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302
Public Affairs in April.

[May 1, rangement of the future government of bly have been spared from cruel or ignoFrance, as such an establishment of the minious deaths, and twenty-four years of affairs of that great and enlightened public calamity might have been precountry, as the friends of liberty in En vented to Europe and America, if a sigland have always contended for, in ope milar spirit had actuated the confederacy position to the declarations and prac. against France in 1791. Such a contices of its enemies. How it happened stitution as that now adopted was all that that an Autocrat of all the Russias was wished by Mr. Tox, and the friends became the patron of a free govern- of liberty in England; and, if their prinment, can be elucidated only by more ciples and advice had been respected in correct details of the comparative con- 1792, Europe might have been saved from dition of the contending armies, and of the everlasting stigma of these most dis. the agreements which had been previously graceful and horrible wars. Let us hope, entered into between the leaders of the however, that the lesson will be more senale, Louis the 18th, and the allied so- vseful, because more impressive; and vereigns. But whatever may have led to that the Rulers of nations will know betthis propitious change in the sentiments ter on future occasions, than to confeof the allies, nothing can be more ho- derate for the unhalloned purpose of nourable to the understanding and policy regulating the internal administration of of ALEXANDER, than his noble declara- other countries, or of overawing the exer. tion, that "it was just and wise to gire tions made by any independent people to France strong and liberal instituto to iniprove or ameliorate their con. tions, which may be conformable to the cition! present state of knowledge, and that he This great triumph of principle seems, and his allies cume only to protect the li- bowever, at the moment in which we berty of the senate's decisions.

write, to be almost lost sight of in a supTwenty millions of victims might proba- posed personal triumph over the late

Emperor of France. The objects of the in the presence of two millions of people. In tremendous contest in which Europe has June, 1791, he fled from the 'Thuilleries, been engaged, as well as the special leaving beliind bim a strong protest against grounds of hostility between France and all the proceedings of the national assembly. ile several allied powers, appear to have In September, he however accepted the been forgotten or abandoned. Perhaps, new constitution, and it was put in force. In the winter of that year confederacies of

as it was at length ascertained to be ima the neighbouring powers

practicable to destroy principles by the

were formed against France, and liostilities were com

sword, it was deemed safer, as well menced by members of the Bombon tizmily as easier, to transfer the odium of an ina and others. In 1792, France was invaded terminable war, upon the victorious chamby the Prussians, &c. In June, the king pion of the revolution, than to admit was seized in the Thuilleries, and deposed. that its original principle was unattain-' In September, France was declared a re. able and indefensible. In a dispassionate public. In that winter, various powers of inquiry after truth on these subjects, it Enrope confederated against France, and ought however to be borne in mind, the republican party became desperates that when these wars commenced, Bo. In 1793, the king, queen, &c. were guillo- naparte was yet a student at Brienne, tined. In 1794, Robespierre and his party that the horrors of the revolution had fell. In 1795, the directory was established. In 1796, Bonaparte began his nearly passed away before he appeared victorious career in Italy. In 1799, Bona

on the stage, and that the French repubparte returned from Egypt, overturned the lic, but for the intervention of his genius, directory, and made himself first consul for would in 1799 have been over-run by Sus ten years. In 1802, he made himself con warrof and others. Nor should it be forsul for life: and in December, 1801, was gotten, that, on becoming First Consul, crowned emperor by the pope. His career he concluded liberal treaties of peace since that time is within the recollection of with all the powers which he found all persons. But it so happens in the whirl of

al war with France. mundane affairs, that after a series of wars, in which rivers of human blood have been of Amiens was

Ilow it has happened that the treaty

not respected that spilt, the parties have returned exactly to the point at which they set ont, and a free Austria three times took the field against constitution has been established in 1814,

him-that Prussia engaged herself in corresponding in effect, spirit, and inten hostilities -- that Russia espoused the tion with that constitution of 1791, the in

cause of Prussia-that the treaty of Tiltrigues, clamors, and confederacies against sit was broken--that the feuds took which, indirectly or immediately, occasioned place in Spain which led to an unjusti. all the intervening calamities!

fiable usurpation in that country--and

that

not

that all the overtures of Bonaparte for French birth, in the machinery of wlicha peace were rejected-are points of great were employed and protected all the moment in these considerations, for which known friends of liberty in France, and the cool inquirer should consult the state some government to be forced on the papers connected

with the several French by the interference of foreign events. This general result, however, powers. It was the detestable and indeappears, that France became wearied fensible principle of foreign interference and exhausted from the demands made in the affairs of another country, which on her in men and money, to support the friends of liberty in England have unceasing warsawathat the usurpation of uniformly opposed, and not the vices of the supreme powers of the state by Na- the government of Bonaparte which poleon, and his unyielding pride in the they have countenanced or defended. administration of the government, begat They thought that of two despotisms, discontents in the people, and jealousy that which grew up in France out of naand further restrictions on his part, till tive materials, containing within ito the amor patria lost its force ;-that self the elements of its own dissolution, the levies for the armies fell short;nthat and the defects of which were matters of treason pervaded every branch of the concern only to the French, was to he public service ;-that the energies of the preferred to one dictated by foreign ponation were palsied ;—that the popula. tentates, with whom a respect for public tion of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Gernia- liberty could not be supposed to be a gony, &c. was in array;-that a compro- verning principle, and who were mise touk place between the allies and likely to introduce into a conquered councertain constituted authorities in Paris; try more liberty than they tolerated in --and finally that Napoleon, after a vigo- their own. rous, but unavailing struggle, was obliged For the mere personal cause of Napoto succumb!*

leon we never had any attachment, and No person has been influenced by any therefore for his fate as emperor and respect for its intrinsic worth to counte- king we have no sympathy. We have nance the arbitrary rule of Napoleon. never forgotten that as a general and But the public question since his usurpa. servant of the French republic he vine tion has not been to choose between the lated the sanctuary of the national reprca free institutions of a republic or limited sentation, seized on the constitutional alla monarchy, and his government --but to thorities, and made himself, by the inchoose between this government of fluence of the army, premier consul, con.

sul for life, and afterwards emperor of * We may by the bye observe, that the France, king of Italy, &c. In these imnovel doctrine of the right of belligerents, posing stations it must nevertheless be ala to appeal to the subjects of a ruler who has lowed that he played a brilliant part, refused to accede to any tendered terms of gained more great victories than are repeace, and to proclaim to them that with corded in the previous annals of manhim they must submit to interminable war, kind, overran more countries than Alexbut without him may enjoy the blessings ander, Cæsar, or Charlemagne, made of immediate peace, even on better termis

and uumade kings and princes, like the than were offered to him, is a public principle which we rejoice to see promulgared manager of a theatre, and acquired a on such high autiority; and which, how. name, which among heroes will for ever ever abhorrent to the existing axioms of hold a primary station in the pantheon of

. public law, ought forthwith to be incor- history; yet he had trampled on the liporated with then. It is a higher practical berties of bis country, and destroyed lia security than the nations of the earth yet berty wherever be found it ! possessed against useless or wanton wars. Such a man might have been accepta. Let it be an admitted usage for belligerents ble to the radical evernies of freedom; to make such appeals to people against the but he could have no fraternity with the opposing governments ; let it be justifiable systematic and unchangeable friends of to deelare that peace shall be made with public liberty. The grandeur, of bis them, and not with their government;

and atchievements gave colour for a time to that if they will absolve themselves from

his usurpation of power; bur his assumptheir government, better terms shall be granted to them : and WARS WILL CEASE,

tion of the purple, bis marriage with an or at least no war can ever be waged, 11

Austrian princess, bis cold manners, and less, as ought to be the case, it is founded his camp-like domination, lessened his on the plainest necessity; and unless the popularity among his subjects; while sucpeople are made assepting parties in every cessive wais, excited parily by relentless stage of its progress.

and jealous foes, and partly by his own,

unbending

364
Public Affairs in April.

[May 1, unbending character and ambitious po- ration, and he would then have been too licy, served as oppress France with con- strong in the affections of his people to scriptions and imposts, and to render his be assailed with any chance of success. government at first irksome and finally In brief, had his government been foundintolerable. France was howeverindebted ed on any popular principle, had his peos to him for the promulgation of an admira. ple been allowed to share bis glory, had ble Codeor Laws, for a system of religi: he not made himself every thing, and OUS LIBERTY, and for the introduction of trcated forty millions of huinan beings as that bulwark of justice, TRIAL EY Jury. though they lived only to contribute to She was also gratified by his patronage of the splendour of their emperor and the arts and sciences, by his galleries of his family, he might have enjoyed his painting, sculpture, and engraving, by unexampled renown, at the head of the his magnificent buildings, his roads, bis French empire, till removed by the deinstitutions, and his public works; though cay of nature : but he was not cast in the she was at the same time oppressed by a nould of Washington; he was what his refined and inquisitorial system of espio- military education, unbridled passions, nare, and insulted by restrictions on the and indulgent fortune, made him, and press, which by leaving the people in iy. his different fate is the necessary result norance of the grounds of liis policy, of those varied combinations which gomade them indifferent to the public m vern by unalterable laws the destinies terest, and dissevered of necessity the go. of men and nations. verned from their governor.

Events have however on this, as on We fear to extend our strictures on lis most occasions, rendered abortive the administration, because it is a master. deep-laid and sanguine plans of the rulers vice of mankind to insult a falleu foc, and of Europe, and have demonstrated, that the inveterate babit of conceited critics, the complicated inachinery which goverus to stiew what inight have been performed the world, is not within the controul of the better, after errors have been measured finite powers of man! The BOURBons are by erents. We cannot determine what to be restored---not in the ancient obnoxmight have been his conduct or fate if ious sense, but as constitutional monarchis. the war with England had not afforded BONAPARTE has abdicated rather than pretexts for augmenting his armies, and consent to a peace which he thoug'at igtaking strong incasures against his due nominious; and neither he, nor any of the mestic enemies, as connected with his surviving actors in the scenes of the reforeign ones; if he had not during the volutionary drama, are to be insulted or whole period of his government had to proscribed. Thus LIBERTYhas been estas resist the intrigues of the partizans of the blished in France on a basis of modera, exiled family, and to support with the tion, without violating either justice or usual jealousy an usurped power; and if humanity; and the perpetuity of its reign his plans of domestic improvement had is secured by the guarantee of the chief not been thwarted by the expense of fon potentates of Europe, by the terrible exreign wars. We shall however always perience of the revolution, and by the regret that he did not take for his model mild virtues and passive character of the a inan whose renown eclipses that of any members of the Bourbon family. Every imperial Despot of ancient or modern thing seems therefore to have been done, times, we mean TIE ILLUSTRIOUS Wasile in the repose of this great political storn,

llad he used his power to pro. for the establishment of valuable prins tect and regulate, instead of destroying ciples and practical liberty, which the Liberty, he would have been greater than state of knowledge, the influence of exWashington, because his sphere of action isting institutions, and the discordant pase was more important. Had lie permitted sions and conflicting interests of mankind the freedom of speech in his senate and could sustain or tolerate; and to expect legislature, and the liberty of publishing more, if more were desirable, would be to truth on all subjects of public interest, he look for effects without the agency of would not have convertid discontent in- commensurate causes. to treason, or have had to learn the sen Sincerely, therefore, do we congratu. timents of his capital from the Russians. late the public on the termination of a Had. be permitted the independant series of wars which have been the opinions of a free senate and legislature scourge of our times, and the disgrace of to influence his councils, he would never human nature. For our honest abhor, have seen Europe in arms against him, rence of them, how much have we been because the amalgamation of opinions calumniated, and how many sacrifices would have generated a syłtem of mode- have we made of our interests and our

S

personal

INGTON.

3

personal comforts! Let us, however, Yesterday the whole army (with the exo now hope, that the baleful spirit of party ception of the corps of Marshal Wrede and will abate; that the efforts of certain General Sacken, which were left in position wicked Newspapers to keep it alive, at Meanx) advanced upon Paris

. Contie as the pabulum of their own existence, nual skirmishing took place with the enewill prove abortive; that external tran my, but he retired, giving up Pontin on his quillity will be followed by domestic hap right, and the ground in front of Montmar

tre on his left,
piness and prosperity; and that we may
live at home and abroad in the spirit, as

It appears that, during last night, the

corps of Marshals Mortier and Marmon en. well as in the form, of PEACE,

tered Paris. The garrison which previous. In the reduction of our naval and ly was assembled in it, was composed of military establishments, we see the relief a part of General Gerard's corps, under of the public finances, and the prospect General Compaus, and a force of about of a reduction of those taxes which bear eight thousand regnlar troops and thirty so heavily on the industry and energy of thousand national guards, under General the people; in the restoration of public Hulin, the governor of the town. confidence, we anticipate the renewed

With this force the enemy, under the currency of the precious metals; in the command of Joseph Bonaparte, took up a opening of all markets for our colonial position this morning, the right on the produce and manufactures, we calculate height of Belleville occupying that town,

the centre on the canal de l'Ourque, the on an unexampled trade, as the means

left towards Neuilly. of securing useful employment to the

This position was strong, from the innumerous agents of the war-system; and tersected nature of the ground on its right. in the march of knowledge, we see reason The heights of Montmartre commanded the to expect the reform of our national re plain in rear of the canal of l'Ourque, and presentation, and its restoration to its ori added strength to the position of the ginal and legitimate purposes, thereby ob- enemy. taining a constitutional check on the pro

Tle disposition of attack for this morning gress of future wars, a means of ameli- was, the Prince Royal of Wirtemberg, orating our criminal laws, and a power of forming the left, marching upon Vincennes; diminishing the corruptions and undue

General Rciffsky upon Belleville; the influence of the ministers of the crowii.

guards and reserves upon the great chaussee

leading from Bondy 10 Paris. Marshal Such are the feelings and sentiments

Blucher was to march upon the chanssees which have presented themselves to us from Soissons, and attack Montmartre. on the occasion of the late events, and All the attacks succeeded: General which we have judged it proper to place Reiftsky possessed himself of the heights of on record, for the purpose of guarring Belleville; the troops under his orders parourselves against crafty and malicious ticularly distinguished themselves in the misrepresentations, and of submitting to different aitacks made by them. the public a test, by which it may be

The village of Pontin was carried at the seen, that our opinions accord with those point of the bayonet; the heights above of all PATRIOT ENGLISHMEN, and have Belleville were carried in the most gallant their foundation in TRUTH, JUSTICE, and

manner by the Prussian guards; these corps captured 13 pieces of cannon, and took a great number of prisoners.

Nearly at the time these successes had

been obtained, Marshal Blucher com. Heights of Belleville, above Paris, March 30, menced his attack upon Montmartre. The

1814. Seven o'Clock in the Evening. regiineut of Prussian black hussars made a MY LORD-I seize an opportunity which most brilliant charge upon a column of the offers at this instant, to transmit to you an enemy, and took twenty cannon. account of the successes of this day.

At the moment of these decisive advanAfter the affair of Fere Champenoise, the tages, a flag of truce was sent from Mara details of which I had the houonr of giving shal Marmont, intimating a desire to receive to your Lordship in my last dispatch, the any propositions that it might have been united army of Prince Schwartzenberg and intended to make to him, by a flag of truce Marshal Blucher passed the Marne on the which liad previously been refused admit. 28th and 29th, at Triport and Meaux. tance. An armistice was also proposed

The enemy opposed a feeble resistance by him for two hours, to obtain which, he to the passage of the river ; but on the 28th, consented to abandon every position be

in the evening, General D'Yorck was se- occupied without the barriers of Paris. verely engaged near Claye; le drove the Prince Schwartzenberg agreed to these enemy, however, at last from the woods terms. Count Nesselrode, on the part of about that place with very considerable the Emperor of Russia, and Comt Paar, loss.

from Prince Schwartzenberg, were sent MONTILY MAG. No. 254.

SB

into

COMMON SENSE.

ADVANCE OF THE ALLIES TO PARIS.

366
Public Affairs in April.

[May 1, into the town to demand its surrender. An ment, afforded to the nation reasons to cab answer is just arrived; the garrison will culate for the future op acts of wisdom and evacuate Paris at 7 o'clock to-morrow justice; but that afterwards he violated the morning.

compact which united him to the French I may, therefore, congratulate your lord. people, particularly in levying imposts and ship on the capture of ti:at capital. establishing taxes otherwise than in virtue

The allied troops will enter it to-morrow. of the law, against the express tenor of the Your lordship will excuse the hurry in oath whicli he bad taken on his ascending which this letter is written; I have only thc throne, conformable to Article 53 of time to give you the general details of the the Act of the Constitution of the 28th great events which have taken place; at Floreal, year 12; such a moment it would be difficult to re That he committed this attack on the press a feeling of exultation.

rights of the people, even in adjourning, The Emperor of Russia and the King of without necessity, the Legislative Body, Prussia were present in all the actions, and cansing to be suppressed, as criminal, BURGHERS A, Liont. Col. 63d regt. a report of that body, the title of which,

and its share in the national representation, Declarution of his Majesty the Emperor he disputed; of Russia,

That he undertook a series of wars in The armies of tlie allied powers have oc violation of article 50, of the Act of the cupied the capital of France; the allier Constitution of the 22d Frimaire, year 8, sovereigns receive favourably the wish of which purports, that declarations of war the French nation.

should be proposed, debated, decreed, and They declare, that if the conditions of promulgated in the same manner as laws; peace ought to contain stronger guarantees Thiat he issued, unconstitutionally, several when the question was to bind down the decrees, inflicting the punishment of death; ambition of Bonaparte, they may be more particularly the two decrees of the 5th of favourable, when, by the return of a vise March last, tending to cause to be consigovernment, France hersell offers the as dered as pational, a war which would not surance of this reposc.

have taken place but for the interests of The sovereigns proclaim in consequence, bis boundless ambition; that they will no more treat with Napoleon That he violated the constitutional laws Bonaparte, nor with any of his family. by his decrees respecting the prisoners of

They respect the integrity of ancient the state; France, as it existed under its legitimate That he annulled the responsibility of Kings: they may even do more, because the miuisters, confounded all authorities, they profess it as a principle, tiiat, for the and destroyed the independence of judicial happiness of Europe, France must be great bodies : and strong :

Considering that the liberty of the press, That they will recognize and grarantce established and consecrated as one of the the Constitution which France shall adopt. rights of the nation, has been constantly They, therefore, invite the serate to name subjected to the arbitrary contioul of his immediately a provisional government, which police, and that at the same time he has may provide for the wants of the admini- always made vise of the press to fill France stration, and prepare the Constitution and Europe with misrepresentations, false which shall suit the French people.

maxims, doctrines favourable to despotism, The intentions which I have just ex and issuits on foreign governments; pressed, are common to all the allied

Thai acis and reports heard by the sepowers. (Signed)

nate, have undergone alterations in the ALEXANDER.

publication : Paris, March 31, 3 o'clock in the afternoon. Considering that, instead of reigning ac.

cordmg to the terms of his oath, with a sole Extract from the Registers of the Conscr. view to the interest, the happiness, and the

vutire Senaie-Sitting of April 3, under glory of the French people, Napoleon comthe Presidency of Senutor Count de Bur- pleted the misfortunes of his comtry by his thelemy.

retusal to treat on conditions which the The sitting which liad been arljourned national interests required him to accept, was resumed at four o'clock, when the se and wlich did not compromise the French nator Count Lambrechts read the revised honour; and adopted plan of the decree which By the abuse which he made of all the passed in the sitting of yesterday. It is in mcans entrusted to him in men and money ; the following terms:

By the abandonment of the wounded The Conservative Senate, considering without dressings, without assistance, and that in a constitutional monarchy, the mo. without subsistence; narch exists only in virtue of the consti By various measures, the consequences tution or social compact :

of which were the ruin of the towns, thé That Napoleon Bonaparte, during a cer depopulation of the country, famine, and tain period of arm and prudent govern- contagious diseases;

Considering

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