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Museum of French Monuments. (July 1, ogee, are adorned with painted glass of Louis is dead--we have lost our far the earliest age of the invention,
ther!" The hall of the fourteenth cen:ury ex We now arrive at the era when the hibits the slender and suinptuous archie fine arts flourished in France. On entecture of th: Arabs, introduced into tering the receptacle for the chefs-d'oeuvre France subsequent to the crusades. The of this period, the amateur feels his kings who successively reigned in this breast inflained with entiiysiastic joy. century, down to King Jolin, are here He will first admire the five toın b which sculptured in their proper costume, and was raised to the memory of the res!orer recimbent on a stylobatus studded with of learning and the arts. the conqueror of fleurs de lys I wenty-two) cavalitrs Cerigoles, Francis I. Next conies that mounted upon lions, arınéa cap au pied, of the celebrated female, who knew at represented of the natural size and co once how to govern the state and to reign Joured, filierl the ogive viches, which are over the sovereigo's affections_Diana of enriched with mosaics, variegated with Poitiers surely will not pass without the gilding and red and blue. The tombs of tribute of a sigh. The fine groupe of Charles V. si named the Wise, of the the Graces, and that which represents good constabie Duguesclin, and that of Diana and her dogs, with Procion and Šancire, his friend, are elevated in the Syrius, sculptured by Jean Gougeon, the cenue of this hall, which exbibits to the French Phidias, will alternately fix the eye ail the magnificence of an eastern admiration of the connoisseur. The miisque.
tomb of Gougeon, composed of his own Hiw striking is the contrast presented works, and raised by public gratitude to on entering upon the fifteenth century! his memory, is doubtless an image Arabesque columns, and mouldings which is his due. If ihe artist will atcharged with gilding; sculpture slightly tentively examine that fine portion, built raised upon blue and violet grounds, ini. by Philibert de Lorme, on the banks of tat.ng cameos, china, or enamel-every the Eure, for Diana of Poitiers, come thing' astonishes, and concurs in recall- posed of three orders of architecture, ing the first era of the revival of the arts mounted on each other in regular grain Europe. The ideas of the amateur dations, and sixty feet in dieight, he will. will dilaie in this brilliant receptacle, be astonished to learn that this beautiful which will prepare him for the gratifi- monument, constructed at Anet, twenty cation be is about to seel at the sight of leagues from Paris, was safely transported the one monuments which the illustrious and re-constructed in this museum, by age of Francis I. produced. The mo M. Lenoir. numents of the fifteenth century are On quitting this apartment, which conmore inposing from their volume, the tains all the chefs-d'euvre for which we malier of which they are composed, and are indebted to the genius and taste of the personages which they represent, Francis I. we read on the pediments than those of the preceding century. In over the gates of the next repository, the latter, architecture predominates over 6 State of the arts in the seventeenth sculpture; in the former, by a contrary century." What a crowd of celebrated effect, sculpture and ornainent throw men does this temple, dedicated to virarchitecture into the shade. In the first tue, courage, and talent, contain! Here place we see the inausoleums of Louis of Ju see the monuments of Turenne, Orleans, the viction of the faction of the Montansier, Colbert, Moliere, Corneille, Duke of Burgundy, and that of the poet, Lafontaine, Racine, Fenelon, and Boie Charles his brother. Afterwards come leau. The great Louis XIV. placed in those of René d'Orleans, grandson of the middle, becomes still greater sa the intrepid Dunois, and Philip de Co vear these immortal sons of genius : farmines, celebrated as the author of His- ther off you see the statue of Richelieu, torical Memoirs of Louis XI, whose reposing in the arms of Wisdom; and that statųe faces that of Charles VII. his son.
of Mazarine, in a suppliant posture;That of Joan of Arc also figures in this Louis XIII. sir-named the Jast, not sa hall near Isabeau of Bavaria.
great as his illustrious subject De Thou, perh tomb of Louis XII. placed in the casts down his eyes in the presence of inidst of this apartinent, presents a grand his ministers. The mausoleum of Charles magnificence; and his recombent state, the Brown, of Sully, and of Jerome Bigwhich represents him dying, recalls the non, the honour, the love, and the exa melanchoiy moment when the French ample, terminate the series of monupeople explained, in following his re ments of this epoch, still more remarkable mains to Saint Deniş: “Our good King for its scholars than its artists,
Lastly: we admire in the eighteenth libraries, the property of which is vested eentury the statues of Voltaire, Crebilin the subscribers. I have no doubt but lon, Rousseau, Piron, &c. while the the establishment of such societies would tombs of the learned Maupertuis, Cav- be extremely rapid, were the mrt cone lus, ana Marechal d'Ilarcouri, give a venient method known of uniting gena perfect idea of the state of degradation tlemen in their forcation. I bey leave into which ine art of design bad fallen at to offer to Mr. Dick, and your other the commencement of this century: but readers, the following, by which the the new productions which decorate the general subscription library at G cenuck, extreinity of this spacious hall, are sufsi in the west of Sc tland, was begun, cient to prove to us the rapid strides to Two or three gendlemer of that town wards perfection, which Vien and David had found in many of their friends in have made.
each sex, a general complaint against How affecting must be the emotions “the trash in circulating libraries," and of a susceptible mind, at the sight of the a wish for such an establishment as a gefine monumerit by Michallun, which was neral subscription library, proposing that erected to the memory of the most in, they would immediately transfer iheir genious and diniable. artist, the younger subscriptions from the common libraries Drouais, who died at the age of twenty. of the town), and even increase tliem, four, after having best pictures which provided they could get books of real are chefs-d'oeuvre! The fine statue of knowledge and utility to read, which the young Cyparis.es, by Chaudet, one should also be the property of the subo of the first contemporary French sculp- scribers. Finding such a spirit, these gens tors, will recal the manly and elegant tlemen put up written notices at the forms of the fine Grecian Bacchus, which booksellers shops, cofiee bouses, prindecorates the peristyle of the introduc- cipal inns, &c. requesting a meeting of tory saloon.-Thus the amateur and the the friends of such a plan, at one of the student will find in this museum, a regular principal hotels of the place. At inis chronology of ancient and modern mo. meeting, ruies were proposed which met numents, beginning with those of ancient its general concurrence; and I believe Greece 2500 years before our era, and many of the gentleinen offered the use proceeding to those of the Romans, the of their private libraries to the society, Roman empire, the Gauls, and, finally, the until their own public one had goc the French monarchy; he will be able, in first or second order for its books accom short, to trace all the gradations of the plished. Subscriptions were inmediately arts from their cradle to their decre- opened, and it was also agreed to, that pitude.
for a certain time, pernaps the first six An immense Elyseum terminates the months, every one who approved of the range of this proud establisiment: here plan, and could pay a guinea per year, repose, amidst rows of cypress and pope (the amount of the annual subscription) lar, the ashes of the illustrious French should become a member without the poets, Muliere, Lafontaine, Boileau, formality of a ballot. A committee was Descartes, Mabillon, and Alonetaucon: formed from amongst the subscribers at shut up in their sarcıp'ayi, and resting ihis first meeting, and a room was ordered on the verdant carpet of nature, they to be prepared to contain their books. still receive tbe bomage which is due to Thus, Sir, was the Greenock subscription their virtues and their talents.
library estabiished. It is now six years
since the books they had pricured, were To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. too bumerous for their first room; a plan SIR,
was then in agitation amongst the memAN any of your correspondents bers, to build by way of tontine, in small
oblige ine by describing th: process shares, a respectable house for their betnsed in the preparation of Russia leather, ter accommodation in an eligible part of or at least the particular article which the town, and to let the under aparta gives it the peculiar perfume it possesses? ments either ware-rooms, shops, May 1, 1814.
B. S. compting-houses, or whatever might be
thoughit most respectable or most useTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ful, according to the situation which they SIP,
purchased, and consequently most advanN a late number of your very ex. iageous. In this part of their plan, I una
cellent Magazine, you bare inserted derstand, the money receivers for the a letter froin Mr. Dick, of Methren, reits of the apartinents which are let, Perthshire, on the formation of provincial pays the interest of ubat was expended
Mr. Squire on perpendicular Reflections. [July 1, on the building, by whic: means their consideration, and entered pretty fully own excellent accommodations are rent. into the subject; but the editor of the free. Amongst their regulations, I had Gent, Magazine, for reasons best known peculiar pleasure in observing one, by to binseli, never published it. * I thought which they admit, with the same facility no more of the subject for some years, as their own subscribers, any gentleman till one day looking over some numbers or lady who may visit the town, and can of that work, I accidentally met with prove that they are subscribers to a si. Mr. Ross's first letter on reflection ; înilar institution. The liberality of such it directly struck me that the matter a plan is particularly obvious—its ad. then under discussion had not been quite vantages I shall make the subject of an satisfactorily cleared up; and wishing to early paper.
see something more on the subject, I To those gentlemen who, by a very was induced to send an extract of that trifling exertion, might establish very use lett-r to the Monthly Magazine, (as being ful libraries in those towns (and even the most scientific publication of the villages) where there are none yer, I kind,) in hopes that some of the correwould hold out the effects and the success spondents to that work would favour the of these two or three active friends of in- public with their remarks. I trust my forniation at Greenock, and add, in the opponent will be satisfied with this explaimpressive words of our great mural nation, teacher-GO YE AND DO LIKEWISE.
I shall now proceed to the principal ALCUIN. object of my letter, which is to prove,
that all perpendicular objects are reflected To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. perpendicularly, bo: h in nature and in SIR,
the picture, in every situation of the eye ; THE THE controversy between Mr. Ross and that the eye is not the vanishing point
and myself on the subject of re- of reflection. flection on water, having been again re As it is rather difficult to exhibit the vived, and as he does not appear quite necessary planes upon paper, so as to satisfied with my reply to his first letter, make the delineations perfectly intelligi. I niust beg you will have the goodness to ble to the generality of readers, I shall indulge me with a place in your valuable endeavour to elucidate the subject by a Magazine for some further remarks on very simple experiment. Take a plane the subject.
reflecting body, for instance a common Whoever takes the trouble of reading mirror, and place it horizontally, this will the whole controversy between us, will be the geometrical plane; along the fuse see that Mr. Ross's violent attack, in his ther edge of the mirror set up three pera two last letters, upon my reply to his first pendicular objects, at a little distance letter, vol. 72, page 902, of the Gent. from each other, then at some distance Magazine, is not in fact so much against from the objects place a pane of clear the manner of expression as against the glass, perpendicular to the face of the matter of that paper'; he allows it to mirror, and opposite to the objects, this contain, as far as it goes, scientific truths; will be the perspective plane or picture. and by his mistatements and indecisive Behind this plane, and opposite to the inanner of expression he tacitig acknow- middle object, fix a perforated piece of ledges that what he has advanced on re- metal, and at such an altitude above the Rections will not stand the test of de geometrical plane, as that the eye placed monstration, and the experience of every at the hole inay see the objects and their glay's observation.
reflections through the perspective plane. But before I proceed to the main ob Thiugs being thus arranged, and the ject of this letter, I must beg to correct eye placed at the point of view, or at the Mr. Ross in one or two particulars : he hole in the metal, it will be seen that says, “ If he had any thing further to say, the objects both on the right hand and why did he not answer my second paper, on the left will have their reflections (as and fight the battle out at the time? The answer is obvious he could not. But * At page 1128, of the next subsequent I may intorm Mr. Ross, that I did reply second letter on reflection, there is the fol:
Magazine to the one containing Mr. Ross's to that paper immediately; and in such
lowing remark: “To our controversial a manner, I trust, as would have con correspondents we strongly recommend vinced the most common reader of the brevity and moderation. One intemperate truth of my remarks. I gave a delinea- word, we universally perceive, prodücel gion of the differeut planes, &c. under twenty in reply."
well as the one directly before the eye,) To the Editor of the Monthly ifagazine. all perpendicular to the horizon or re SIR, flecting plane. The eye continuing fixe
T. .ed, with a pen or pencil trace the objects
THE enclosed are my annual results
of the weather for the past year, upon the pane of glass as they there ap- Should you deem them worthy a place in pear to the eye, and thus you will have a your Magazine, you will oblige me by intrue picture or perspective of the objects serting them therein. and their reflections. And as each object
THOMAS HANSON. and its reflection are in the same plane, and perpendicular to the horizon, the in- Meteorological Results of the Pressure tersections of their respective vertical and Temperature, deduced from Diure planes, with the plane of the picture, nal Observations made at Munchester will be also similar, and perpendicular to in the Year 1813 ; by Mr. Thomas the horizon, whatever be the horizontal Hanson, surgeon.
Lat. 53o.25' Norih, bearings of the objects to the eye. If Long. 29.10' West of London. you change the place of the eye there January.--The commencement of this will certainly be a new picture, but whilst period was nuld, cloudy, and humid, the the objects continue perpendicular to the wind being for the most part south; rain reflecting surface, or the borizon, (as in a fell in six instances, at intervals, to the piece of still water,) the representations of 13th; when there was a slight fall of the reflections, as well as those of the obe snow for the first time;- an easterly jects, will be perpendicular to the horizon, wind, diminished tempera:ure, and dry whatever be the situation of the eye. atmosphere, were now the leading occurAnd this Mr. Ross will instantly perceive rences to the end ;-the minimum temif he is not wilfully blind.
perature of 22° was on the night of the The objects and the reflecting plane 25th. remaining the saine, Mr. Ross will find February was decidedly a that in whatever direction he moves his month, as was attended for the most eye, the reflections, like the objects, will part with a south and southwest wind, be perpendicular to the horizon, both in but which blew very strong: 10 éve days nature and in the picture.
hurricanes occurred; they blew chiefly If the objects incline to the horizon, from the south-west quarter, and were ator reflecting surface, the reflections will tended with frequent showers of rain.“ also incline the horizon or reflecting on the 13th there was a fairt lunar balo; surface, and be subject to the same laws and on the 23i1 boar frost. of perspective as their originals. For Niarch. The first ten days were mild every point of the object will have its and warm, with a few showers of rain; reflection in the same vertical plane, ow, but the temperature experienced a suding to the angle of incidence and reflec- den depression on the i2ch; this arose tion being in the same plane, and per. from a change of wind from west to pendicular to the reflecting surface, norih, but its continuance in thiae quara Hence it is manifest that rcficctions oberter was of short duration : for the monthserve the same laws, both in nature ly maximum was on the 18th, heing an and in the picture, as the objects that augmentation of 31°-Rain, with slight produce thein, and that the vanishing showers of snow, closed the month.point of reflections, like all lines in per. Wind south and west on nineteen days, spective, vanish in infinity.
its strengti never reached a hurricane, If the “hjects are not parallel to the Upon the whole the weather was favourperspective plane, they bave 2 vanishing able to vegetation. point in the picture, and so have their re April was ushered in with a low prese Sections; and the latter, if truly deli- sure and temperature; the latter shewed neated on that plane, will tend to the its monthly minimum on the 4th; previa accidental point, like all other real ob- ous to which there were several showers jects in nature when referred to the per- of snow, hail, and peals of thunder; spective plane.
which were succeeded by a quick ang. As Mr. Ross appears in his last two mentation oftemperature, as well as a grac letters to suspect the truth of his own hy- dual one of pressure. On the 10th thie pothesis, I shall feel gratified if the above weather became so serene, warın, and remarks afford him any assistance in ar- brilliant, that the thermometer indicated riving to a more accurate and scientific a suinimer's heat, being as high as 60®, conclusion, on a subject so interesting to which was an increase since the 4th of the picturesque artist. T. SQUIRE. 37°;-vegetation of course made a rapid Epping, May 10, 1814.
progress, but being log carly a check
506 Mr. Hanson's Meteorological Journal for 1813. [July 1, might be expected; accordingly the last September.—The weather for the first ten days were marked with frequent fiiieen days was very gloomy, cloudy showers of snow and hi'l, and boisterous and wet, with an unsealed state of temnorth and north east winds, which did perature. In ahout sixty hours, viz. from great damage to vegetation, particularly the 7th to the 10th, there was a loss of to tender buds, and foliage in exposed 27% of temperature, when it became situations. Blossoms of fruit-trets, &c. more settled; with a brilliant serene atwere never known to be more promising, mosphere and a high harcmetrical presbut the severity of temperature, and hail sure, which continued to the end. storms, but particularly at the strong
Octobcr.-On the fourth, the tempes east winds, almost stripperi them of their ra!ure was at the monthly maximum, beauty.
when rain fe! very copiously; the tema Nay.--Although there was a gradual perature non continned to descend to increase of heat, from the commence the 18th, when freezing was observed ment of this period, yet the prevailing the first time ihis season. The heat soon easterly winds had not crased to be des after rose, and the weather to the end structive till about the seven, when the was fine and dry, with the exception of weather became more mild, and nailire the two last days.-Prevailing winds, Beemed once more eager to repair the south-west, injury done to trees and vegetation. November. The most prominent ram Rain about this time was much warited, riation in this month was, the vibratory as the fall in the two preceding months impuls given to the atmospherical preshad scarcely exceeded two inches in sure during the first half of the month; depth -- From the seventh to the i wenty. indeed a similar occurrence took place sixth, rain fell daily, with the exception at the same time with the temperature. of the twelfth, sometimes in very heavy The weather upon the whole was mild and long continued showers, and in four for the season, as the temperature was instances with thunder and lightuing. very seldom vider freezing.-Rain fell On the 21th, a hail shower:--this period copiously from the 8th to the 18ih.-No was generally favourable to the produes hail was noticed, aligi there was only one tions of the earth.
appearance of socw. June. In two instances tie diurnal December - Was decidedly gloomy, temperature was lowered to 50°; tne first cloudy, and rainy; but not so cold as is was on the sixth, and was in consequence usually the case at this time of the year; of an easterly wind; the latter was on except the few last days, the nightly the 19th, and which was immediately state of temperature, (in consequence of preceded by six days of almost incessant a continuance of a gentle north wind); but gentle showers of rain. On the 13th, was lowered upon three instances, eight a shower of hail. This month ass frea degrees under fietzing. queritiy inarked with brilliant days, wliich, The annual barometrical pressure for with the rain, were very seasonable, the past year, is 29,900 inches; the maxe
July.-Was remarkable for much iin'im of 30,75 occurred twice, viz. on thunder and lightning, interspersed with the 22d of January, and the 26th of Deshowers of rain, and in two distances ceber --The minimum of 28,24 inches, hail..On the 30ih, aíter a high but de was on the 17th of October; the range of fultony state of temperature, !here was a the two extremes of course will be 2,51 sudden augmentaiion of $20, being as inches.---The greatestvariation in twentyhigh as 83° :--сhe monthly miodum of four hours for the whole year, was on the 44° occurred on the third, being a dif- 14th of November, being 1,55 inches. ference of 39o.
The inean annual temperature is August.--The first twelve davs of Au- 480,68, being half a degree more than gust ivere cloudy and rainy, which had the annual temperature oi 1812; the. the effect of lowering the iemperature; maximuin was on the Soth of July, and for on the 24th, the minimum was as low the minimum on the 26th of January; the as 43° --The force of evaporation obeys difference of the two extremes, svilt the vicissitudes of temperature; in the make a range of 61o. Greatest variation present instance, the monthly quantity is in 5: unty-four hours was 28°, which ocfour-tenths of an inch less than the eva. curred on the 14th of April. T'he mean poration for July. Neither thunder, temperature of ihe six summer months is lightning, nor hail, occurred; and there' 56°, 28, and for winter 41°04. were few changes of atmospherical pres
The annual fall of rain, snow, hail. sure, but the two principal once com. &c. is near $5 inches in depth; Mr. manded great ranges.
George Walker's account of rain, is two