:11. 7:3. Heb. before their face. c 10:2. 1 Kings 21:13. Ps. 944 z 11. 28:1-3,7. Prov. 23:19,20. 21. Matt. 23:35. 27:24,25. Jam. Hab. 2.15.
5:6. a Ex. 23.6-9. Prov. 17:15. 24:
to their condition and lofty looks; and God Lowth.-- The daring impiety of some Jews alone would be exalted and glorified, in the was supported by principles equally corrupt. righteous judgments which he executed, and They employed sophistical reasonings, to conbe adored and magnified for that display of found the distinctions between good and evil, his holiness and justice. (Notes, 2:10—21.) truth and falsehood; and perverted language Then the whole land would be either left to to give actions false names. Thus, avarice is be occupied by the cattle alone; or be devour- often termed prudence, and licentious extravaed by strangers, who would seize upon the gance, liberality; and rebellion, impiety, and waste places, which lately the luxurious Jews revenge, are considered as proofs of a noble inhabited.--Some expositors suppose, that by spirit: whilst piety and conscientiousness are "lambs” are meant the poor, inoffensive, and called enthusiasın, hypocrisy, preciseness, afhumble believers among them; who were res- fectation, and spiritual pride. Thus men often cued froin oppression, and provided for, when speak, as if it were of no consequence what their wealthy oppressors were utterly ruined. doctrines thcy believed: or as if the conjectures “Good men... shall want nothing that is neces- || of presumptuous reasoners were equally wor“sary for their support. God is often repre- thy of regard, with the authenticated and sure 'sented as a Shepherd, and his care of the testiinony of God: as if ignorance in divine ‘righteous described by their tweding securely things were or no bad consequence, and knowl'in rich pastures. 65:10. Ps. 23:1.' Louth. edge in them, of no value: or as if those the
V. 18, 19. The figurative expressions, used ories, which contradict the scriptures, were in describing those, on whom the next woe is 'the effect of peculiar illumination, and those denounced, are differently interpreted. “They principles which correspond with them, were draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as darkness and ignorance: and as if sweetness it were with a cart-rope:” that is, say some, were only to be found in the bitter ways of they labor in effecting their wicked designs, ungodliness, and nothing but bitterness could as the cattle do, that draw loaded waggons by be found in obedience to God's commandropes or traces; while they only obtain vanity, ments. Those who commend wicked men, and draw down vengeance upon themselves. wicked works, antiscriptural principles, and a Others suppose an allusion to the making of worldly life; and run down truth, boliness, ropes, which are industriously spun out to a and pious persons, in this manner, evidently great length, and then made strong by twist- act from the corrupt relish of a carnal mind, ing niany threads together. Thus men pro- and from the state of their own hearts; and ceed from one kind and degree of wickedness because they want an excuse for their conduct, to another; lengthening out and multiplying and a quietus to their consciences. (.Notes, their crimes; connecting one with another, Mal. 2:17. Matt. 6:22,23. Luke 16:14,15.) causing one to spring, out of another, and V. 21. Those who prefer their own reasonstrengthening the whole by wicked confeder-ings to divine revelation, and their own deacies and infidel principles, as if their object vices to the admonitions and commands of were to become as wicked as possible. In God; who deern
it prudent and politic to retain plain language, they are persons, who defy, lucrative sins, and neglect self-denying duties; the predicted vengeance of God, and avow who despise or reject the mysteries of the their resolution not to believe or regard it, till 'gospel, and deride those who believe and it be executed; and therefore if he, whom in preach them; or who are vain of their formal contempt they call “the Holy. One of Israel,” knowledge of them, but do not reduce them to mean to convince then, "let him make speed, practice; are evidently. "wise in their own and hasten his work, that they may see and eyes, and prudent in their own sight.”—They know it.”—“An evil inclination (says Kimchi think themselves too wise to need any in‘on the place from the ancient Rabbins,) is at 'struction, and therefore despise the admoni. 'the beginning like a tine hair-string; but at “rions of God's prophets.' Lowth. (. Votes, the finishing like a thick cart-rope. By a long Prov. 3:7,8. 26:13--16, v. 16. John 9:39--41. ‘progression in iniquity, ... men arrive at length Rom. 12:14–16.) at the highest degree of wickedness; bidding V. 22, 23. Some, even among the rulers 'open defiance to God, and scoffing at his and magistrates in Judah, shamefully prided threatened judgments, as it is finely express-themselves in being able to drink much strong 'ed in the next verse.' 'Bp. Lowth. (Marg. Ref. liquor without being inebriated, and in ming- Vote 28:14.15.)
ling wine with those ingredients which inV. 20. “That endeavor to confound boil. he creased its strength; but the wrath of God is 'riames and the natures of virtue and vice, hele denounced against them. To defray the coinmend and applaud what is evil, and dis- expenses of intemperance, as well as to gratify ‘parage and discountenance what is good!' avarice, they took bribes to pervert justice, lo