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10. Having thus determined an epo- the same letter: "Nothing of all that we cha in the past events on the earth, cha see on our globe could begin to be opefacterized by a certain state in which it rated, previous to the introduction of a must have been ; continuing to follow the certain quantity of light into the whole dictates of facts, and the progress of our mass of elements, till then incapable of natural knowledge, I ascend to a time, chemical action on each other. There. defined in §§ 30 and 31, when nothing fore the beginning of all the geological of what we now observe on our globc, phenomena that we know, takes its date painely, the mineral strata, composing from this union.” the whole known mass of our continents, 13. This last conclusion referring to the sea and our atmosphere, could have the whole of what I had before proved, been produced, because liquidity, with it is evident that the moment of the out which no chemical effect could take first production of liquidity on our globe, place, (and consequently, no precipita- must bave been that of the commencetion of the substances of our strata, nor ment of all the operations impressed on any formation of elastic fluid!) did not it, which have been the object of geoloyet exist. The epocha, therefore, when gical researches; which operations conall those effects began, is particularly tinued without interruption, till the birth characterised by the production of liqui- of our present continents. Had Mr. dity on our globe. But what new cause Pilgriin been acquainted with all which was required, for that new effect? here I have only sketched, would he not

11. Pursuing this analysis, I explain, have judged, that the only way of attack$ 34, in what liquidity consists: it is pro. ing me fairly, had been to meet nie on duced, without exception, at every tem that ground, and contradict either the perature, by the union of the eleinents of fac's or the conclusious ? the liquified substance, with a certain 14. His next objection is expresserl in quantity of fire; or of the fluid, which, the following words. “ Provided we ad. when incombined, produces heat, an mit Mr. De Luc's opinion, it must evieffect measured by our thermometers,) dently appear, that this planet, called but loses this faculty when combined earth, must have existed many ages prior with other substances, in which state to the creation of the sun; a supposition it is called latent. Therefore, in § 35, that will not be entertained by any perI thus more distinctly determined the son of common understanding: and more. epocha to which we are to ascend, as the over, we are to conclude, ihat all the beginning of all the operations of which fixed stars are but in a juvenile state, we see the effects on our globe: "when compared with the age of the globe we a sufficient quantity of fire was united inbabit; an idea that must be equally with the substance which, when liquified, exploded by every person who has the constitutes water, and in that state che- least acquaintance with astronomy." mically combines with a great number This must appear plausible to those who, of elements which they help each other like Mr. Pilgrim, are not acquainted to dissolve."

with my works, and in particular with the 12. We now arrive at the point that Letters to Prof. Blumenbach, above directly relates to Mr. Pilgrim's attack; quoted; but had he read only these let.which point is introduced in the above ters, he could not have expresved bim. letter, by the following question: "How self in that manner. I shall repeat here was fire produced ?" This question I briefly what he would have found there. then follow from the knowledge acquired 15. This sublime preambe, In the in experimental philosophy; and in stue beginning God created the heuren and

dying my deductions from it, Mr. Pilgrim the earth, evidently comprises the stars, I would find a subject of reflection, which the sun, and other celestial bodies, as it does not appear he has ever consi. weil as the earth. They had received dered. Fire is a compound fluid, and their projectile motions, and they influe into its composition enters light, a sub. enced on each other hy gravity, which in stance which possesses chemical affinities, particular occasioned the revolution of ånd indeed is the essential ingredient the planets round the sum; and their licontributing to all chemical processes. quidity to a certain depth, with their moWithout light, in combination with an tion on their axis, bad given then the other ingredient, no fire exists; and form which they actually possess. But without fire, there exists no liquidity. were the sun and stars then luminous ? Continuing this analysis, I arrive at the If Mi. Pilgrim bad known, or attentively final conclusion expressed in § 42, of read my works, to which I have referred,

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208 Mr. Eccleston on Modern Clerical Superstition. [April 1, he might have found first, that I am more To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, 'acquainted with the physical part of SIR, astronomy than he appears himself to be; R.O. GREGORY has accused me with then he would have seen the results of experiments and observations which buton terms it, 'effiracious force of the prove, that in order to enable bodies in pler,' to depend in a great measure upon ihemselves capable of phosphireocuce, the weight of the arch itseli;” but did not actually in emit light, there is required this occur from negligence, and "lonking some previoimineerior chemical process, about” him? for surely, had he looked beto decompose their moleculæ, and dis- Svíre liim he must have “discerned" the engage the light which has entered them difference between the two expressions as an ingredient. A few examples, so cla-ely following each other; the first which I purpose giving in ycur vext, denoting Dr. Hutton's force of the pier, will be sufficient to evince this proposition, which does not depend in any measure Windsor.

J. A. De Luc. upon the weight of the arch; and the se

cond denoting wbat I have termed "the To the Editor of the lionthly Magazine. Sur; of the ri sistance of the pier," and

09.00h “ depend in a great measure upon VE following paragrap', is literally me weight of the arch itselt;" for LGXA TIE

copied from a provincial paper of : be measurs of what that dependance this month, li derves to li ki!!! !: (4 being here put for “ area of semibeyond the linits of ide cuculation of arch'), and is the proper resistance to! the paper; and if you think i' and the what Dr. Hurton terms as the efficacious few remails a!“xeri, wili 11. race force of the arch to overset the pier, or a coiner of your valuable repository, they turn it atut the point G,” when his effiare at your service.

cacious force of the pier, as there ex. “ A singular circum-tance tok place pressed, is the proper resistance to the about a week ago in the neighbourhood etmive force of ibe arch. of Penrith. A farmer, who hari :;Ways This distinction Dr. Ilutton was not, expressed a greac aversion to baprizing and Dr Gregory dwes not now seem to be, or christening, had a child wbich died; aware of; othe, wise he would not inculand in consequence of his predilection cale the doctrine he does in his conthat none of his children should ever up. cluding paragraph, for there he tells me, dergo the ceremony, the parishioners I musi be c'invinced " that the matter, fused it burial, and application was made which by iis pressure upon a pier tends.

where a grave was prepared; to overset it, dues not by means of the hut, previous to the time of interment, same pressure prevent it from being overthe circumstance came to the knowledge turned.” All this I grant, provided he of the worthy vicar, who ordered the shews me that matter by its pressure upgrave to be filled up again. When the on a pier doib tend to overset it, but not child was brought to the town, they were otherwise; for what I contend for is, that much disappointed at what bad taken matter loy.its pressure upon a pier does place; and after waiting a length of time tend to prevent its being overturned; alto no purpose, were necessitated to re- though the same matier by its pressure turn home, and seek out for some other against the pier, will tend to overset it. place of burial."

By what can be collected from the The worthy, worthy, worthy vicar! mode of argument made use of in this A poor innocent child is refused the rites attack, does it not appear to “a discern. and right oi sepulture, notwithstanding ing public,” as better calculated to inti. a grave had been prepared for it, must midate me from writing upon the subject rot on the surface of the earth, le wore than to confute what I have already writried by dugs, or devoured by the crows! ten? and is it not probable he fancies Is this christianity ? is this the established that by degrading my abilities he can disa religion of a civilized people? From what suade the young bridge-builder from relyI have read of the humanity of the Ilot. ing upon them, and by this means intentots, I think such a circuinstance crease the demand for Dr. flutton's recould never have taken place anongst modelled work, which he informs us them. Tell it not in Westmorland, nor length published? But if those are bis publish it in the streets of Kendal, jest ideas, he is mistaken, as I have already the Philistines, the infidels, the heathen, received letters of thanks, for what has the Turk, hear it and rejoice.

been published of mine in this Magazine; Lancaster, Dec. 1813.

having in the number for May, 1812, not D. B. P. ECCLESTON.

only

at

at

only shewn that the Emersonian theory not sufficiently explained in my last, I of arches, as Dr. Hutton has explained trust it will in this; for here I shall have it, in his “ Principles of Bridges," is not the assistance of Dr. Gregory himself, a theory adapted to practical purposes: the work before ailuded to being no other but one is ihere given that can to so tban his “ Treatise of Mechanics." For adapted, and that without any fluxionary article 208, vol. 1, of this work, not only process, but by common arithmetic only. contains cnough to prove the truth of See also another letter of mine in the wbac I before gave as my opinion, but same publication for October, 1812, also sufficient matter for correction and where I have added a second step to improvement, of which it stands in much Mr. Ware's construction, in order to need. perfect what he fancied he had com What I shall first notice in this article, pleted before; which was to equilibrate is an equation intended to express the an arch by geometrical construction, and force of an arch, and the resistance of a hrad a third step been added to it, the pier, when supposed to turn on a centre height of the Emersonian vertical would of rotation; the principles that this tquabe obtained.

tion is deduced from, being those of me. This construction is not new, it being chanics; but the place and angle of no other than an application of the Py- abutment, tu which it is applied, have thagorean Problem, or 47th of Euclid; no claim or affinity to that science ; and so well known to carpenters and masons, that this is a fact will appear evident, partieularly the former, as it is by its eves from the directions given to find means he finds the length of his rafter, this place and angle, after half the breadth of the building

The rule is as follows: 6 Draw from and the height of the roof are given ; but the middle of the key voussoir, a tangent for our purpose it is sufficient to observe, to the intrados, and produce it till it that by a proper application of it, every again meet the middle of another vousthing necessary, both for the equilibra- soir.” This point, or middle of this last tion of arches, and also their comparative voussoir, is to be considered as the place and relative strength, may be found, and of abutment, and a line from the centre a knowledge of the latter is of more uti- of curvature through that point, shews lity to the practical builder than the the angle this abutment forms with the former; as an arch, when strictly in vertical; the curve from its vertex to this equilibrio, according to the terms of the point is all that is to be taken as the theory, will not admit of the smallest ex semi-arch, and the remaining part is co traneous weight being placed upon any be considered as part of the pier, and to part of it, without destroying that equio act with it in resisting the force of the librium, but when attached to matter, arch. Hence it appears, that the place acquires, what is termed, strength. And of abutment is to be governed by the it is on this the stability of arches de. length of the voussoirs, without any repends; hence it is obvious, a kuowledge ference to the direction of the pressures; of the quantum of that strength is a desia for it is evident, that their length detera deratum in the science, not bitherto mines the extent of this tangent line. noticed by any of the mathematicians To shew what will result from adopte who have treated on this subject; at ing this rule, an example or two will be least not to my knowledge.'

sufficient; therefore suppose a line drawn It may

be objected, that nothing upon from N to V, on the figure in my last let this subject is noticed in my second let- ter, this line will intersect the curve at ter, and this I admit; neither is there 33° 15' distance from the vertex, whichi, here any other than hints, but such hints it taken as the semi-arch, the length of as cannot injure, yet may stimulate to the voussoirs to admit this line, being farther enquiry; and is all I can afford drawit on their face, must be upwards of in this place, whatever I inay do here- four seet, which is more than necessary after. But even grant that nothing more (when stability only is required) in an is done than what I have already writ- arch of 51.25 feet radius; for the length ten, and is published in the Monthly Ma of those in the celebrated arch over the gazine; it is not very probable the young Täff, in Glamorganshire, where the radius artist will refer to Dr. Hutton's Auxion is 87.5, is only 33 inches, and in respect ary process for instruction in the theory to stability there can be no doubt, for of arches, when it may with more ease be that arch has been erected upwards of obtained, by referring to a few letters in 60 years, and is now perfect. this publication, or even to his carpenter. Then as the length of those youssoirs Then in respect to piers, if that subject iş is qufficient, and the comparative

strength

vertex.

ed by

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Title of King of France.

[April 1, strength of arches is as the squares of the sufficient in this case. For 6.912 (GL) voussoir at the vertex, or depth of the X64, (EF) X3.456, (EG) = 1528.82, arch at that point, when compa: ed with the resistance of the pier to the effective radius of curvature to that point, the force of the arch, and nearly the same length of the voussoir for that purpose, as that force. This is the result when only in the first arch, need be no more the vertical and horizontal pressures are than 254 inches. For as 87.5 : 51.25 :: considered as combined in one, or Dr. 332 : 25.252. But then the extent of Gregory's method; next for that when this line, and consequently the place of they are considered separate, or the meabutinent, will be at 23 degrees from the thod which I have adopted.

Now ma is substituted for MA, Dr. But if a line after this manner was pro. Hutton's force of the arch will be expressduced on the face of the voussoirs in the

ma XA last arch, it would extend only to 20°

x La=7120•33, and to 10', and then there would be 33 degrees produce a resistance equal to this force to be attached to the abutment, and to

will require a pier 14:917 feer in thick. act as part of it, for the whole semi-arch

ness, for 14.917 X64X7.485=7120.63, is 53° 10'; and farther, if a vertical line nearly the same; but this is in consequence was let fall from this place of abutinent, of no notice being taken of the vertical it would be distant from the vertical axis pressure of the arch, which counteracts only 30 feet, and froin the face of the the horizontal as before. Therefore I real abutmeni 40 feet, the semi-span be added it to the resistance of the pier, ing 70 teet. Such are the results that taking the thickness to be as in the first would ensue from adopting this rule, but

IN A X A it requires no farther comments, as it case, and then it was

X La or puts an end to our controversy.

I shall now return to this eqiiation, and 7120•33=GLXE FxEG+GXA, or here it is to be observed that the vertical 1528.82 + 5591.808 7120.628, Dr. pressure Nm, and the horizontal preso tion might bave been differently and

Hutton's force of the pier; but this equasure ma, which hy me were considered

ma X separate, are here considered as combined

more elegantly expressed by

Х ih one; in the direction of Na. Then V 37.762 (N m2) + 16.422 (m az)

L-LGXA, or 7120•33-5591.808= 41.1756 the other pressure, or they are

1528 522, the resistance of the pier nearrather lines, in the direction and propor

ly as betore.

Here we have the results from three tionate to the pressures. The vertical

different methods of investigation, one of pressure is always equal to the weight or

which is conformable to Dr. Gregory's area of the semi-arch, which is here 3809, and then the horizontal pressure differing with Dr. Hutton's ;

theory, all agreeing with each other, but max A will be =351.795, but that in position to me ihe former now supports,

JAMES PARRY, Bridge-builder,

Na XA the direction of the line Na~

Cardiff

, Feb. 1, 1814. 85507, the initial pressure.

For the Monthly Muguzine. This last pressure, acting in the direc- On the origin of the TITLE of KING tion of the line N a continued, acts of FRANCE, assumed by the KINGS of against another line or lever not represented on the figure, but supposed to be MANUSCRIPT history of the an

A produced from G, the fulcrum or centre cient disputes between the soveof rotation, on which the pier is supposed reigns of England and France has lately to turn to the line N a, and at right an been brought forward in Paris. It was gles to it, which short line or lever shall written in 1572 by John Renard, a person be denoted by G h, and whose length, unknown to bibliographers. upon investigation, is found to be 1.7863, In this work we are told that Edward whic multiplied by 85507, the initial the Third of England, to induce the Flepressure, is = 1528.52, the effective mings to assist him in his war against force of the arch to overset the pier; Philip of Valois, engaged to put into then the weight of the pier, represented their bands, Lille, Douay, and Bethune, by its area, acting at É, as one end of taken from them by France. To this the bended lever E Gh, being multiplied offer the Flemings answered, that by, by the distance from E to G, will deter- traty they were restricted from making mine and shew the resistance of that pier; war against the king of France, under the hence one whose thickness is 6.912, is penalty of forfeiting t:vo millions of Alva

rinsa

which in op

Nm

Nm

ENGLAND.

1

rins, besides falling under the heavy cen- Criminal Trials in Scotland, from 1536 to sures of the church.

1784, with bistoric and critical remarks, Anxious however to accede to Edward's by Hugo Arnot, esq. advocate : Edinproposal, the Flemings, after mature deli- burgh, 1785.” 'At page 324 is the fole beration, hit upon an expedient by which lowing case. their honour and their advantage could be Thomas Aikenhead appears to have reconciled. They counselled Edward to been about twenty years of age; his faclaim the throne of France, to quarter the ther, who had been a surgeon at Edinarms of that country with those of Eng. burgh, was dead. Sir James Stewart, land, and openly to designate himself bis majesty's advocate, by special order King of France. In that case, said the of the privy council, served nim with a wily Flemings, we can conscientiously criminal indictnient before the court of acknowledge you as sovereign of the Justiciary for blaspleiny.--Records of towns in question; we can honestly ac- Justiciary, Dec. 23, 1696. cept them as a gift at your hands; and

The libel sels forth, that blasphemy we can lawiully and securely carry arms against God, or any of the persons of the against the usurper Philip of Valss.

blessed Trinity, or against the holy scripThe title of King of France was always tures, or our holy religion, is a crime of afterwards employed y Edward, eren

the bighest narure, and severely punishawhen writing to Phin himself; and it is ble by the laws of God, by those of this not a little curious, that the relinquishin and every wcil yuverned realm, and para ment of ihat titie, offensive and insulting ticularıy hy act of parlianient, 1696. to a great and independant nation, perti. Sec. v. c. 2, 11 Milliam. naciously refused to the most powerful That, notwithstanding, the prisoner had legitimate sovereigns of France, was at a repeatedly maintained in conversation, late period, without difficulty, acceded that theology was a rhapsody of ill-inby Britain to a person not onfrequently vented nonsense, patched up partly of styled, in that very country, a lawless the moral doctrines of philosopliy, and usurper.

X. partly of poetical fictions and extrava. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. gant chimeras. That he ridiculed the R,

holy scritures, calling the Old Testa VIR Thomas Herbert relates in his ment Ezra's fubles, in profane allusion King. Charles I. that the king, on the Christ, saying he had learned magie in morning, of his execution, commanded Egypt, which enabled him to perform him to give "the Duke of York his large those pranks which were called miracles. ring sun-dial of silver, a jewel bis ma.

That he called the New Testament the jesty much valued; it was invented and history of the impostor Christ. That made by Mr. Delainaine, an able ma.

he said Moses was the better artist, and thematician, who projected it, and in a the better politician; and he preferred little printed book shewed its excellent

even Mahomet to Christ. That the use in resolving many questions in arith. holy scriptures were stuffed with such metic, and other rare operations to be madness, nonsense, and contradictions, wrougbt by it in the mathematics." Per- that he admired the stupidity of the mit me to ask your readers for any infor- world in being so long deluded by them. mation they possess respecting the ex

That he rejected the mystery of the Tri. istence of this ring-dial, and particularly nity as unworthy of refutation, and scolfif Mr. Delamaine's "little printed book” ed at the incarnation of Christ, saying is in existence, its size, number of pages,

that a theanthropos, or God-man, was date, and by whom published.

as great id contradiction as a hircocerMarch 1, 1814.

M. E. vus, or goat stag, or that a square was P.S. Herbert gives the best account

a round. That he laughed at the docthat I have seen, of the mode and place of trine of redemption: and said the notion burial of Charles. He was entrusted by of a spirit was it contradiction. That be the parliament with the funeral. The cursed Christ, and argued against the body lately found at Windsor is undoubt- being of God; maintaining that God, the edly the king's.

world, and nature, are all one thing, and

that the world existed from all eterni. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ty. That he said the inventors of the SIR,

scripture-doctrines would all he damned N the library of the London Institute if there was such a thing as rewards or Collection and Abridgement of celebrated Christianity itself would soon he extir

pated.

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