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PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED.
Peter NOUAILLE, of Greatness, near After having wetted a sufficient quan.
Sevenoaks, in the County of Kent, esq. tity of these pieces of sponge, which for a Method of saving luter in me- ought to be performed in a large stone chanical and hydraulic Purposcs.-- pan, the subsequent steps are as follow: October 5, 1812.
The copper sheets are then brought THIS invention consists in a near the pan, and a suficient quantity
ethod of applying water to water of these welted materials are placed wheels, by causing it to commence its stratum super stratum, so that they may action upon a point of the wheel's cir- bear equal in all their paris ; care being cumference, which is about fifty-three taken the sponge between the sheets are degrees distant from the veriex, instead not too close, as they would prevent of applying it at the top of the wheel, as the action of the air passing betwee! commonly practised for over-shot wheels. them, which so much facilitates their By this means" be bas the advantage of oxydation. a larger wheel, in situations where the From twelve to fifteen sheets are fall would only allow of a smaller when placed on tach other, and put into a the water is applied at the top; thus, if stone pan and covered with a slight canthere be a perpendicular of twelve feet, vas or straw covering, placed in an una a wheel of fifteen feet diameter is used, der-ground apartment, there to remain and of course the water must be made to five or six days, when a sufficient
quana act upon it at a height of twelve feet, tity will have generated. which is three feet perpendicular below The verdegris, when made, is capathe top of the wheel, or at about filty. ble of crystallization by dissolving it in three degrees from the top. The pen. distilled vinegar, and pursuing the same trough which brings the water to the means as in the French. wheel, is made of such a form that it de. livers the water from the bottom of it JANES THOMPSON's, of Primrose Hill, through the floor, and is directed at such near Clithero, Calico-printer; for i an angle as to fall into the buckets neariy Method of producing Patterns on in the direction of the wheel's mosion, Cloth previously dyed Turkey red. which will be at an angle of seventy-five This invention consists in ihe followdegrees with the horizon; the shuttle or ing process: First, mix or combine with gate slides upon the floor of the trough, so the acid called oxymuriatic acid (or deas to cover the aperture, and determine phlogisticated acid of sea salt), and the quantity of water to be lct out upon water, some of the alkaline sales or, the wheel.
earths hereafter named, which shall
weaken or suspend the power of the MR. G. KNELLER's, Chemist, for the Man said acid in such proportion that it shall
nufacture of French Verdegris. not, in such mixed or combined state, Copper sheets from twelve to fifteen of itself, and without any farther opeinches diameter, each sheet weighing ration, be able to remove the Turkey about one pound and a half, arę raken,
red colour from the cloth, or materially and having prepared them by dipping to impair it, within the inoderate space them in a solution of verdegris, the pro
of time taken up in the performance of cess is as follows:
the process. 1st. A body is given for the copper to
Secondly. Print, stamp, pencil, or rest upon.
otherwise apply to those parts of the 2d. By its acid quality exerting its in- said cloth which are intended to be fluence on the copper.
either wholly or in a greater or less deThe following artificial mode of sub- gree deprived of their red colour, some stituting the grape is then taken; sponge other acid or metallic oxyd, or calx, is used, and having cut it into small which has a greater aifinity or attraction pieces so as to resemble the size of the for the alkaline salt or earth with which grape, they are wetted with a sufficient the oxyniuriatic acid is mixed or com. quantity of the acetic acid, which is ov- bined than that acid itself possesses ; tained from the grains of beer after the and if any one of the strouger or more first brewing, for the sake of economy; powerful acids be employeit, which is but it is to be understood, that any other either of a corrosive nature, and cannot means by which the acetic acid can be be safely used, or of a volaule nature, obtained will answer the same purposez. and cannot be used conveniently, such
Patents lately Enrolled.
[March 1, acid must be combined with alkalies, which are intended to be either wholly, earths, metals, or metallic oxyds, or or in a greater or less degree deprived caices, so as to form neutral salts, acid of their red colour, an acid, oxyd, neusalts, or metallic salts, whicla shall not tial salt, acid salt, or metallic salt, such be too corrosive or too volatile, and as is hereinbefore for that purpose disuch alkalies, earths, metals, or metallic rected, and immersing the whole cloth oxyds, or calces only, must be employed, in such mixture or combination of oxyas have a weaker affinity or attraction muriate acid and water, with some of for the same acid, than that acid has the alkaline salts or earths, as is herein for the alkaline salt or carth with which directed for that purpose. the oxymuriatic acid has been mixed or combined.
Other Patents lately granted, of which we Thirdly. Immerse the cloth in the
solicit the Specifications. solution of the said oxymuriatic acid, THOMAS WRIGHT, of Great St. Helen's, so mixed or combined with some of thé in the city of London, broker; for a mealkaline salts or parths hereinafier named tirod of inaking a composition or mixture as aforesaid, When ihe acid or oxyd for dyeing scarlet and other colours.
Dated Deoober 9, 1813. which either in its siinple or combined
JOSEPH WHITE, of Leeds, in the county state has been applied to parts of the
of York, inillwright; for improvements in clotli, immediately seizes upon, and
steam-engines.-Dated December 14,1813. combines with alkaline salt or earth, WILLIAM ALLAMUS DAV, of Poplar, in with which the oxymuriatic acid has
the county of Middlesex; for a method of been mixed or combined, and disengages extractin all the gross or mucilaginous that acid, which almost instan'aneously matter from links or Greenland blabber, deprives of their colour those parts of produced from whales when boiled into the cloth to which the said acids or oil; which method not only renders the oxyds which), in their simple, or com
oi) so boiled snore fiee from its usual bined state, have been printed, &c. have rancid smeli and taste, but in a great debeen so applied.
gree adds to its burning and inflammable Lastly. The alkaline salts or earth qualities.--Dated December 20, 1813.
WILLIAM SPRATLEY, of the Strand, in which are mixed or combined with the
the county of Middlesex, coal-merchant; oxymuriatic acid, in order to suspend or
for an incprovement upon the axletree of prevent its action on those parts of the
whiceis for carriages of different descripred cloth which are intended to retain tions.--Dated December 20,1313. their colour, are the alkaline salts of Jonin SOTIERLAND), of Liverpool, in potash and soda, or the caícareous, the commty of Lancaster, copper-smith i magnesian, barytic, or strontitic earths, of for an improvement in the constrnction which the calcareous carth is preferred.
of copper and iron sngar pans and sugar The acids which are applied to the boilers, and a new meihod of banging the parts intended to be made white, or to
same; and also an improvement in the those places on the cloth intended to be in which such pars and boilers ought to be
construction of the furnaces or fire-places deprived of their red colour, in a great placed.--Dated December 20, 1813. er or less degree, are any of the vege SIR THOMAS COCHRANE, Knt. comtable, mineral, or animal acids which moniy called Lord COCHRANE ; for me. have a stronger atiraction for the al- thods of regulating the atmospheric preskaline salt or earth with which the oxy sure in lamps, globes, and other transparent anuriatic acid has been inixed or com cases for supplying combustible matter to bined, than that acid liself has.
flames, and preserving uniform intensity The combinations which are preferred of light. ---Dated December 24, 1813. as uniting the greatest number of ad RALPH SJTTON, of Birmiugham, in the vantages upon the whole are, the
county of Warwick, brass-founder; for an Bulphate of potash, (or acid vitriolaicd
effectual security to prevent the accidental tartar) the sulphate of copper or blue discharge of fowling-pieces ;' which inven
tion is unconnected with the lock, and vitriol, the inuriate of tin or sal jovis, applicable to all kind of fire-arms.-Dated the nitrate of copper, and the muriate December 24, 1813.
But a mixture of the super JAMES CAVANAN MURPHY,of Edward!lphate of potash with the tartaric or street, Cavendisi-square, in the county of citric acids, preferred tu any single Niindlesex, architect; for an Arabian mecombination.
thod of preserving timber, and various other The invention whereof the sole and substances, from corruption and decay.-exclusive use is claimed consists in print.
Dated December 24, 1813. ing, stamping, pencilling, or otherwise ** We invite Patentees to favour us witha applying to those parts of the cloth copics of their Specifications.
PROCEEDINGS OF PUBLIC SOCIETIES, .
THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, place here to detail. I shall content in
self with giving in his own words a brief On the MORTALITY Of LONDON; by representation of the general result. WILLIAM HEBERDEN, M.D. F. R. S. « It
be stated in general, that Fellow of the Royal College of Phy, whereas in great towns the proportion of sicians, &c.
inhabitants dying ammually, is from i in THE Bills of Mortality in London 19 to 1 in 22 or 23, and in moderato THE
have often been objected to, as Towns from I in 24, to 1 in 28; in counimperfect and erroneous sources of in- try parishes and villages, on the cone formation, and unworthy of credit. And trary, this proportion seldom exceeds 1 the charge is certainly not without foun- in 40 or 50. The proofs of this are pudation, though by no means to be ad. merous and unexceptionable.” mitted in its full extent.
Ilere then is afforded a rule, hy which One of the most obvious, and most re we may at once form some judgment of markable changes that have taken place the healthiness of any place, if we can in the Bills of Mortality, is the alteration only find the proportion which the in the relative numbers of the christen yearly deaths beir to the whole number ings and burials. During the first fifty of the inhabitants. But we are enabled years of the eighteenth century, the hu.
at this time, with much greater accuracy rials exceeded the christenings in the than ever before, to ascertain this with proportion of three to two: during the regard to London. For by the returns Last fifty years of the same century, the made to parliament in consequence of i excess of the burials was constantly grow. the Population Act we are furnished with ing less, and, taken on an average, they an actual eumeration of the people in have borne to the christenings a propor- the ycar 1801; which, in those parishes tion of about five to four, But since she that are included in the bills of mortaliry, year 1800, the burials have actually amounted to 745,000. The mean nunha fallen short of the christenings in the ber of burials reported at the same time proportion of twelve to thirteen. This was 19,000. And if to this number we effect appears to have been produced by add 6000 for the omissions, agreeably to the joint operation of an increasing num Dr. Price's pate (and I know no rea. ber of baptisms, and a diminished mor son that is likely to have inade any mate. tality.
rial alteration in them since his time) we Many attempts have been made to in- shall then have 25,000 for the true numvestigate what proportion of the inha- ber of annual deaths; which upon com. bitants annually die in London, This putation will be found to bear to the has been done principally with the view whole number of inl'abitants a proportion of discovering the population, and the little exceeding one to thirty. probabilities of life; but it has besides If then we adope Dr. Price's calcula. been cousidered as affording the fairesť tions as approaching at all to the truth, test of the healthiness of the metropolis. we shall sce how much the city is adSeveral judicious corrections of the Lonvanced in healthiness since the time of don bills have heen pointed out, parti- their formation. Or if we reject bis reaa cularly by Dr. Price, as necessary pre. soning altogether, and only compare tha vious to drawing any conclusions that can present mortality of London with that of be depended upon. From the result of other great towns, we shall still be lett to his calculations it appeared, that in the the conclusion, that London is to be year 1768, not less than a twerty-first reckoned among the most healthy. part of the whole number of inhabitants
I find that while the number dying undied every year; or, which comes to the der two years of age is so considerably same thing, that the annual deaths re diminished, as I have already noticed, ported in the Bills of Mortality, aug. the numbers in the two next periods, viz. mented by the omissions, which he es from two till ten years, are very much timated at six thousand, and the sum increased; which confirms my former multiplied by 21, would give nearly the conclusion of there being a greater puma true number of the living. The same ber of children saved in early infancy. author has corroborated his statements Forit is obvious that the nuinber of deains by a variety of accounts collected from must in general follow the same course as different parts, which it would be out of the number of the living amongst whom MONTHLY MAG, No. 952.
150 Transactions of the College of Physicians. [March 1, they occur. Again, between the ages
A Table skuwing the Mean Numbers Dyof ien and forty years, very nearly the
ing in every Thousand, at the undermensame proportion died formerly as now;
tioned Periods, from the London Bills or where there is any difference it may of Mortulity. be ascribed to the introduction of a greater or smaller number of new set
From From tlers, who in that active season are never
from 1728 wanting to supply any deficiency of the
to 1803. to 1808. natives. In all the subsequent periods of life till fourscore, the numbers at the pre
Under sent time are much greater than they
363 295 291 were fifty years ago; and throughout these last fifty years they have been still Between sensibly increasing; which I impute en 2 & 5
115. tirely to the increased healthiness of the towl, and the consequent extension of 5—10
41 life. The very aspect of the city in every direction will suggest a reason for this in
30 the widening of its streets, in the re
78 moval of nuisances, the opening of confined quarters, the erection of public
93 102 squares, the construction of better drains, and that universal diffusion of water
40-50 97 104 105 pipes, which, like the vessels of a living body, being multiplied by innumerable
94 92 branches, convey away the impurities of life, and impart new health and anima 60-70)
78 tion to every district. It cannot be doubted that much of the poisonous
56 51 atoms, whatever they be, whose accumulated influence render large commu
24 24 nities unfavourable to human life, mu8c
90 and be carried off by these open channels for
upwards. their discharge, or at least softened and blunted by the free admission of a purer Obsercutions upon the comparative Preatmosphere. It is, however, remark valence of Insanity, at different periods ; able, that the proportion of persons who by Richard Powell, M.D. fellow of the attain to the age of eighty years, bas Royal College of Physicians, 8c.-Insanity never undergone much variation ; as if appears
havo been considerably these extraordinary cases were to be at. upon the increase; for if we compare tributed rather to soine original conform the sums of two distant lustra, the one mation of the body, some greater strength beginning with 1775, and the other end: of constitution (for nature observes a ing with 1809, the proportion of patients certain uniformity even in her irregula- returned as having been received into rities) than to those causes which infu- lunatic houses during the latter period, ence the preceding course of mortality. is to that of the former nearly as 129 tó The truth however seems to be, that al. 100. But it may be satisfactory here to though the proportion who survive four. notice, that the actual numbers of perscore years, continues the same that it sons la bouring under this dreadful disease was fifty years ago, yet the number, out full much below the ordinary estimates of whom these are supplied, being reaily of its prevalence, and that in fact, with much diininished, it follows that the true all the predisposition to it, with which proportion estinated from among the the inhabitants of this commercial counnatives of London, must be in an oppo. try have been supposed to abound, it site ratio increased. For upon refiece ought not to be considered as a complaint tion, it appears that London, under the of very common occurrence; for assucircumstances of its present diminished ming, even for argument's sake, that pau, importation, is still able to furnish as pers, and those received into public hosgreat a proportion of aged persons, as it pitals, together with those neglected to did when there was a large addition of be returned, bear to patients actually reinhabitants introduced from the country, turned, according to the directions of the after the mortality of childhood was Act, the proportion of 3 to 2, (which is
rating their numbers higher in my concep
tion than we ought) still the aggregate was examined with a view to this point number of insane persons of the year for five years, from 1804 to 1808, and it 1800, will only be, when contrasted with has yielded me a different result; for acthe census of England for that year, in cording to it, the male patients have on about the ratio of 1 to 7300.
the contrary been, in respect to the leIn' the ingenioas and excellent obser- malos, nearly as 1128 to 1000. vations upon insanity, published by my Number of Lunatics rcturneil every five." friend Mr. Haslam, there is a statement Year's under the Act 14 Gr. III. drawn, from the admissions into Bethlem Hospital froin 1748 to 1794, of the pro
1893 portion which the male and female pati
189 ents have borne to each other; from
1790 to 1794 which it appears, that the ratio of the 1795 to 1799 former has been to the latter nearly as
2469 2000 to 1195. The London register
1805 to 1809
1775 to 1779
1800 to 1814
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