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range of hills. The common people of Mr. William Geeves, grazier, of llendoli, Teesdale have long known it by the name Middlesex, Mr. William Giblett, grazier, of the spring violet. N. J. W.

of Mickleford Hall, Hertfordshire, and GENTIANA amarella. On Box hill and Mr. John Harrison, butcher, of Great Ryegate hill, Surrey.

Tower-street, London, the three judges Var.B. About Settle, Yorkshire; Mr. appointed by the Smithfield Club, miWindsor.

nutely inspected all the animals, and the Var. Fl. Alb. Crag close, near Barwese certificates of their breeds, ages, and ford, Northumberland. N.J. W. feeding, and awarded the prizes; and GENTIANA cumpestris.

On St. An- since then the butchers who killed these thony hill, Bath; Mr. Thompson.-About animals have made their return to me, as Giggleswick Tarn, Yorkshire; Mr. Wind- follows,* viz. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR,

* See a similar account last year, vole P ,

PREVIOUS to the opening of the late 35, p. 31.

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215 Mr. Dodd on fiean-Engine Passage Boats. [April 1,

The premiums offered by the club for whole ships' cargoes into the interior of the show next December, do not differ the country, as well as passengers. in number or amount from those of the The city of New York alone possesses last : but they will be distributed, not in seven steam-boals, for commerce and money, but in such articles of ornamental, passengers; to name only one or two of or useful plate, as the candidates may them, that from thence to Albany, on chuse, and on which appropriate inscrip- the north river, passes 130 miles, then tions will be engraven. The ceriificates (after about 45 miles of land carriage) to are to be sent to my house, eight days Lake Champplain, you may enter anbefore the show, from which a part of other stean boat, that will take you the first day is to be cortailed, in order about 200 miles, to near Montreal, bethat the animals may not stand so long tween which place and Quebec, a Briin the yard, which in some cases injures tish steam-boat, 140 feet in length, is them. All these regulations are fully constantly passing, and usually goes stated, in bills that are left for distribu. down in 28 hours, but sometimes in only tion with Mr. Mitchel, draper, No. 7, 24, although the distance is 180 miles ; Cloth Fair, Smithfield Market; and at and, in returning, she is seldom more the new Agricultural R-pository in Winse than 12 or 15 hours additional time, alley-strect, Osford-street.

though the stream is almost constantly Feb. 9, 1814. JOHN Farey, sec. running against her, with great velocity,

so peculiar to the river St. Lawrence, in For the Monthly Alugazine. North America. This boat, in the last On STEAM ENGINE PASSAGE BOATS, or year, was found of the greatest service

PACK E'ís; by MR. RALPII DODD, Ln- to the British government, in carrying gineer.

troops and stores, with greater ease and by steain, when scientifically apa hy land. And it is here certainly worthy plied, where power is wanted ? of remark, that in the late expedition of the public convenience and utility of Admiral Sir John Borias Warren, up steam-binats, or rackets, it is almost un. the Potomac river, chasing the enemy, necessary to make any remark, for the they, keeping their ships at a prudent disa use of well-informed persons; because it tance rom ours, sent one of their steamis one of those things that must strike boats, directly against the wind, so as and claim the attention of any intelligent to be just without gun shot, and reconmind; any one travelling on the line of noitred our fleet. This fact is mentio country where user', that wishes to pass oned, because it is presumed that it is reasonably and exprditiously, at less ex the first instance where they have been pence than by land carriage, and without applied to such purposes. fatigue; for, of all other modes of tra. The steam-boats used at present in velling, this is the most pleasant and our own island, are a sufficient demon. comfortable. No danger of breaking stration of their utility : it will only be down carriages; no dusty roads in sum. necessary to mention those working on mer, nor dirty in winter. In short, their the river Braydon, between Yarmouth cabins below are like sitting 14:?m3; their and Norwich; and on the river Clyde, tables are strewed with pape:s, monthly between Glasgow and Greenock, which publications, and books of amusement; boats, on this latter station, often beat so that no one can duly appreciate their the mail between the two places, and are comfort and convenience, but those that always certain to time, let the wind or have travelled in them.

tide be what

way

it

may. For the information of those who are It would occupy 100 considerable a unacquainted with it, it may be neces- space in your Magazine, to enter into sary to state, that most of the principal the merits of those steam-boats, now rivers in North America are navigated building and preparing in the rivers by these steam-boats:---one of them Tyne, Thames, and Medway; particupasses 2000 miles, on the great river larly those with patent, simplified appaMississippi, in 21 days, at the rate of ratus, for the use of rivers, to pass coaste: five miles an hour, against the descending wise, and for short runs of passages over current, which is perpetually running to the Continent; but it is necessary to dovn. This steam-boat is 126 feet in state, from most mature and deliberate length, and carries 460 tons, at a very experiments, that some of these steamshallow draft of water, only 2 feet 6 boats, or packets, with patent apparatus, inches, and carries, from New Orleans, are so constructed, that they can carry

saila

sail, and perform all the manoeuvres of ing when the ignorance and superstitiou other vessels at sea, when the wind is in of former ages shall be dispelled, and the their favour, and when against them, by gates of the temple of science be thrown furling all their sails, pass right in the open to all; when the great mass of wind's eye with velocity; thus continuing mankind shall no longer gaze on the subtheir passages in a straight line, while lime phenomena of nature with simid other vessels are obliged to tack, to and and superstitious emotions, but shall fro, and make but little progress to their investigate their causes ard contemplate desired point; and these possess the best their effects with the calın dignity of the accommodation for passengers, and are philosophic sage; when they bail no always certain to beat other vessels only longer consider the world as extending under canvas, because they can use both live farther than the range of their visitheir sails and machinery at one tine, ble horizon, but shall exiend their views giving them additional velocity tirough to distant nations, and continents, and the water; which, to a reflective mind, even to distant worlds; contemplating must evince their great utility ; because, this earthly ball, as only an inconsiderexcept in storms and gales of wind, they able part of the fabric of the universe, can always pursue their passages straight where worlds unnumbered are dispersed forward, rendering them shorter and throughout the immensity of space;more certain than the present system, when, in fine, they shall apply their which is of the first importance to com knowledge of the laws and operations of mercial countries.

nature, to the improvement of the libe. I cannot help stating what once oc ral and mechanical arts, to the promocurred to me, in my return from the tion of agriculture and manufactures, to Continent of America, in a swift-sailing a greater extent than has hitherto been packet; we made the entrance of the attempted; and to the general amelioBritish channel in twenty-one days; but, ration of human life and society. In one detained by light, contrary winds, we word, when they shall conduct thenwere nearly as long in gaining a port. selves in all the offices and relations of Here a few hours scientific application life as rational thinking beings. of steam would have given the much Notwithstanding the numerous assodesired port of safety, and have saved ciations for the diffusion of general knowe the expence of near three weeks wear ledge, peculiar to our age and country, and tear to the labouring vessel. Intel- it has always appeared to me matter of ligent minds and lovers of their country's regret, that scientific and literary socie. improvements will say, Then, surely, all ties have been chiefly confined to the our packets ought to possess patert capitals, and a very few of the principal steam apparatus, that, in tines like towns of the British empire. Thougla these, they might use them, as well as most of the societies to which I allude add to the speed of their sailing, when are highly respectable, and have long applied, making their passage by sea enlightened the world with their re'more certain, and of less duration; there searches and discoveries, yet their influ. by reridering the intercourse between ence has, hitherto, been too much colie our own island and other countries more fined to the higher circles of society, to easy, frequent, and inviting.

the learned professions, and to those in. I have much pleasure in seeing, what dividinals who have acquired a certain I more than two years since wrote and degree of literary fame. published, on the adoption on the rivers admissible as members into such sociein this country of packet-boats, is now ties, are circunscribed within a very narbeginning to be realized on many of row circle; the ingenious tradesman and then.

mechanic, however desirous they may Batson's, Cornhill, Feb. 28.

be of prosecuting scientific pursuits, and

however well qualified they inay someTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. times be for adding to the store of useful SIR,

knowledge, are seldom admitted into HE diffusion of rational information such associations. And, if report be TI

among all ranks of men, even the true, several of the oldest and inost relowest, is one of the grand characteris- spectable societies have, of late years, tics of the present age, and will doubt. paid more respect to the rank of the less be followed by imporiant conse persons proposed as members, than to quences in the future history of mankind. iheir scientific acquirements. It is thereWe have now reason to indulge the fore an object much to be desired, that hope, that the period is fast approacha literary and philosophical societies be

formed

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Diffusion of Knowledge by Literary Societies. [April 1, formed on a more extensive scale, and of such institutions as a stiinulus to their on liberal and enlightened principles, further progress and exertions. Much which shall have for their object, not might, perhaps, also be done in accomonly the discovery of new facts and prin- plishing the object now proposed by en. ciples, in arts and sciences, but also lightened clergymen, and the inembers the more extensive diffusion of those of those respectable societies which have discoveries which have already been already been formed, by their patronimade; and to which ingenious persons sing such establishments, presiding at in the middling and lower ranks of life their organization, suggesting regulations may be admitted; where the only qua to direct their procedure, and by occalifications for admission shail be a certain sionally honouring them with their preportion of intellectual capacity and ac

Nor would it be unworthy the quirements, and an ardent desire after attention of government to patronise knowledge. Till this object be in some such societies, and even to advance a measure acc ymplished, -till societies for sinall sum towards cheir establishment; the promotion of science become far more for an enlightened population is certainly numerous than they are at present, and the most solid basis of a good governa persons of every rank have access to min. ment, and the greatesť security for its gle in such associations, we can scarcely permanence. Though an enlightened expect that knowledge will be generally people will never be slaves, nor amely diffused among the great body of man submit to tyrannical measures, they will kind.

always form the strongest bulwark around In order to the extensive establishment a wise and upright adıninistration. In of such societies, little more is requisite the event of a general peace, which we than that the attention of men of learning now anxiously expect, it would be a and intelligence be directed to this obe happy consummation of those political ject, and a conviction of its utility he contests which have so long desolated produced in their minds. As in most the surrounding nations, were the rulers towns and populous villages there are of Europe to turn their attention from the generally some persons of respectability pursuits of war, to the extensive estabdevoted to the interests of science, their lishment of those institutions which have recommendations and exertions might for their object the enlightening of the hare great influence in leading to the sinds, and the melioration of the moformation of such institutions, and al. rals and the domestic comforts of man, though, at first, the number attending kind. It might, in some measure, com. such meetings would be small, and their pensate for the numerous train of evils operations feeble, yet in the course of which has flowed froin the protracted time, when their objects and advantages system of warfare in which they have became generally known, they would heen engaged, and be the happy mean soon encrease in respectability and in of ushering in that period foretold in an number. It is well known, that most of cient prophecy, when the nations shall the scientific associations which now heat their swords into plough-shares, and exist, arose from small beginnings, to that their spears into pruning hooks, and learn elevated rank which they now hold in the art of war no more." the learned world. Even the Royal The following, among other advan. Society of London, which has coutri- tages, would, in all probability, arise buted so much to enlarge the boundaries from the extensive establishment of such of science, at first consisted of only a few societies as now suggested. 1. They individuals who met in a private lodging, would serve to unite and concentrate the and were for some time known by the scattered rays of genius, which might. appellation of, “ The Invisible or Philo- otherwise be dissipated, and enable them sophical College;" yet its fame has now to act with combined vigour and energy extended to almost every quarter of the in the discovery and the propagation of civilized world. Nor need there be any useful knowledge. 2. They would tend fear of a competent number of persons to the rapid promotion of general science. being found in every considerable town For if the labours of those societies and village, to compose such societies; wbich already exist, have produced a as there are, in the present day, numbers powerful effect on the progress of science, in the middle, and even in the lower much more might be expected were their ranks of the community, who privately number encreased to sixty or an hundred prosecute literary and scientific objects fold. As science is chiefly founded, on unknown to the bulk of mankind around facts, in proportion to the number of (hem, and wbo only require the existence persons engaged in the observation of

them

them, with a view to establish scientific prevail in such associations, would narun principles, in a similar proportion might rally be carried into the other relations and we.expect that the number of such facts separtments of life, and produce their would be encreased, from which new corresponding offects. The frequent inand iinportant conclusions might be de tercourse of mon of <ifferent parties and duced. "Nor ought it to be oljected, professions, associated for the purpose that little could be expected from the of promoting one common object, wouid observations of

persons in the lower gradually vanquish those mutual prejua ranks of life, who are chiefly engaged in dices ani jealousies which too frequently manual labour; as they have frequently exist, ever in cultivated minds; and a opportunities of making observations on liberal, a candid, and humane spirita' certain natural phenomena and processes would be cherished and promoted. Soa of art, which often escape the notice of ciety would thus acquire a new polish, observers of a superior rank; and I am and wear a different aspect from what io fully convinced, ihat many useful obser now exbibits in the inferior ranks of life ; vations of this kind have been lost to more especially, if the means above sugthe scientific world, for want of being gested be combined with the operation communicated and recorded. 3. They of Christian principles, would tend to produce an extensive dif. Though the beneficial effects now fusion of rational information among the stated, could not be expected to take general mass of society, particularly place all of a sudden on the accomplisha among those in the inferior walks of life. ment of the olject now proposed, yet in By the discussion of interesting questions, the course of time they would undoubtand the occasional delivery of popular edly be realised to a certain extent, and lectures in those societies, to which the would form a new æra in the progress of public at large might be occasionally ad- knowledge and of civilization. Should mitted, much useful information might the above general thoughis be acceptable, be disseminated among the general body some more specific details in reference to of the community. By this means, those such societies as above suggested, shall narrow conceptions, those superstitious afterwards be communicated. notions and vain fears, which so gene Methven, Perthshire,

T. Dick. rally prevail among the lower classes, March 4, 1814. might be gradually removed; and a viariety of useful hints and rational views To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. suggested, which would tend to elevate

SIR, and ennoble the mind, and promote do COUR correspondent Mr. Mars would naturally follow, 4. That a taste why our almanack-writers continue to for intellectual pleasures, and much ra make use of the apparent time for the tional enjoyment would be produced, in sun's rising and setting, instead of the which those hours generally spent in t:ips : 3111.', or that shown by a well-reguhistlessness, in foolish amusemeris, arisi laieri chuck (r watci. the very justly in the pursuits of dissipation, might be censures this practice, :221d clearly paints profitably employed; and consequently out ive impropriety of continuing it in the sun of general happiness would be our comnico almanacks. Although, as greatly augmented. In tine, they could Mr. Marsh well observes, most of these not fail, if properly conducted, io pro- noual publica:ions contaia webes of the duce a benign influence on the state of equation of time, yet yery few readers morals and of general society. When know any ting of the proper application the inhabitants of a country are taughic of them; and if they did, I see no reason to employ their rational powers on obe why the public should nave the trouble jects worthy of their pursuit; wher, by of correcting the calculations of astroa this means, ignorance retires, erroneous noners, when it could be abore easily opinions vanisis, and the rays of truth done by the compileis, irradiate the mind, the inost important Considering into whose lands such results may be expected to take place. publications fail, they ought to be written As vice is the natural offspring of igno- in illa plainest manner, and all the cal. rance, so true virtue can only fow froin culations should be adapted to the meae elevated and enlightened principles; and

sure oi une in comunou use,

But the where such principles exist, their ope- sale of most, if not all the almanacks ration, in a greater or less degree, will being monopolized by the Stationers' always appear. The habits of order, Company, who, lie supposed, are chiefly punctuality, and politeness, which would guided by pecuniary views; and the per

MONTHLY MAG. Ny, 253.

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