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in 1810, on a chapter in Dr. Smith's tuous, because his triumphal car was Wealth of Nations, entitled, “How the drawn by four horses; and to this day we Comerce of the Towns is beneficial to should attach something more than via the Country." After lamenting that a nity to the man who was drawn by eight. subject so calculated to have called forth Carriages and servants, any person is at the vast capacity of the Dr.'s should have liberty to keep in as great number as lie obtained so little of his attention, and thinks fit; but he is expected to limit the in some degree attempting to supply number of horses that draw hima the deficiency, I remarked, that the deference, I believe, paid to the horse on people of England, more than any other account of the great service of that anion the globe, lived in towns, and that mal in war, Ancient poetry is full of more of the means of subsistence was beautiful descriptions of the horse preconsumed here, than in any other nation pared for battle : but as men became enof equal population; that the wealth lightened, the horse lost his trappings, arising from commerce had occasioned and was made to labour and feed with an increasing consumption of the pro. the ox; and now, in this country at least, duce of the land, and that it was desire the use of the ox is almost, though unable that some means should be devised wisely, superseded. As the ox was habi. for lessening it; and that no ineans ap- tuated to labour before the ingenuity of peared to me of equal magnitude with man was assisted by science, the implethat of lessening the labour, and con ments made use of inust necessarily bave sequently reducing the consumption been rude; but it is inexplicably singular, made by horses.

that the carts first invented have never Anxious that the town in which I re. been improved upon, or adapted to mo. side should have the credit of undertak. dern purposes. "Elevate the sledge on ing so important a national measure, I which the Indians of America draw home have deferred the publication of this the gaine they have killed, make the paper; but now that the design is about wheels larger, and the common cart is to be put in execution on a large scale, nearly complete. Cæsar speaks with apI have no longer a motive for withboldiný probation of the tumbrils of the Gauls, it from the public.

which differ from the cart in nothing but Thomas JARROLD, M.D. in the shafts, which are not fastened to Manchester, June 2, 1814.

the body, but secured by a bolt, which being removed, suffers the body of the

cart to fall back: besides this, I know of Very early in the history of every no mention of any improvement in the country we find an attempt to have been structure of carts; indeed, they were in. made to impose on the brute creation, vented for oxen, and are adapted to the that labour which the wants and civili. slow inotion of that animal; but the horse zation of man gives birth to. The strength loves speed, and should be accustomed to of our own arm is indeed insufficient for a machine suited to his disposition; in the duties we have to perform, and place of which, much attention has been therefore we of necessity apply and dis paid to adapt the horse to the old unrect the strength of domesticated ani. wieldy cart. Great and unwieldy animals mals. In the nations of Asia, which have been sought for, and the breed so were first civilized, oxen were made to much cultivated, that the physical powers labour, oxen drew the ark, oxen trod of the animal have undergone a change; down the corn; and in countries where it can no longer trot or canter; if it can oxen were not known, or were scarce, move forward at the rate of two miles an other animals were domesticated, such hour, it is all that is desired, and all that as the camel in Arabia, and the lama in it can do: for such services the ox is South America. The horse appears in sufficient. But although many horses are the early ages of the world to have been thus inactive, there are a greater number exclusively devoted to war; and as every that retain their natural activity, and for rude and barbarous people attach a high which it is advisable that appropriate degree of importance and dignity to any carriages be constructed. About sixty thing connected with that vile pursuit, years since, a mechanic at West Bromthe horse has been held, in their estima- wich invented and applied springs to cartion, as little less than sacred; and the riages; before that period the gentleman's sentiment has in some measure been coach was in construction a cart. When handed down to the present day. At a it was discovered that the body of the late period in the history of Rome, a coach being placed upon springs, greatly conquering general was thought presump- contributed to the ease of the traveller,

ON ABRIDGING THE LABOUR OF IOPSES.

488

Dr. Jarrold on the Labour of Horses. [July 1, the country ndopted the plan, and car. tion of the plan will occasion in the con. riages on springs became general. All suinption of corn, by the smaller horses travellers are not mathematicians, but eating less than the larger. A third reason many are; and these might have calcu. is the improvement which it will occalated what portion of the power, exerted sion in the personal comforts and moral by the horse, was spent in shaking the habits of the carters, as well as in the passengers in a cart. The proposition safety of travellers; the extreme irksume. may appear ludicrous, yet it is most im ness of altending a cart at the slow rate portant; but a traveller, without the aid at which it moves, the length of time the of mathematics, inight have concluded, attendants are exposed in the most inthat if a horse could draw him in a clement weather, consign the office of carchaise eight miles an hour, with more ter to the very lowest class of the comingease to itself than it could a cart five nity, and confirms their condition. Every miles, it might draw inerchandize with class must have employment, but it is not the same facility; but the idea does desirable that the lowest class should hold not appear to have been entertained: it a conspicuous place, and one in which, is that, therefore, which I now recom. from their drunkenness and incivility, tramend to notice. It is unnecessary to ap- velling is abridged of its safety and pleasure. peal to arguments, because facts are be. Place a man upon a dickey, let the speed fore us; some stage.coaches, drawn by at which he drives be four or five miles four horses, have weighied near four tons; an hour, and a very considerable improvethe weight, on ordinary occasions, is ment will take place in the comfort, and three ions; with this the horses travel six consequently in the character of carters ; or eight miles an bour. The utmost weight the roads will no longer abound with of a broard-wheeled waggon, with eigit carts without drivers, as is the case now, large unwieldy borses, is four tons; if ihe but every man must be at his post. Anohoises could take more, the turnpike ther important advantage arising to the Jaws on most roads fortid it; but expe. community from placing carts upon rience has proved, that half a ton is all springs, will be the improvement which a heavy horse can draw an ordinary must follow in the state of the roads. The stage, on an ordinary road. The very governinent of the country have bestowed ponderous cast-iron boilers, which are very considerable attention on the high often seen upon our roads, are loaded roads of the nation, that the public might upon balks of timber, the elasticity of be accommodated; acts and regulations the timber rendering the labour of the have succeeded each other as circumhorses less, by acting as a spring. With stances called for them; but this legislathis fact, every skilful carter is ac tive attention has wholly been directed quainted; but it will not be denied, that a to the roads and the wheels of the carri. carriage with springs is drawn with less ages-the broader the wheels the less inexertion of strength than one without. jury is supposed to be done the road; and I wish, therefore, to recommend the use in proportion as the wheels have been of springs to general purposes, not only made broader, heavier horses have been in removing the more valuable, but every used to draw them, so that the injury done description of inoveable property, coals, the road has not been much lessened; but sand, in short every thing, and for the when springs shall be generally applied following reasons:--first, the expence is to carriages, the increased velocity with Jess, a heavy waggon horse costs more which they will move, and the assistance money, and eats more corn than a half. the springs will afford in passing over the bred horsc; the average allowance in a irregularities in the surface of the road, waggon horse is four pecks of oats daily, will be so great a relief to the roads, that to a stage-coach horse it is but two, a lessening of the tolls may be antici, and the work done by the coach-borse pated; but the vigilance of government is the greatest; the man also is occu must be shown in adopting the laws to pied less time: for instance, suppose the changes which may be made in the I wish a tou of coals to be taken carriages. ten miles, a man would deem it a

Ancient manners. full day's work with a cart; but the same

No. II. man would drive a carriage upon springs,

VI. NEW YEAR'S GIFTS. so that a very important reduction may exacted from their subjects, those be made in the price of carriage by this nientioned by Matthew Paris of Henry

A second reason, and in my III. deserve note, who in the year 1240 estimatiop by far the most important, is demanded of the citizens of London New the reduction which the general applica. Year's Gifts, and rested not till they had

given

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means.

VII. PIPE AND TABOR.

VIII.

SIGNS,

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given him 20001. See AIS. Cotton. Cleop. July 29, 1665, will show the consterna, F. vi. f. 69.

tion into which the inhabitants of the

metropolis were thrown at this extraorAubrey, in an unpublished work, en. dinary conjuncture. The direction is, titled “ Remains of Gentilisme and Ju This for Mr. John Strype, Student at daisme," says:

Kutren Hull, in Cambridge. “In Herefordshire, and in parts of the “Yesterday your Sister Welsh got ine marches of Wales, the tabor and pipe to go with her to Paternoster-row, where were in his time) exceeding common. I saw not one shop in ten open; also Many beggars beg'd with them: and the Cheapside, a very sad sight: and yec peasants danced to them in the church. that parish is not infected with it, which yard on holy-days and holy-day eves.” is St. Faith's-under-Poules. Most of

them have taken their goods with them Misson, in his “Memoirs and Obser- inco the country. She had the heart to vations,” translated by Mr. Ozell, 8vo. buy herself a new gown, and a good Lond. 1719, says, p. 302:

I wisht her to think of dying; “ By a Decree de Police, the signs at but it seems she had need of it. She Paris must be small, and not too far ad- goes into the country on Wednesday, vanced from the houses. At London Enfield or Barking: I will let you know they are commonly very large, and jutt the next week if I live. As for your out so far, that is some narrow streets going to Woodbridge, your Aunt Colman they touch one another; nay, and run hath been there, and says all the houses cross almost quite to the other side, there are much infected, therefore go They are generally adorned with carving not there. I am sorry to hear the and gilding; and there are several that, plague is so scattered on the road, that with the branches of iron which support no place is hardly free. Mile End is them, cost above a hundred guineas. also the same.

And now They seldom write upon the sign the resign ourselves to the hands of God name of the thing represented in it, so Almighty, who can be a fiery wall about that here is no need of Moliere's inspec We have many nonconforining tor: but this does not at all please the ministers, that preach openly. All go as Germans, and other travelling strangers, they will: for all the bishops are out of because, for want of the things being so the way; and doctors, and the best men named, they have not an opportunity of who are esteemed, are fled. We have learning their names in English, as they sometimes some of these good men that strole along the streets : but of London, exercise in our house." and particularly in villages, the signs of inns are suspended in the middle of a M. Misson in his “ Memoirs and Oh. great wooden portal, which may be looked servations in his Travels in England," upon as a kind of triumphal arch to the translated by Mr. Ozell, 8vo. Lond. honour of Bacchus."

1719, p. 173, says: “ [vstead of lan

terns, they set* up in the streets of It was formerly the custom in England, London, lamps, † whichi, by means of a and other countries, for the bride to keep very thick convex glass, throw out great her chamber three or four days after rays of light, which illuminate the path marriage. This appears from Chaucer's for people that go on foot tolerably well. Merchant's Tale:

They begin to light up these lamps at " And afterward when that he sawe his Michaelmas, and continue them till tyme,

Lady-day; ihey burn from six in the Upriseth Jamary, but the fresh May evening till midnight, and froin every Holdetise her chamber to the fourthe daye, third day after the full moon to the As usage is of wives for the best,

sixth day after the new moon. For ev'ry labour somtymes inote have rest."

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. And again,

SIR, So long hath Maye in her chamber bidden,

N As custom is unto these uobles all,

letter from your respectable corA bride shall not caten in the hall, Till dayes four or thre, att the leaste,

* At every tenth house.

+ Mr. Edmund Heming was ihe inventor Ipassed been, then let her gon to feaste.”

of them about fifteen or sixteen years, X. THE GREAT PLAGUE OF 1665.

ago. (1704.) The following short extract from a

# On each side of the street there is, letter to John Strype, the antiquars, almost all over London, a way better pave from his mother Hester Strype, dated than the rest for foot-passengers.

respondent

XI.

LAMPS.

IX.

BRIDES.

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490

Phenomena of the National Debt. [July 1, respondent Mr. Lofft, on the impolicy of lions of pounds sterling for the sake of a probibiting small-pox inoculation, which round number, how much would it weigh I think may have a tendency to justify an in one pound Bank of England noles, at injurious practice, without any intencion 512 to ihe pound? ju the writer to depreciate the benefits of Answer.--61 tons, 17 hundred weight, vaccination. In matters of opinion, a 2 quarters, and 10 pounds. man, conscientiously following the dic. Q. 2.-If the whole were one pound tates of his own juigment, cannot with Bank of England notes, how large a space propriety lie blamed, or become a sub. would they cover if pasted, or laid as close ject for punishment; unless his opinions to each other as possible ? (at variance with the general sense of d.45164 square miles. public good) should he brought into dan. Q. 3. If the whole were guineas, gerous acuvity. Such appears to be the (each one inch in breadth) and laid in a question at issue. That no law ought to line close to each other, what would be force persons to be inoculated, is readily the extent? admitted; because parental affection may 1.--10,521 miles, 558 yards, 1 foot, & be supposed paramount to all other ob inebes. Jigations. But if security against a most Q. 4.-If the whole were in shillings loathsome and dangerous disease can be (eacis being one inch) how far would procured without hazard of infection, I they extend in length? see no hardship in obliging the practi. A. --290,959 miles, 1048 yards, % tioner to contine himself to the innoxious feet, a inches, which is equal to eight communication; if he be ailowed the test times round the earth, 20,655 miles, of variolous inoculation, should circum 1048 yards, 2 feet, 8 inches over, or stances call for it afterwards. It has nearly nine times the circumference of long been resolved in the town where I the globe. reside, to discontinue small-pox inocu. N.B. The eartlı’s circumference is 25,038 lation, (except gratuitously after vacci: miles. nation, as evidence of security,) and of Q. 5.-If the whole debt were in pencourse I have resisted many applications ny pieces of the thickest sort (each being for that purpose. In one casc, where 1 inch, 1-57th of a bundred part diameuncommon pains were taken to persuade ter) and laid in like manner in a line, the parent without success, the child what would be the extent ? was carried to Norwich, inoculated with

A.--4,162,878 miles, 1386 2-5ths small-pox, and died. This melancholy yards; or, in other words it would extend event in my renienbrance, with nume 17 times the distance between the earth rous instances of deaths from infection, and moon, and go twice round the earth, &c. I think I should deserve to be and five times round the moon bebranded with any opprobrium), if I con. sides!! ţinued a practice at all times hazardous, N.B. Moon's distance, 240,000 miles. and sometimes fatal; when a discovery, Q. 6. What would the whole weight one of the greatest in our own times, ba's amount to in gold? also in silver and enabled us to obtain an antidote, with copper? out the smallest risque of either the A.--14,981,273 1.3 pounds in gold; health, or the life of the patient.

S25,306,451 2. 3ds pounds in silver, troy If medical men, who' by their office weight; and 4,687,500 tons in copper and employment inay be considered as (penny pieces, 16 to a pound), avoirduthe guardians of the general health, stea- poise. dily agree in opposing the unreasonable Q. 7.—How many soldiers' knapsacks importunities of their patierts, we should would they load, allowing 40 pounds to have no occasion for any restrictive law; each man? but as that universal adoption can hardly 4.-374,531, if in gold ; 5,645,462, if be expecied without sunie public aci, 1 in silver ; and 202,500,000, in copper. should urge the propriety of such a mea Q. 8.-Ilow far would they extend in sure upon every principle of humanity marching at three yards distance from and good policy. Salus populi suprema each other? lex.

W. CROWF001. d.-It carrying gold, 638 miles, 716 Beccles, Suffolk, Aluy 10, 1814. yards; if silver, 9028 miles, 227 yards; if

copper, 446,4-13 miles,. 419 yards; or For the Monthly Magazine. nearly 10 times round the globe. The NATIONAL DEBT ILLUSTRATED. Q.9.-How many carts would they UESTION 1.-Assuming the unre. load, allowing 2000 pounds weight to deenied national debt at 700 mil. each? 3

A.7491

a12

4.-7491 with gold; the last cart gan to get rid of care, I should devote carries only 1273 pounds ; 112,904 with every night or evenilig to writing to you. silver; the last carries only 451 pounds; I am quite sensible of the friendship and 5,250,000 with copper.

wbich you evince for me by such request; Q. 10.-Iluw far would these carts ex and am also aware that news from the tend, allowing 20 yards to each? country to a M.P. who is compelled by

A.-Those carrying gold would extend his mercantile transactions to reside dua 90 miles, 1420 yards; if carrying silver, ring the recess of parliament in London, 1283 miles; if copper, 59, 602 iniles, 480 are always highly acceptable: but really yards---equal to twice round the globe, you must not expect this kind of plodding. and 9526 miles, 480 yards over.

A diurnai letter upon Q. 11.—How many ships would this What's o'clock, or how's the wind, debt load at 500 tons of copper each?

Whose coach is that we left behind; d. It would load 9375 vessels. The cannot, even if written from the Lakes tonnage of commercial vessels and the or the Glacieres of Switzerland, be supernavy of Britain, is estimated at about latively inviting : forgive me, therefore, 2,300,000 tons; hence this quantity of if I give up, at any rate, such forinality; copper would load the WHOLE TWICE and unless we pass through a very extraand upwards,

ordinary and uncommon country indeed, Q. 12.--Ilow long time svould it re I dare say I shall glean here and there a quire to count this sum, at the rate of scrap or two of amusement for you; and 100 per minute, allowing 12 hours each if I do not it must be of course my own day, (Sundays included) in guineas, shil. fault. At least se Sterne says, and for lings, and penny pieces?

such fault you will please to let your pity --In guineas it would require 27 and compassion be exerted; for I years, 6 months, 2 weeks, 5 days, o bours, willing to anticipate the worst, and pres OL minutes, to count it over; in shillingi, pare you accordingly. 578 years, 8 monilis, 2 wecks, 3 days, o I have just returned from a stroll over hours, 192 minutes ; in penny pieces, and about this ancient city, and can asa 6944 years, 7 months, 2 weeks, 2 days, sure you that love felt highly gratified 4 hours. So ihat if the irork bai bien by the improvements which have been begun at the creation of the world, and made during the last twenty years:--continued to the present time, it would streets opened-decayed houses pulleri still be 1132 years short of its comple- down-- extensiie dockiyaa fluiting river tion !

--iron bridges---beautiful crescents and Q. 13.- What is the aimount of the in. veat squares; I speak of Bristol, Clifton, terest of this debt at 31 per cent, and and the llotwc!ls, as a whoie. I am inta what is the proportion to each initiria clined to think, notwithstanding, that dual in Britain, 'the population to be Bristol has by no means increased in sastated at 12 millions of persons?

lubrity by the Jamming of the river. The A. ---Interest 24,500,000l. per annun. public here have very much complained, -Individual proportion 21. 03. 10d. not I believe without reason; but it in

Q. 14.--Assuming the families of Great often happens that popular clamoor is Britain at 2 millions, of six souls earh, erronenus; and the powers that are, I how much is the proportion of debt to biliere, generally make it a point never each family?

in listen to it; and so the poor Briston A-3501.

lians inust be content to see the stagnant

water for the sake of the grandeur of the For the Monthly Magazine. undertaking--the utiliiy to the shipping SKETCHES in u TOUR from BRISTOL to interest, and I know not what diana

the VALLEY Of ROCES, during the tages besides, just peeping over the disa MONTH Of AUGUST,

in a SERIES

tant hills of hope. of LETTERS; Y ROBERT WILLIAMS.

The cathedral I have visited; the mo. LETTER I.

nument in Sterne's Elza is a striking olie Bristol, August 1, 1613. jeci, as you enter it, 10 the right. That My dear Friend,

to the 11!enory of Mrs. Mason attracted E set off to-morrow for the west. que of course; the inscription on it I have when I left London: I fear however that read it can avoid feeling time force of the my scrolls will tire you.

If you had re- poctic images which it contains, is flected, I do not think you could have de- troly worthy of the author of Ciracastle sired that, as soon as my pecuniary trans- The College-yrien is the ones con 1:$ actions in Bristol were finished, and I ben Bristol whicha lints displ.a:ed mc; :-: *01! y

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