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592 Travels to the source of the Missouri River,

The second species is lower, shorter the cliannel formed of a fine brown in the legs, and thicker than the At. sand, intermixed with a small propor. lantic wolf. Their colour, which is tion of little pebbles of various colours, not affected by the seasons, is of every and the country around fat and with variety of shade, from a grey or blacảe out trees. They had recently disish brown to a cream-coloured white. charged their waters, and from their They do not burrow, nor do they appearance and the nature of the bark, but howl, and they frequent the country through which they pass, we woods and plains, and skulk along the concluded that they rose in the Black skirts of the buffaloe herds, in order to mountains, or in the level low plains attack the weary or wounded.

which are probably between this place

and the mountains; that the country Captain Clarke and one of the hun- being nearly of the same kind and of, ters met this evening the largest brown the same latitude, the rains of spring bear we have seen. As they fired he melting the snows about the same did not attempt to attack, but fled time, conspire with them to throw at with a most tremendous roar, and such once vast quantities of water down was his extraordinary tenacity of life, these channels, which are then left dry that although he had five balls passed during the summer, autumn, and win. through his lungs, and five other ter, when there is very little rain. wounds, he swam more than half At fifteen and a quarter miles we across the river to a sândbar, and reached the bed of a most extraordi. survived twenty minutes. He weighed nary river which presents itself on the between five and six hundred pounds south : though as wide as the Missouri at least, and measured eiglt feet seven itself, that is about half a mile, it does inches and a half from the nose to the not discharge a drop of water, and extremily of the hind feet, five feet contains nothing but a few standing ten inches and a half round the breast, pools. On ascending it tbree miles three feet eleven inches round the we found an eminence from which we neck, one foot eleven inches round saw the direction of the channel, first the middle of the fore-leg, and his south for ten or twelve miles, then talons, five on each foot, were four turning to the east of south-east as far inches and three eighths in length, as we could see ; it passes through a It differs from the common black bear wide valley without timber, and the in having its talons much longer and surrounding country consists of waving more blunt; its tail shorter; its hair low hills interspersed with some hand, of a şeddish or bay brown, longer, some level plains; the banks are ab, finer, and more abundant; bis liver, rupt, and consist of a black or yellow Lyngs, and heart, much larger even in clay, or of a rich sandy loam, but proportion to its size, the heart partie though they do not rise more than six çularly being equal to that of a large or eight feet above the bed, they exhi, ox; his maw ten times larger; his bit no appearance of being overflowed'; testicles pendant from the belly and the bed is entirely composed of a light in separate pouches four inches apart : brown sand, the particles of which, besides fish and flesh he feeds on roots, like those of the Missouri, are extremeand every kind of wild fruit.

ly fine. Like the dry rivers we passed DRY RIVERS.

before, this seemed to have discharged We passed three streams on the its waters recently, but the watermark south; the first, at the distance of one indicated that its greatest depth had mile and a half from our camp, was not been more than two feet: this about twenty-five yards wide; but al. stream, if it deserve the name, we call: though it contained soine water in' ed Bigdry river. About a mile below standing pools it discharges none : this is a large creek on the same side, which we called Littledry Creek, about eight is also perfectly dry. miles beyond which is Bigdry Creek, fifty yards wide, without any water. About five in the afternoon one of The third is six miles further, and has

our men, who had been afflicted with. the bed of a large river two hundred biles, and suffered to walk on shore, yards wide, yet without a drop of came running to the boats, with loud water. Like the other two this stream, cries and every symptom of terror and which we called Bigdry river, conti- distress; for some time after.we had nues its width undiminished as far as taken him an board, he was so much we can discern. The banks are low, out of breath as to be unable to de




scribe the cause of his anxiety, but he taken them; two jumped into the cas at length told us that about a mile noe; the other four separated, and and a half below he had shot a brown concealing themselves in the willows, bear, which immediately turned, and fired as fast as each could reload ; they was in close pursuit of him ; but the struck hint several times, but instead bear being badly wounded could not of weakening the monster each shot overtake him. Capt. Lewis, with se seemed only to direct him towards the ven men, immediately went in search hunter, till at last he pursued two of of him, and having found his track, them so closely, that they threw aside followed him by the blood for a mile, their guns and pouches, and jumped and found him concealed in some thick down a perpendicular bank of twenty brushwood, and shot him with two feet into the river; the bear sprang af balls through the skull. Though ter them, and was within a few feet of somewhat smaller than that killed a the hindmost, when one of the hunters few days ago, he was a monstrous ani on shore shot him in the head, and finals mal, and a most terrible enemy; our ly killed him; they dragged him to the man had shot him through the centre shore, and found that eight balls of the lungs, yet he had pursued him had passed through him in different di. furiously for half a mile, then returned rections. more than twice that distance, and with his talons had prepared himself a

From the dranght and survey of bed in the earth, two feet deep and Capt. Clarke we had now a clear and five feet long, and was perfectly alive

connected view of the falls, cascades, when they found him, which was at and rapids, of the Missouri. least two hours after lie received the This river is three hundred yards wound. The wonderful power of wide at the point where it receives the life which these animals possess ren

waters of Medicine river, which is one ders them dreadful ; their very track

hundred and thirty-seven yards in in the mud or sand, which we have

width. The united current continues sometimes found eleven inches long,

three hundred and twenty-eight poles and seven and a quarter wide, exclu to a small rapid on the north side, from sive of the talons, is alarming; and we which it gradually widens to one thouhad rather encounter two Indians than sand four hundred yards, and at the meet a single brown bear. There is distance of five hundred and forty-eight no chance of killing them by a single poles reaches the head of the rapids, shot, unless the ball goes through the narrowing as it approaches them. Here brains, and this is very difficult on ac the hills on the north, which had with. count of two large muscles which co drawn from the bank, closely border ver the side of the forehead, and the the river, which, for the space of three sharp projection of the centre of the hundred and twenty poles, makes its frontal bone, which is also thick. way over the rocks with a descent of

Towards evening the men in the thirty feet ; in this course the current hindmost canoes discovered a large is contracted to five hundred and brown bear lying in the open grounds, eighty yards, and, after throwing itself about three hundred paces from the over a small pitch of five fert, forms a river ; six of them, all good hunters,

beautiful cascade of tweniy-six feet immediately went to attack him, and, five inches; this does not however fall concealing themselves by a small emi. immediately perpendicular, being stopnence, came unperceived within forty ped by a part of the rock, which prow paces of him; four of the hunters now jects at about one-third of the distance, kred, and each lodged a ball in his bo. After descending this fall, and passing dy, two of them directly through the the coitonwood island, on which the Jungs: the furious animal sprang up eagle has fixed its nest, the river goes and ran open-mouthed upon them; as

on for five hundred and thirty-two he came near, the two hunters who had poles over rapids and little falls, the reserved their fire gave him two estimated descent of which is thirteen wounds, one of which, breaking his feet six inches, till it is joined by a shoulder, retarded his inotion for a large fountain boiling up underneath moment; but before they could re the rocks near the edge of the river, load he was so near that they were into which it falls with a cascade of obliged to run to the river, and before eight feet. It is of the most perfect they reached it he had alınost ovec« clearness, and rather of a bluish cast;



394 Travels to the Source of the Missouri River, and even after falling into the Mise and sixty poles a descent of six feet, souri it preserves its colour for half a after which to the mouth of Portage mite. From this fountain the river creek, a distance of two hundred and descends with increased rapidity for eighty poles, the descent is ten feet. the distance of two hundred and four. From this survey and estimate it re. teen poles, during which the estimated sults that the river experiences a de. descent is five feet: from this, for a scent of three hundred and fifty-two distance of one hundred and thirty five feet in the course of two and three. poles, the river descends fourteen feet quarter miles, from the commencement seven inches, including a perpendicu. of the rapids to the mouth of Portage lar fall of six feet seven inches. The creek, exclusive of almost impassable river has now become pressed into a rapids, which extend for a mile below space of four hundred and seventy; its entrance. three yards, and here forms a grand SOURCES OF THE MISSOURI AND cataract by falling over a plain rock the whole distance across the river to The road was still plain, and, as it the depth of forty-seven feet eight led them directly on towards the inches: after recovering itself the mountain, the stream gradually be. Missouri then proceeds with an esti. came smaller, till after going two miles mated descent of three feet, till at the it had so greatly diminished in width distance of one hundred and two poles that one of the men in a fit of enthu. it again is precipitated down the siasm, with one foot on each side of the Crooked falls of nineteen feet perpen- river, thanked God that he had lived dicular; below this, at the mouth of a to bestride the Missouri. As they deep ravine, is a fall of five feet, after went along their hopes of soon seeing which, for the distance of nine hun. the waters of the Columbia,arosealmost dred and seventy poles, the descent is to painful anxiety, when,' after four much more gradual, not being more miles from the last abrupt turn of the than ten feet, and then succeeds a hand- river, they reached a small gap formsome level plain for the space of one ed by the high mountains which rehundred and seventy-eight poles, with cede on each side, leaving room for a computed descent of three feet, ma the Indian road. From the foot of king a bend towards the north. one of the lowest of these mountains, Thence it descends, during four hun. which rises with a gentle ascent of dred and eighty poles, about eighteen about half a mile, issues the remotest feet and a half, when it makes water of the Missouri. They had a perpendicular fall of two feet, now reached the hidden sources of that which is ninety poles beyond the great river, which had never yet been seen cataract, in approaching which it by civilized man: and as they quench. descends thirteen feet within two hun. ed their thirst at the chaste and icy dred yards, and gathering, strengih fountain-as they sat down by the brink from its confined channel, which of that little rivulet, which yielded its is only two hundred and eighty yards distant and modest tribute to the pa. wide, rushes over the fall to the depth rent ocean, they felt themselves re. of eighty-seven feet and three quar. warded for all their labours and all ters of an inch. After raging among their difficulties. They left reluc. the rocks and losing itself in foam, tantly this interesting spot, and pur, it is compressed inmediately into suing the Indian road through the ing a bed of ninety-three yards in width; terval of the hills, arrived at the top it continues for three hundred and for- of a ridge, from which they saw high ty poles to the entrance of a run or mountains, partially covered with deep ravine, where there is a fall of snow, still to the west of them. The three feet, which, joined to the de. ridge on which they stood formed the cline of the river during that course, dividing line between the waters of the makes the descent six feet. As it goes Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They on, the descent within the next two followed a descent much steeper than hundred and forty poles is only four that on the eastern side, and at the feet; from this passing a run or deep distance of three quarters of a mile ravine the descent for four hundred reached a handsome bold creek of cold poles is thirteen feet; within two hun. clear water running to the westward. dred and forty poles a second descent They stopped to taste for the first of eighteen feet; thence one hundred time the waters of the Columbia, and



after a few minutes followed the road deploring how nearly the condition of across steep hills and low hollows, till savages approaches that of the brute they reached a spring on the side of creation : yet though suffering with a mountain; here they found a sufficient hunger they did not attempt, as they quantity of dry willow brush for fuel, might have done, to take by force the and therefore halted for the night. whole deer, but contented ihemselves

RAVENOUS INDIAN APPETITES. with what had been thrown away by

After the hunters had been gone the hunter. Capt. Lewis now had the about an hour, Capt. Lewis again deer skinned, and after reserving a mounted with one of the Indians be. quarter of it gave the rest of the animal hind him, and the whole pariy set out; to the chief to be divided among the but just as they passed through the Indians, who immediately devoured narrows they saw one of the spies nearly the whole of it without cook. coming back at full speed across the ing. They now went forward towards plain ; the chief stopped and seemed the creek, where there was some brushuneasy, the whole band were moved wood to make a fire, and found Drew. with fresh suspicions, and Capt. Lewis yer, who had killed a second deer : himself was much disconceried, lest the same struggle for the entrails was by some unfortunate accident some of renewed here, and, on giving nearly their enemies might have perhaps the whole deer to the Indians they destraggled that way. The young In. voured it even to the soft part of the dian had scarcely breath to say a few hoofs. A fire being made, Capt. Lewa words as he came up, when the whole is had his breakfast, during which troop dashed forward as fast as their Drewyer brought in a third deer: this horses could carry them; and Captain too, after reserving one quarter, was Lewis, astonished at this movement, given to the Indians, who now seemed was borne along for nearly a mile be- completely satisfied, and in a good hu. fore he learnt with great satisfaction mour. that it was all caused by the spy having come to announce that one of the We have now reached the extreme white men had killed a deer. Re- navigable point of the Missouri, lieved from his anxiety he now found which our observation places in latithe jolting very uncomfortable ; for tude 43° 30' 43'' north. It is difficult the Indian behind him, being afraid of to comprise in any general description not getting his share of the feast, had the characteristics of a river so extenlashed the horse at every step since sive, and fed by so many streams, they set off; he therefore reined him which have their sources in a great va. in and ordered the Indian to stop beat. riety of soils and climates. But the ing him. The fellow had no idea of Missouri is still sufficiently powerful losing time in disputing the point, and to give to all its waters something of a jumping off the horse ran for a mile at common character, which is of course full speed, Capt. Lewis slackened his decided by the nature of the country pace, and followed at a sufficient dis- through which it passes. The bed of tance to observe them. When they the river is chiefly composed of a blue reached the place where Drewyer had mud, from which the water itself de. thrown out the intestines, they all rives a deep tinge. From its junction dismounted in confusion, and ran tum. here to the place near which it leaves bling over each other like famished the mountains, its course is embarrass. dogs: each tore away whatever part ed by rapids and rocks which the hills he could, and instantly began to eat it: on each side have thrown into its chansome had the liver, some the kidneys, nel. From that place, its current, with in short no part on which we are ac- the exception of the falls, is not difficustomed to look with disgust escaped cult of navigation, nor is there much them : che of them, who had seized variation in its appearance till the about nine feet of the entrails, was mouth of the Platte. That powerful chewing it at one end, while with his river throws out vast quantities of hand he was diligently clearing his coarse sand, which contribute to give way by discharging the contents at the a new face to the Missouri, which is other. It was indeed impossible to now much more impeded by islands, see these wretches ravenously feeding The sand, as it is drifted down, ad. on the filth of animals, and the blood heres in time to some of the projecting streaming from their mouths, without points from the shore, and forms a bar.


896 Travels to the Source of the Missouri River, rier to the mud, which at length fills rich black soil, which is perfectly suse to the same height with the sandbar ceptible of cultivation, though it beitself: as soon as it has acquired a con. comes richer on the hills beyond the sistency, the willow grows there the Platte, and are in general thinly cover. first year, and by its roots assists the ed with timber. Beyond these hills solidity of the whole: as the mud and the country extends into high open sand accumulate the cottonwood-tree plains, which are on both sides sufficinext appears; till the gradual excie- ently fertile, but the south has the ad. tion of soils raises the surface of the vantage of better streams of water, and point above the highest freshets. Thus may therefore be considered as preferstopped in its course the water seeks a able for settlements. The lands, howpassage elsewhere, and, as the soil on ever, become much better, and the each side is light and yielding, what timber more abundant between the was only a peninsula becomes gradual. Osage and the Kanzas. From the ly an island, and the river indemnifies Kanzas to the Nadawa the hills contiitself for the usurpation by encroach. nue at nearly an equal distance, varying on the adjacent shore. In this ing from four to eight miles from each way the Missouri, like the Mississippi, other, except that from the little is constantly cutting off the projections Platte to nearly opposite the ancient of the shore, and leaving its ancient Kanzas village, the hills are more rechannel, which is then marked by the mote, and the meadows of course mud it has deposited, and a few'stag- wider on the north side of the river. nant ponds.

From the Nadawa the northern hills The general appearance of the coun- disappear, except at occasional intertry as it presents itself on ascending vals, where they are seen at a distance, may be thus described. From its till they return about twenty-seven mouth to the two Charletons, a ridge miles above the Platte, near the anciof highlands borders the river at a ent village of the Ayoways. On the small distance, leaving between them south the hills continue close to the fine rich meadows. From the mouth river from the ancient village of the of the two Charlerons the hills recede Kanzas up to Council bluff; fifty miles from the river, giving greater extent beyond the Platte ; forming high prai. to the low grounds, but they again ap- rie lands. On both sides the lands are proach the river for a short distance good, and perhaps this distance from near Grand river, and again at Snake the Osage to the Platte may be recome creek. From that point they retire, mended as among the best districts on nor do they come again to the neigh- the Missouri for the purposes of seta bourhood of the river till above the tlers. Sauk prairie, where they are compara From the Ayoway village the norsively low and small. Thence they thern hills again retire from the river, diverge and reappear at the Charaton to which they do not return till three Searty, after which they are scarcely, hundred and twenty miles above, at if at all, discernible, till they advance Floyd's river. The hills on the south to the Missouri, nearly opposite to the also leave the river at Council bluffs, Kanzas.

and re-appear at the Mahar village, The same ridge of hills extends on two hundred miles up the Missouri. the south side, in almost one unbroken The country thus abandoned by the chain, from the mouth of the Missouri hills is more open, and the timber in to the Kanzas, though decreasing in smaller quantities than below the height beyond the Osage. As they Platte, so that although the plain is are nearer the river than the hills on rich and covered with high grass, the the opposite sides, the intermediate want of wood renders it less calculated low grounds are of course narrower, for cultivation than below that river.. but the general character of the soil is The northern hills, after remaining common to both sides.

near the Missouri for a few miles at In the meadows and along the shore Floyd's river, recede from it at the the tree most common is ihe cotton Sioux river, the course of which they wood, which with the willow forins follow, and though they again visit almost the exclusive growth of the the Missouri at Whitestone river, Missouri. The hills, or rather high where they are low, yet they do not grounds, for they do not rise higher return to it all beyond James river. than from one handred and fifty to iwo The highlands on the south, after hundred feet, are composed of a good continuing near the river at the Ma


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