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THEIR DRESS AND MANNERS.

music more agreeable, that is, less in-' body, to this is attached a piece of tolerable than that of the musicians. cloth, or blanket, or skin, about a foot The dances of the men, which are als wide, which passes between the legs, ways separate from the women, are and is tucked under the girdle both conducted very nearly in the same before and behind ; from the hip to way, except that the men jump up and the ankle he is covered by leggings of down instead of shuffling; and in the dressed antelope skins, with seams at war-dances the recitations are all of a the sides two inches in width, and ornamilitary cast. The harmony of the mented by little tufts cf hair, the proentertainment had nearly been disturb. duce of the scalps they have made in ed by one of the musicians, who, think. war, which are scattered down the leg. ing he had not received a due share of The winter moccasins are of dressed the tobacco we had distributed during buffaloe skin, the hair being worn inthe evening, put himself into a passion, wards, and soaled with thick elk-skin broke one of the drums, threw two of parchment ; those for summer are of them into the fire, and left the band. deer or elk-skin, dressed without the They were taken out of the fire: a hair, and with soals of elk-skin. On buffaloe robe held in one hand and great occasions, or whenever they are beaten with the other, by several of in full dress, the young men drag afthe company, supplied the place of the ter them the entire skin of a pole-cat, lost drum or tambourin, and no notice fixed to the heel of the moccasion was taken of the offensive conduct of Another skin of the same animal is ei. the man. We staid till twelve o'clock ther tucked into the girdle or carried at night, when we informed the chiefs in the hand, and serves as a pouch for that they must be fatigued with all their tobacco, or what the French these attempts to amuse us, and re. traders call the bois rouie ; this is the tired accompanied by four chiefs, two inner bark of a species of red willow, of whom spent the night with us on which being dried in the sun, or over board.

the fire, is rubbed between the hands

and broken into small pieces, and is The men shave the hair off their used alone, or mixed with tobacco. heads, except a small tuft on the top, The pipe is generally of red earth, which they suffer to grow and wear in the steni made of ash, about three or plaits over the shoulders; to this they four feet long, and highly decorated seem much attached, as the loss of it with feathers, hair, and porcupine is the usual sacrifice at the death of quills. near relations. In full dress, the men The hair of the women is suffered of consideration wear a hawk's feather, to grow long, and parted from the or calumet feather worked with porn forehead across the head, at the back cupine quills, and fastened to the top of which it is either collected into a of the head, from which it falls back. kind of bag, or hangs down over the The face and body are generally paints shoulders. Their moccasins are like ed with a mixture of grease and coal. those of the men, as are also the leg. Over the shoulders is a loose robe or gings, which do not however reach be. mantle of buffaloe skin dressed white, yond the knee, where it is met by a adorned with porcupine quills loosely long loose shift of skin, which reaches fixed so as to make a jingling noise nearly to the ankles; this is fastened when in motion, and painted with ya. over the shoulders by a string, and has rious uncouth figures unintelligible to no sleeves, but a few pieces of the skin us, but to them emblematic of military hang a short distance down the arm. exploits, or any other incident; the Sometimes a girdle fastens this skin hair of the robe is worn next the skin round the waist, and over all is thrown in fair weather, but when it rains the a robe like that worn by the men. hairis put outside, and the robe is either They seem fond of dress. Their thrown over the arm, or wrapped round lodges are very nearly constructed, in the body, all of which it may cover. the same form as those of the Yanke Under this in the winter season they tons; they consist of about one hun. wear a kind of shirt resembling ours, dred cabins, made of white buffalo and made either of skin or cloth, and hide dressed, with a larger one in the covering the arms and body. Round centre for holding councils and dances. the middle is fixed a girdle of cloth, or They are built round with poles about procured dressed elk-skin, about an fifteen or twenty feet high, covered inch in width, and closely tied to the with white skins; these lodges may be

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WONDER AT A NEGRO.

588

Travels to the Sources of the Missouri River, taken to pieces, packed off; and car the Mandans, the Ahnahaways, and ried with the nation wherever they go, the Minnetarees. The history of the by dogs which bear great burdens. Mandans, as we received it from our The women are chiefly employed in interpreters and from the chiefs them. dressing buffalo skins; they seem per- selves, and as it is attested by existing fectly well disposed, but are addicted monuments, illustrates, more than that to stealing any thing which they can of any other nation, the unsteady take without being observed. This movements and the tottering fortunes nation, although it makes so many ra of the American nations. Within the vages among its neighbours, is badly recollection of living witnesses, the supplied with guns.

The water Mandans were settled forty years ago which they carry with them is con- in nine villages, the ruins of which we tained chiefly in the paunches of deer passed about eighty miles below, and and other animals, and they make use situated seven on the west and two on of wooden bowls. Some had their the east side of the Missouri. The heads shaved, which we found was a two, finding themselves wasting away species of mourning for relations. before the small-pox and the Sioux, Another usage, on these occasions, is united into one village, and moved up to run arrows through the flesh both the river opposite to the Ricaras. above and below the elbow.

The same causes reduced the remain

ing seven to five villages, till at length The object which appeared to as they emigrated in a body to the Ricara tonish the Indians most was Captain nation, where they formed themselves Clarke's servant York, a remarkable into two villages, and joined those of stout strong negro. They had never their countrymen who had gone before seen a being of that colour, and there. them. In their new residence they fore flocked round him to examine the were still insecure, and at length the extraordinary monster. By way of three villages ascended the Missouri amusement he told them that he had to their present position. The two once been a wild animal, and caught who had emigrated together still setand tamed by his master, and to con tled in the two villages on the northvince them, showed them feats of west side of the Missouri, while the strength, which, added to his looks, single village took a position on the made him more terrible than we wished south-east side. In this situation they him to be.

were found by those who visited them

in 1796, since which the two villages Late at night we were awaked by have united into one. the sergeant on guard to see the beau THEIR RELIGIOUS SUPERSTITION. tiful phenomenon called the northern The whole religion of the Mandans light: along the northern sky was a consists in the belief of one great spirit large space occupied by a light of a presiding over their destinies. This a pale but brilliant white colour, being must be in the nature of a good which rising from the horizon extend- genius, since it is associated with the ed itself to nearly twenty degrees above healing art, and the great spirit is syit. After glittering for some time its nonymous with great medicine, a name colours would be overcast, and almost also applied to every thing which they obscured, but again it would burst do not understand. Each individual out with renewed beauty; the uniforın selects for himself the particular obcolour was pale light, but its shapes ject of his devotion, which is termed were various and fantastic: at times his medicine, and is either some invithe sky was lined with light-coloured sible being or more commonly some streaks rising perpendicularly from the animal, which thenceforward becomes horizon, and gradually expanding into his protector or his intercessor'with the a body of light, in which we could great spirit; to propitiate whom every trace the floating columns, sometimes attention is lavished, and every per advancing, sometimes retreating and sonal consideration is sacrificeda shaping into infinite forms, the space was lately owner of seventeen horses, in which they moved. It all faded said a Mandan to us one day, “but I way before the morning.

have offered them all up to my médi? INDIAN NATIONS.

cine, and am now poor." He had in The villages near which we are es- reality taken all his wealth, his horses, tablished are five in number, and are into the plain, and turning them loose, the residence of three distinci nations: committed them to'the care of his me.

dicine,

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NORTHERN LIGHTS.

Siin.

dicine, and abandoned them for ever. below o, and about eight o'clock it The horses, less religious, took care fell to 740 below freezing point. of themselves, and the pious votary 18th. The thermometer at sunrise travelled home on foot. Their belief was 320 below o. The Indians had in a future state is connected with this invited us yesterday to join their chace tradition of their origin : the whole to-day, but the seven men whom we nation resided in one large village un sent returned in consequence of the der ground, near a subterraneous lake; cold, which was so severe last night a grape-vine extended its roots down that we were obliged to have the sentia to their habitation; and gave them a nel relieved every half hour. The view of the light: some of the most north-west traders; however, left lis adventurous climbed up the vine, and on their return home. were delighted with the siglit of the 19th.---Notwithstanding the extreme earth, which they found covered with cold, we observe the Indians at the -buffaloe, and rich with every kind of village engaged out in the open ait fruits: returning with the grapes they at a game which resembled billiards had gathered, their countrymen were more than any thing we liad seen, and so pleased with the taste of them that which we are inclined to suspect may the whole nation resolved to leave have been acquired by ancient intera their dull residence for the charms of course with the French of Canada. the upper region: men, women, and From the first to the second chief's children ascended by means of the lodge, a distance of about fifty yards vine; but when about half the nation was covered with timber, smoothed had reached the surface of the earth, and joined so as to be as level as the a corpulent woman who was clamber- floor of one of our houses, with a ing up the vine, broke it with her battery at the end to stop the rings : weight, and closed upon herself and these rings were of clay-stone, and the rest of the nation the light of the flat like the chequers for drafts, and

Those who were left on earth the sticks were about four feet long; made a village below where we saw with two short pieces at one end in

the nine villages; and when the Man. the form of a niace, so fixed that the . dans die they expect to return to the whole will slide along the board. Two

original seats of their forefathers; the men fix themselves at one end, cach good reaching the ancient village by provided with a stick, and one of them means of the lake, which the burdens with a ring; they then run along the of the sins of the wicked will not ena board, and about half way slide the ble them to cross.

sticks after the ring. THE WEATHER, LAT. 47.

THE SIOUX INDIANS. Dec 8th. The thermometer stood Almost the whole of that vast tract at twelve degrees below o, that is at of country comprised between the forty-two degrees below the freezing Mississippi, the Red River of Lake point: the wind was from the north- Winnepeg, the Saskaskawan, and the west. Captain Lewis, with fifteen Missouri, is loosely occupied by a men, went out to hunt the buffaloe, great nation whose primitive name is great numbers of which darkened the Darcota, but who are called Sioux by prairies for a considerable distance: the French, Sues by the English. they did not return till after dark, Their original seats were on the Miss having killed eight buffaloe and one sissippi, but they have gradually spread deer. The hunt was, however, very themselves abroad, and become subfatiguing, as they were obliged to make divided into nunierous tribes. Of a circuit at the distance of more than these, what may be considered as the seven miles: the cold too, was so ex. Darcotas, are the Mindawarcarton, or cessive, that the air was filled with icy Minowakanton, known to the French particles resembling a fog, and the by the name of the Gens du Lac, or snow generally six or eight inches deep, People of the Lake. Their residence and soinetimes eighteen, in consequence is on both sides of the Mississippi of which two of the party were hurt near the falls of St. Anthony; and the by falls, and several had their feet probable number of their warriors frostbitten.

about three hundred. Above thein, . 109th. The weather to-day wascold. on the river St. Peters, is the Wahpaer than any we had yet experienced, tone, a smaller band of nearly two the thermometer at sun-rise being 450 hundred men; and still further up MONTHLY MÁ@ No, 257,

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the

THE WHITE BEAR,

990 Travels to the Source of the Missouri River, the same river below Yellow-wood

SAND STORMS. river are the Wahpatootas, or Gens de April 24th.--The wind blew so high Feuilles, an inferior band of not more during the whole day that we were than one hundred men; while the unable to move; such indeed was its sources of the St. Peter's are occupied violence, that although we were shelby the Sisatoones, a band consisting of tered by high timber, the waves wetted about two hundred warriors.

many articles in the boats: the hunters These bands rarely if ever approach went out and returned with four deer, the Missouri, which is occupied by two elk, and some young wolves, of their kinsmen the Yanktons and the the small kind. The party are very Tetons. The Yanktons are of two much afflicted with sore eyes, which tribes, those of the plains, or rather of we presume are occasioned by the vast the north, a wandering race of about quantities of sand which are driven five hundred men, who roam over the from the sandbars in such clouds, as plains at the heads of the Jaques, the often to hide from us the view of the Sioux, and the Red river; and those of opposite bank. The particles of this the south, who possess the country sand are so fine and light that it floats between the Jaques and Sioux rivers, for miles in the air, like a column of and the Desmoines. But the bands of thick smoke, and is so penetrating Sioux most known on the Missouri that nothing can be kept free from it, are the Tetons. The first who are and we are compelled to eat, drink, met on ascending the Missouri, is the and breathe it very copiously. To tribe called by the French, the Tetons the same cause we attribute the disc of the Bois Brule, or Burntwood, who order of one of our watches, although reside on both sides of the Missouri, her cases are double and tight; since, about White and Teton rivers, and without any defect in its works that number two hundred warriors. Above we can discover, it will not run for them on the Missouri are the Teton more than a few minutes without Okandandas, a band of one hundred stopping. and fifty men, living below the Cha. yenne river, between which and the 29th. We proceeded early with a Wetarhoo river is a third band, called moderate wind. Captain Lewis, who Teton Minnakenozzo, of nearly two was on shore with one hunter, met hundred and fifty men; and below the about eight o'clock two white bears, Warreconne is the fourth and last of the strength and ferocity of this tribe of Tetons of about three hundred animal the Indians had given us dreadmen, and called Teton Saone. North. ful accounts: they never attack him ward of these, between the Assiniboin but in parties of six or eight persons, and the Missouri, are two bands of and even then are often defeated with Assinibojns, one on Mouse river of the loss of one or more of their num. about two hundred men, and called ber. Having no weapons but bows Assiniboin Menatopa; the other, 're- and arrows, and the bad guns with siding on both sides of White river, which the traders supply them, they called by the French Gens de Feuilles, are obliged to approach very near to and amounting to two hundred and the bear; and as no wound except fifty men. Beyond these a band of through the head or heart is mortal, Assiniboins of four hundred and fifty they frequently fall a sacrifice if they men, and called the Big Devils, wander miss their aim. He rather attacks. on the heads of Milk, Porcupine, and than avoids a man, and such is the Martha's rivers; while still farther to terror which he has inspired, that the the north are seen two bands of the Indians who go in quest of him .paint same marion, one of five hundred and themselves, and perform all the superthe other of two hundred, roving on stitious rites customary when they the Saskaskawan. Those Assiniboins make war on a neighbouring nation. are recognised by a similarity of lan. Hitherto those we had seen did not guage, and by tradition as descendants appear desirous of encountering us, or seceders from the Sioux; though but although to a skilful rifleman the often at war are still acknowledged as danger is very much diminished; yet relations. The Sioux themselves, the white bear is still a terrible animal. though scattered, meet annually on On approaching these two, both Cap. the Jaques, those on the Missouri tain Lewis and the hunter fired, and grading with those on the Mississippi. each wounded a bear; one of them

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ANTELOPES.

made his escape; the other turned habits, and the number of feathers in upon Captain Lewis and pursued him the tail, the two species correspond. seventy or eighty yards, but being This species also associates in focks badly wounded, he could not run so with the large geese, but we have not fast as to prevent him from reloading seen it pair off with them. The white his piece, which he again aimed at brant is about the size of the common him, and a third shot from the hunter brown brant, or two-thirds of the brought him to the ground.

He was

common goose, than which it is also a male not quite full grown, and six inches shorter fron the extremity weighed about three hundred pounds. of the wings, though the beak, head, The legs are somewhat longer than and neck are larger and stronger: the those of the black bear, and the talons body and wings are of a beautiful pure and tusks much larger and longer. white, except the black feathers of The testicles are also placed much the first and second joints of the wings; farther forward, and suspended in se the beak and legs are of a reddish or parate pouches from two to four inches flesh-coloured white; the eye of a asunder; while those of the black bear moderate size, the pupil of a deep sea are situated back between the thighs, green, encircled with a ring of yellowand in a single pouch like those of the ish brown; the tail consists of sixteen dog. Its colour is a yellowish brown; feathers equally long; the flesh is the eyes small, black, and piercing dark, and, as well as its note, differs The front of the fore legs near the feet but little from those of the common is usually black, and the fur is finer, brant, whom in form and habits it thicker, and deeper than that of the resembles, and with whom it sometimes black bear : add to which it is a more unites in a common flock: the white furious animal, and very remarkable brant also associate by themselves in for the wounds which it will bear large flocks, but as they do not seem without dying

to be mated or paired off, it is doubt.

ful whether they reside here during The antelopes are yet lean, and the the summer for the purpose of rearing females are with young. This fleet their young. and quick-sighted animal is generally the victim of its curiosity: when they The wolves are also very abundant, first see the hunters, they run with and are of two species. First, the great velocity; if he lies down on the small wolf or burrowing, dog of the ground and lifts up his arm, bis hat, prairies, which are found in almost all or his foot, the antelope returns on a the opeo plains. It is of an interme. light trot to look at the object, and diate size between the fox and dog, sometimes goes and returns two or very delicately formed, feet and ac. three times till it approaches within tive. The ears are large, erect, and reach of the rifle: so too they some pointed; the head long and pointed, times leave their flock to go and look like that of the fox; the tail long and at the wolves, who crouch down, and, bushy; the hair and fur of a pale redif the antelope be frightened at first, dishbrov',) colour, though much repeat the same maneuvre, and some. coarser ihan that of the fox; the eye times relieve each other till they decoy of a deep sea-green colour, small and it from the party, when they seize it. piercing; the talons rather longer than But generally the wolves take them those of the wolf of the Arlantic as they are crossing the rivers, for al- States, which animal, as far as we can though swift of foot they are not good perceive, is not to be found on this swimmers.

side of the river Platte. These wolves A NEW SPECIES OF GOOSE, usually associate in bands of ten or Among the vast quantities of game twelve, and are rarely if ever seen around us, we distinguish a small spe. alone, not being able singly to attack cies of gooşe, differing considerably a deer or antelope. They live and from the common Canadian goose, rear their young in burrows, which its neck, head, and beak being much they fix near some pass or spot much thicker, larger, and shorter in pro. frequented by game, and sally out in a portion to its size, which is nearly a body against any animal which they third smaller; the noise too resembling think they can overpower; but on the more that of the brant, or of a young slightest alarm retreat to their burrows, goose that has not yet fully acquired making a noise exactly like that of a is notę ; in other respects, in colour, small dog.

WOLVES.

The

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