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incijęs more, but the low situation of his its influence on a very region of the globe. gauge, compared with mine, will partly In order to the accoinplishment of such account for the difference.
a grand effect, it is necessary, that their The south, south-west, and west number be encreaned far beyond what it winds, have been the prevailing ones.--- is at present, that intelligent persons of The most brisk and boisterous winds every rank be jovited to hear a part in blew in February, March, and April, their transactions, and that the different
Total quantity of water evaporated associations maintain an occasional cor(from a surface of water exposed to the respondence with each otdier in every effects of winds and the sun, but not to thing which regards the common interest. its direct says,) since the first of May, Having in your Magazine for April is a little more than 17 inches.
last thrown out a iew general hints on
this subject, I shall Gow offer some more To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. specific de:ails in ré ference to societies SIR,
constituted on the principles, and with I
OBSERVE in your Magazine for the views, stated in that paper.* The
February last, a letter signed I. M. firsi topic on which I shall offer a few in which the writer requests some infor- remarks shall be, mation respecting an old arched gateway 1. The admission of Members. In the at Dunbarton; and I am glad to have it admission of men.bers it wili be necessain my power to communicate a few par- ry, both for the respectability of the soticulars concerning it, which, thongh ciety and for the interests of science, to trifling, I hope may not be unacceptable guard agaist the two following extreines, to your correspondent.
the indiscriminate admission of all perHaving visited Dumbarton some years 800s who may wish to become members, ago, when on a tour in the west of Scota and the gioing an undue preference to land, the venerable gateway, or college some individuals, on account of their bow, as it is called, attracted my notice; rank, who have not a corresponding and from the besi information that could share of common sense and literary ache obtained, I understand it did not be. quirements. In a literary society the long to a college or seminary for the in- distinctions of rank oughi' to be in a struction of youth, but to a collegiate great measure, if not altogether, overs church, which formerly stood there. Ac- luoked, while at the same time the utmost cording to the peerage, and other autho. decorum and politeness ought ever to rities, this collegiate church was founded prevail. It would surely be highly unabout the year 1450, hy the Lady Isabella, becoming in those who are linked togeDuchess of Albany and Countess of Len, ther bi the bonds of reason and intellinox, the widow of Murdoch, Duke of gence to act on the same principles as Albany, who was beheaded at Stirling in the iop, the beau, the fine lady, or the 1425. It was dedicated to St. Patrick, mere man of fashion. There is nothing the Apostle of Ireiand. The chapter which a wise man despises more than consisted of a provost and several pre that detereure which is too frequently bendaries; and for the support of the paid to a ivul arrayed in splendidattire, establishment, various lands and churches and possesser of a little wealth, and that were mortified by the illustrious foun. haughiy disdain with which a man of sudress, Some of the provosts were men perior rank looks down on those in infeof distinguished rank, eminent for their rior stations, who are perhaps greatly supiety and learning, and who were pro- perior in respect of moral and intellecmuted to the highest situations in the iual attainments. It is now high time kingdom.
that human characters be estimated ac
N. C. London; Muy 14, 1814.
cording to their real and intrinsic worth,
indefiendans of those externaland advenTo the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. tos cilcunstances with which they may SIR,
be accompanied; and it will be peculiarS literary societies have been the ly becoming in rational associations to
means of enlarging the sphere of set an exa'tiple of estimating the charachuman kuowledge in times past, so it is
* The following remarks, with some slight probable they will be the
niet instiu. inents of its diffusion in the ages ! come, and philosophical society latfly established
variations, were originaliy real to aliterary and of ushering in that desirable period on prmciples similar to ihose stated in my when reason shall obtain the dominion last comniunicat.on, of which some account over the grovelling passions and appetites may afterwards be subraitted to your 14of men, and intellectual light shall shed spection,
Mr. Dick's Plans for the Iinprovement [July 1, ters of men on principles purely of a mo courses which are the bane of society ral and intellectual nature. To act and degrading to the human character otherwise would be bencath the dignity To couit association with such, notwithof those who profess to be guided by ra. standing their literary genius, would not tional motives, and whose aims are di reflect much honour on any society. For rected to the improvenient of the mind. in all rational institutions the ameliora
In admitting candidates whose literary tion of the inoral characters and disposicharacter and acquirements are not ge- tions of mankind ought to form as pronerally known, it might not be improper minent an object as the illumination of to require them to write an essay on any their understandings. We lose one of subject with which they are best ac the strongest arguments in favour of ratio quainted, to be presented to the society; onal information where we behold its pose or to submit to the examination of a com sessors, in their moral conduct, babitumittee, either on some general subject, ally degrading themselves to the level of
on that particular departinent of the dregs ví inankind. science or art which they wish chiefly to The next topic on which I shall offer cultivate. Should the result be unfan a few remarks shall be, vourable to the candidate, he might be II. The subjects of discussion, and the directed as to the mode of prosecuring mode of conducting it.-Every subject huis enquiries, and to the books it might which has a toodency to induce a babig he proper for him to peruse; and at the of rational thinking, to elevate and ento end of a year, or other period, he night noble the mind, and to present sublime again be examined with regard to the and interesting objects of contemplation; progress he has inade, by which means every subject which tends to unfold the the society would learn whether his ad- pise arrangements of nature, and the znission would cncrease the mental vi. laws by which the economy of the uni your of the association. With regard to verse is regulated; every subject which persons whose literary qualifications are tends to promote the progress of science, generally known, every dignified and how the practice of the liberal and mechaninourabie means should be used to induce cal arts, and the moral improvement of them to patronise the institution by be- mankind, might occasionally become tocoming members, and contributing by pics of discussion in a society constituted tiveir talents and muence to promote on the principles to which I have already its leading views. Persons of known abi. aliuded. These subjects would embrace lily and lovers of science residing at a prominent parts of natural history, distance might also be respectfully re. geography, astronomy, experimental phiquested to become honorary members, losophy, chemistry, natural theology, and to promote the object of the society ethics, education, arts and manufactures, by occasional communications. Although domestic economy, and similar branches money be an useful article in all societies, of knowledge. It would be expedient, yet I would deem it inexpedient, and un- for different reasons, to exclude minute worthy of the dignity of a rational insti- discussions on politics and revealed relitution, to solicit any individuais not gion, as they might lead to those jars and otherwise qualified to become members, contentions which have unhappily takeni chiefy with a view of their contributing place between politicians and divines. to the pecuniary interests of the associa: At the same time I would not consider rion. Such persons would not only be a certain general topics connected with redead weight on the society, but by the ligion and politics, such for example as ondue influence they would have might the general principles of legislation, the tend to impede its progress, and prevent causes of the wealth of nations, the na: its chiet design from being accomplished. ture of the Supreme Being, the immorta
Besides their literary acquirements, the lity of the soul, and similar topics, as bea moral qualifications of those who desire yond the province of a literary society; as admission into the society ought not to such subjects may be discussed in a pbihe altogether overlooked. Knowledge losophical manner, without interfering is chiefly desirable in proportion as it is with those local and temporary disputes useful. If it does not lead its possessor and peculiarities of opinion which suba to propriety of moral conduct, its utility, sist in the church or in the state." at least to hiir, may be much questioned. In the discussion of subjects there are "There have been some men of genius (I four different modes which might be oce hope their nuniber is small) who have, casionally used. The first mode to which thrown disgrace on science by their ha. I allude is that of public lectures. This bitual indulgence in those immoral is the most common, and perhaps one of
the best methods of explaining and illus- ought to consider such hints as so much trating any particular subject, more new and useful information, by the help especially when experiments or diagrams of which he may be enabled to render are necessary to elucidate the doctrines his fulure compositions more correct, delivered. A lecture delivered once Were any one disposed to despise such every month, or oftener, as may be judged friendly hints I would despair of his fue expedient, by a person qualified to un ture progress in knowledge; for to be dertake the task, on some interesting convinced of our ignorance and mistakes subject of natural bistory, chemistry, or is the first step to our future improveexperimental philosophy, might be ato In order to make a respectable tended with a good elfcct. But as a figure as writers of essays, par considerable degree of general informa- aitention should be given to the arts of tion, of judgment, of mental labour, and grammar and composition; and exercises of taleni for composition, are requisite in and instructions on these subjects might order to make a respectable appearance as occasionally form a part of the business a lecturer, the person or persons employ- of the society. For as language is the ed ought to have a suitable compensa- medium by which we communicate our tion for their trouble. In order to raise thoughts, we cannot do so with perspi. a sum for this purpose, persons not mem- cuity and energy unless we pay some ate bers of the society might be invited to tention to the study of words and their attend on the condition of paying a small various combinations. An essay embocontribution; the members at the same dying a number of good thoughts, if it time contributing a little, though in a abounds with errors of grammar, coarse smaller proportion. One special advan. and obsolete phrases, perplexed sene tage attending this mode of instruction is, tences, and confused arrangement, will that a subject can we more fully, metho always produce a very disagreeable ef. dically, and familiarly, explained and il. fect. Such a composition would be unlustrated on this plan than in any other fit for public inspection, even although way. In order to excite attention and it should contain a number of original to stimulate the exercise of the rational views and deductions. As some essays faculty, an examination, of such of the may occasionally be read of which the auditors as chose to submit to it, on the society indy wish to have copies for fu. different particulars detailed in the lec ture inspection, in order to save the ture, might take place either at the cona trouble of the secretary transcribing clusion of the lecture or at some future then, it might be proper to recommend hour; and at the samne time an opportu. that every essay be written on paper of nity offered of stating any difficulties or the same size, so that they might afterobjections which may bave occurred to wards be bound in regular volumes, to be them in order to their solution.
preserved as part of the records of the 2. The next mode which I have in society. In this way the licerary coinview is, that of the most intelligent mem. munications made to the society would be bers composing essays and reading them recorded in the hand-writing of their res to the society. This exercise, while it spective authors, free of those errors might be the means of occasionally com which might be occasioned in their trana municating useful instruction to the so scription by another hand. ciety, would also have a good efect on 3. Another method of discussion might the writers themselves, in exciting them be by Forensic Disputations. In this to arrange their ideas in a regular train, a question is proposed and stated, and op and to express them with propriety, by posite sides of the question are supported which meěns they would gradually ac- by different speakers, the one affirming quire the habit of accurate composition. and the other denying, and producing It would also teach then candour in reasons to support their respective opijudging of the writings of others; for no nions. This method hath its advantages one is fully sensible of the difficulty of and its disadvantages. Its disadvantages writing with perspicuity and correctness are, that persons, in their eagerness to till he himself has made the experiment, support the side they have taken, are For the benefit of young writers it might sometimes apt to contend more for victom be proper, in a candid and friendly man. ry than for truth; and, unless they watch ner, to point out the grammatical blun. over their tempers, are ready to fall into ders, improper phrases, erroneous state a spirit of altercation and ill-humour, ments, or other improprieties, which may and to throw out unhandsome epithets be found in the essay; and the writer against their opponents. Many persons MONTILY MAG, No. 256.
(July 1, too, from their living ably supported a tendency to excite their attention, on a the erroneous side of a question, have future occasion, to the subject. been insensibly led to adopt that opinion; Every one of the above methods of though in the first instance they defendo discussing a subject might be occasionally ed it merely for the sake of argument. used, as each of them has its distinct and And further, when the debate is finished, peculiar, advantages ; and all of them one is frequently at a loss to judge on combined would forin an agreeable va.which side the truth lies.---Its avantages riety in the manner of acquiring and are, that it excites interest and attention, communicating knowledge. J. Dick. exercises the reasoning faculty, and af Dietliven, near Perth, May 21, 1814. fords an opportunity to every member of taking a part in the discussion. It may, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. when properly conducted, suggest urclul information, and throw light on many ob
NE of the criteria of this canting, scure and interesting sulijects. It will evidently have a tendency to teach per. pensity to stuff all ranks and descriptions sons not to be too rash in adopting opi- of people with religious books, on every nions till they have weighed ihe cbjec. occasion, and at every instant of life: to tions which may be brought against them. make those feelings permanent, which As the discovery of truth coght to be the from the constitution of the mind can chief object in all literary debates, in or only be occasional, and to conceive it is der to ensure this ohject it might be pro a sin to desire any amusement from li. per to appoint one or more persons to terary pursuits. In opposition to all sum up the arguments on both sides, af- those Manuals, and Everlasting Rests, and ter the debate is finished, and to endea. Golden Treasures, and Short and Easy vour to balance them, in order to ascer- Methods, with which your correspondent tain on which side the truth seems to lie. has filled his servants' hall and catalogue, In certain cases it will he found that the I beg leave to offer the following modetruth does not lie directly on either side, rate list, which to your correspondent, I but in a middle position between thé have no doubt, will appear the consuin
A vote of the whole so mation of all wickedness and folly. ciety might also be taken to indicate the
Scrvants' Hall Library. opinion on what side of the question truth Robinson Crusoe.---Goldsmith's Abridg. seems to take its station).
ment of the History of England.--Vicar of 4. The last mode of discussion I shall Wakefield.-Paley's Sermons.--History of mention is the determining of a question Man.--Abridgment of Cook's Voyages.
Remarkable Shipwrecks.- Whole Duty of by an induction of facts or reasons, in ore der to illustrate a particular subject, or, Merton. -- Blair's Sermons. — Dilworth's
Bishop Wilson's Sermons.-Sandford and in other words, by an enquiry into causes Arithmetic. - Glass's Cookery. — Anson's and effects. My meaning on this head Voyages.-Langton's Acconnt of Servants will be best apprehended by a few exam who have been Executed at Tyburn, &c. ples. Suppose such questions proposed This library list is practicable-legible as the following :- What are the diffe- -ningles amusement with instruction, rent causes which operate in the produce and would not be so soon torn up for tion of rain? What are the best means lighting candles, as that of your April of protection from the stroke of lightning? correspondent; and this last circumTo what various uses in human life may stance should not be neglected in the the late discoveries respecting the gases formation of servants' libraries, z. be applied ? In what manner may philosophical enquiries be most successfully To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. prosecuted? What are the best means SIR, of diffusing knowledge, and promoting HE
peace, of which an account is given regard to such questions every member beneath, will, I am sure, strike your who had previously studied the particular readers as one of the most extraordinary subject, to which the question refers, things ever exhibited in England, when I might suggest whatever occurs to him as add, that it was in great measure planned tending to elucidate the subject, and to and conducted by a committee of tradesdetermine the enquiry; and in this way men), aided by the peasantry of the pa. the joint contributions of the whole so rishes concerned; but no person unacciety might throw much light on an inte- quainted with the peculiar beauty of the resting question, or at least it would have situation of Exmouth, and the almost
the moral improvement of mankind'? Tee oeuth festival, to celebrate
Italian clearness of the atmosphere, can War being represented by a fine martial fi. formn an adequate idea of a spectacle gure dressed as Mars, and crowned with which I could wish to see recorded in laurel, surmounted by sable plumes, a poyour excellent and widely circulated Ma.
lished steel corslet, a crimson mantle, his gazine.
sword sheathed and ornaniented with lanExmouth, May 23, 1814.
rel.-Peace being represented by a re. markably mild and modest laking young
lroman clothed in white embroidereri with AMONG the various public rejoicings clive-leaves; a white cross helt, with the for the glorious peace with whicii, by a words “ Welcome Peace,” in gold letters, combination of wonderful events, it has a silver diadein wreathed with olive; in one pleased a merciful and over-ruling Provi: hand a basket, containing a dove surrounddence to reward this land for its long and ed with hearts-ease, in the other the chain of steady perseverance in well doing, few Mars.- Justice being represented by a fine perhaps will exceed in beauty, decorum, young womail clotlied in white, embroirational enjoyment, genuine festivity, and dered with ever-green oak, (thé emblem classical taste, that which was exhibited
of fortitude as well as peace,) a crown of at Exmouth on the 1916 instant. At six gold on her licad, a white cross-belt with in the morning the hells rang, and the
the words “ Follow Justice,” in gold letwhole town was decorated with colours icks, goklen scales in die land, and tlic
chain of Niars in the other. * of all nations, interspersed with laurel
Ceres, accompanied by Flora, sheplerds, and ever-green oak; at eight a royal sa
and shepherdesses.-Ceres being adorned lute was fired; and at ten a magnificent with a yellow mantle, embroidered with procession, consisting of above a thousand
ever-green oak, a diadem of gold, and a people, all in elegant and strictly appro. chaplet of ripe corn on her head; a sickle priate dresses, moved from the Globe in one hand, and a basket of corn and fruit Hotel to the Beacon Hill; thence to Mara in the other.-Flora being clad in white, pool Hall, the seat of T. W. Hull, esq.
and adorned with a broad cross-belt of where they were regaled most hand beautiful flowers, a mantle bordered with somely; and thence to a spacious and flowers, a chaplet of flowers on her head, charmingly situated lawn at the mouth and a large basket-full in her hand.
Au ancient triumphal car, (adorned with of the Exe, where a plentiful and excel
ever-green oak, white and red roses, and lent dinner was prepared by the masters of the Globe and London Hotels; and it abreast,) containing Mercury, God of
the fleur-de-lys, and drawn by four horses is supposed that the number of persons Peace, Commerce, and Wealthi
, as Chariowho sat down to partake of it, in an im- teer, clothed in a white close dress, a white mense ring, exceeded four thousand. satin cap, with wings, wings attached to his The decorations of the dinner were par. heels, and the caduceus in his hand.--Nepticularly tasteful; and the order pre- tiine clothed in green, embroidered with served throughout the whole day was asto
shells and sea-weed; a crown of sea-green nishing.
foil on his head, and the trident in his Procession.
hand.-Britannia, (the mistress of the car,) Fourteen little girls in white, adorned clothed in white, elegantly embroidered with chaplets of ever-green oak, blue and with ever-green oak, &c.; a gold cestus; a white cockades, &c.; strewing flowers.
gold helmet wreathed with olive; the shiel! A sailor and a soldier, bearing palm- of the red-cross knights in one hand, and branches, the emblems of conquest and her spear in the other.-Twelve Trilonis peace.
surrounding the car; and another Triton, Ditto, with branches of ever-green oak, with the conch, as Neptune's herald. the British enblem of peace.
The Earl Marshal, appointed by NepFour men with implements of husbandry ;
tune to conduct the ceremonies of the day, viz. the plonghi, seed-butt, fail, and pru
dressed in an appropriate manner, and ning-look.
mounted on a fine white horse. An aid-deThe band of the South Devon Local cainp and two heralds on horseback; all Militia.
four of whom changed their situations as the Singers in white, adorned with chaplets ceremonies required. of ever-green oak.
A sea officer and a land officer, bearing * Peace, Justice, and War, were incolours furled, and wreathed with laurel. tended to have been placed in the car of
An ancient triumphal banner, with the the last-named personage, with Death, l'efollowing inscription : “ Glory to God in presented by a youth with an inverter the highest; on earth peace; good-will to- torch, as Charioteer, and the Dogs of War, ward men.”
in chains, preceding the car; but the subOther emblematical banyers.
scription for the festival was inadequate to War chained by P'cace and Justice.- this auditional expence,